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Roman Provincial Coins from the Decapolis, Syria and Arabia
The Decapolis means "the ten cities" in Greek, yet we don't really know how many cities there were, or where they were. In 106 A.D., under the Roman emperor Trajan, the Nabataean Kingdom and the cities of the Decapolis were incorporated into the newly established Provinces of Syria and Arabia.
|is believed to be the Biblical city Shepham (Num. xxxiv. 11). received with the in 133 B.C., but sold it to Mithridates V of , who held it till 120 BC. After the Mithridatic Wars it became a great center for trade, largely carried on by resident Italians and Jews. Pompey razed the fortress and annexed the city to in 64 B.C. is mentioned in the Talmud (Ber. 62a, Niddah, 30b and Yeb. 115b). By order of Flaccus, nearly 45 kilograms of gold, intended by Jews for the Temple in Jerusalem was confiscated in in 62 B.C. In the revolt of under Q. Caecilius Bassus, it held out against for three years until the arrival of Cassius in 46 B.C.|
|Thewas a cult statue of the city goddess (fortune) of Antioch, venerated in a temple called the Tychaion. The statue was made by Eutychides of Sicyon (c. 335 - c. 275), a pupil of the great Lysippus. It was the best-known piece of Seleucid art, remarkable because it was sculpted to be viewed from all directions, unlike many from the period. Although the original has been lost, many copies exist, including the one in the photograph right, now at the . The goddess is seated on a rock (Mount Sipylus), has her right foot on a swimming figure (the river ), wears a (the city's walls), and has grain in her right hand (the city's fertility).|
|The ruins of Antioch on thelie near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey. Founded near the end of the 4th century B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch's geographic, military and economic location, particularly the spice trade, the Silk Road, the Persian Royal Road, benefited its occupants, and eventually it rivaled as the chief city of the Near East and as the main center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the period. Antioch is called "the cradle of Christianity," for the pivotal early role it played in the emergence of the faith. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. Its residents are known as Antiochenes. Once a great of half a million people, it declined to insignificance during the Middle Ages because of warfare, repeated earthquakes and a change in trade routes following the Mongol conquests, which then no longer passed through Antioch from the far east.|