God of war and bloodshed. Symbols include the boar and the spear. Son of Zeus and Hera.
Persian Empire, Satrapy of Cilicia, Pharnabazos, c. 379 - 374 B.C.
Cilicia extended along the Mediterranean coast east from Pamphylia to the Amanus Mountains, which separated it from Syria. The Persian Empire initially allowed tributary native kings to govern. The last king of Cilicia was dethroned after he sided in a civil war with Cyrus the Younger, who was defeated by Artaxerxes II. Cilicia became an ordinary satrapy. In 377, Pharnabazos, the satrap of Cilicia, was made commander of a Persian attempt to retake Egypt, which had rebelled and had defeated two previous attempts to retake it. Pharnabazos hired Greek mercenaries under the Athenian general Iphicrates but a dispute with Iphicrates resulted in failure of the expedition.
SH65291. Silver stater, SNGvA 5922, SNG BnF 247, SNG Cop 266, SNG Levante -, VF, rough, edge cut, underweight, weight 9.545 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 90o, Tarsos mint, c. 378 - 373 B.C.; obverse female head facing slightly left, wearing pendant earring and necklace; reverse helmeted and bearded head right (Ares?), Aramaic inscription FRNBZW KLK (Pharnabazos Cilicia) on left; $360.00 (€270.00)
Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.
Struck in 69 A.D., the Year of the Four Emperors. Vitellius invoked Mars for support against Otho after, according to Tacitus, he was brought the sword of Julius Caesar taken from the temple Mars, signifying he had been elected emperor by the consent of both armies of Germany.
SH63437. Copper as, RIC I 40, BMCRE I 99 - 102, Cohen 25, F, weight 7.823 g, maximum diameter 28.0 mm, die axis 180o, Hispania, Tarraco? mint, Jan - Jun 69 A.D.; obverse A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate head left, globe at point of bust; reverse CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM (with the consent of the Army), Mars advancing left, nude but for cloak, spear in right, aquila with vexillum in left, S - C across field; ex Ancient Imports; scarce; $350.00 (€262.50)
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
The reverselegend refers to sacrifices Augustus made to Jupiter Optimus Maximus prior to his departure for Gaul in 16 B.C.; prayers for his health and safe return.
SH67476. Silver denarius, RSC I 321, BMCRE I 441 (uncertain Spanish mint), RIC I 148 corr (obv leg), SRCV I 1641, F, reverselegend not fully struck, weight 3.242 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, ColoniaPatricia mint, 17 - 16 B.C.; obverseS P Q R CAESARI AVGVSTO, bare head right, line border; reverse VOT P SVSC PRO SAL ET RED I O M SACR, Mars standing slightly left, head right, helmeted, naked but for cloak from shoulders, vexillum vertical before him in right, parazonium over shoulder in left, line border; rare (R3); $350.00 (€262.50)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
The as is a raredenomination for Septimius Severus.
SH66874. Copper as, RIC IV 683, BMCRE V 527A, Cohen 313 (4 Fr), VF, weight 11.298 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERTAVG IMPVIIII, laureate head right; reverseMARSPATER, Mars walking right, nude but for helmet and cloak over shoulder flying behind, transverse spear in right, trophy of arms in left over shoulder; very rare; $320.00 (€240.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
SH67076. Silver denarius, BMCRE V 82, RIC IV 45, RSC III 309, SRCV II 6309, EF, attractive reversestyle, weight 2.836 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERTAVG IMP IIII, laureate head right; reverseMARS PACATOR (Mars at Peace), Mars standing left, helmeted, nude, branch in right, inverted spear vertical behind in left; listed in RIC as common but seems to be rare; $300.00 (€225.00)
Persian Empire, Tarkumuwa (Datames), Satrap of Cilicia & Cappadocia, c. 384 - 362 B.C., Tarsus, Cilicia
Datames' enemies in Artaxerxes' court accused him, perhaps falsely, of intending to revolt against the Great King. Secretly warned, he then did, in fact, revolt, c. 370 B.C. The revolt appeared to be leading to a breakup of the entire western half of the empire into autonomous states. His own son's desertion to Artaxerxes was, however, the beginning of the end, which came when Datames was assassinated, c. 362 B.C.
SH67350. Silver stater, Moysey p. 42, 2d and pl. 2, 17; SNG Cop 275; cf. SNG BnF 276; SNG Levante 80; SNGvA 5935; SNG Berry 1297; Sunrise 50, VF, toned, test cuts on obv and rev, weight 10.582 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 135o, Tarsos mint, c. 380 - 373 B.C.; obverse female head facing slightly left, wearing earring and necklace; reverse Aramaic legend on left: TRDMW (Tarkumuwa), bearded and helmeted male head (Ares?) left, wearing crested Athenian helmet; ex Pars Coins; $300.00 (€225.00)
Lucius Verus, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
SH57400. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC III 1379, Cohen 224, aVF, weight 26.227 g, maximum diameter 30.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, Dec 163 - Dec 164 A.D.; obverseL AVREL VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right; reverse TR P IIII IMP IICOS II S C, Mars advancing right, transverse spear in right, trophy over shoulder in left; $260.00 (€195.00)
Roman Republic, L. Valerius Flaccus, 108 - 107 B.C.
Mars and the apex recall that the moneyer's father held the office of Flamen Martialis. Crawford concludes the office of moneyer may have been consider a career substitute for aedileship and the grain on the reverse advertises the moneyer would have distributed grain had he been elected Aedile. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
RR66885. Silver denarius, SRCV I 183, Sydenham 565, Crawford 306/1, RSC I Valeria 11, VF, weight 3.652 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 108 - 107 B.C.; obverse winged and draped bust of Victory right, X below chin; reverse LVALERI / FLACCI (downward on left), Mars walking left, spear in right, trophy in left over shoulder, apex left, head of grain behind; $220.00 (€165.00)
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278 A.D., Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the Roman defenses on the Rhine and resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces. He adopted the titles GothicusMaximus and GermanicusMaximus.
SH62614. Silveredantoninianus, Alföldi Siscia V type 96, n° 79; RIC V 811 var (busttype), EF, weight 3.665 g, maximum diameter 22.7 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia mint, 278 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseVIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, nude but for cloak flying behind, transverse spear in right, trophy over shoulder in left, XXIS in ex; sharp, near full silvering and centering; $200.00 (€150.00)
Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
In 231, Severus Alexander accompanied his mother Julia Mamaea to Syria and campaigns against the Persians. Military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. The Romans were defeated and withdrew to Syria. After heavy losses on both sides, a truce was signed accepting the status quo. In 233, Alexander celebrated a triumph in Rome to commemorate his "victory."
RS65979. Silver denarius, SRCV 7882, RIC IV 246, RSC III 161a, BMCRE 831, Choice VF, high-relief portrait, toned, weight 2.874 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 231 - 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right; reverseMARS VLTOR, Mars walking right in military garb, spear transverse in right, shield in left; $200.00 (€150.00)