, Constantine VI and Irene, 8 September 780 - 19 August 797 A.D.
In 790, Constantine VI took control and forced his mother, who had been his regent, into exile. A little more than a year later Irene was back as co-ruler. In 797, Irene had her son deposed and blinded and assumed sole rule.
has the and opposite. Other than 4.7, the referenced examples all have either incomplete or illegible inscriptions, or have variations from this coin.SH90887. Gold , 4.7 (C.4.6/Ir.4.1); cf. 1; , 1, 2; 2, 1; 1591; -; -, VF, remarkable for inscriptions, 4.413 g, maximum 21.4 mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 15 Jan 792 - 793; COnSTAnTInOS CA - SIR, crowned facing busts of Constantine IV, wearing and holding in left hand; and Irene, wearing , cruciform in her right hand; above center; SVn IrInI AVΓ mITHRΛ, Constantine V, , and (the boy emperor's deceased father, grand-father and great grandfather) seated facing, each bearded and wearing crown and ; ex Numismatik (eBay auction, 4 Feb 2011, sold for €3027); ; $2500.00 (€2200.00)
, 28 March - 2 June 193 A.D., Daughter of
, the only child of and , was made Augusta the day her father became emperor. She survived her father's downfall, but was stripped of her title and the details of her life thereafter are unknown. Due to the short reign of her father, coins of are extremely .SH72535. Silver , 10, 3, 14, VF, lightly , porous, 2.393 g, maximum 18.35 mm, 0o, Rome mint, first issue, 28 Mar - May(?) 93; AVG, draped right, hair in bun; HILAR TEMPOR, standing left, long branch in right hand, in left; ex CNG auction 337, lot 450; extremely (R4); $2400.00 (€2112.00)
Byzantion, , c. 210 - 195 B.C., Restoration of Lysimachos'
In the years following his death Alexander the Great came to be the subject of cult worship throughout the Mediterranean basin. His corpse was appropriated by Ptolemy I who transported it to , initially interring it at Memphis, then to a mausoleum and center of worship in . It survived until the 4th century A.D. when banned paganism, only to disappear without trace.SH71721. Silver , 411 (same dies), 142 - 146 var ( ), -, -, -, -, -, -, aEF, a few weak areas, 16.731 g, maximum 30.2 mm, 0o, Byzantion (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 210 - 195 B.C.; diademed of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, enthroned left, left arm on decorated with , transverse spear against right side, crowning name in right, left, BY on throne; ; $1200.00 (€1056.00)
, Augusta 146 - Winter 175/176 A.D., Wife of
In Roman religion, was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. The cult of Augusta ("Majestic Harmony") was of special importance to the imperial household. She is usually depicted wearing a long cloak and holding a (sacrificial ), a (symbol of prosperity), or a (symbol of peace).RB26685. , 4710, 1368, 2198, VF, 19.689 g, maximum 31.5 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 157 - 161 A.D.; FAVSTINA , draped right; S C, standing left, in right, in left; $600.00 (€528.00)
, Augusta 146 - Winter 175/176 A.D., Wife of
(Aphrodite) can be faulted for the Trojan War. Upset that she was not invited to a wedding, she went anyway and maliciously left a golden inscribed "For the fairest" on the banquet table. The goddesses, as Aphrodite expected, argued who was the rightful possessor of this prize. It was determined the most handsome mortal in the world, a noble Trojan youth named , would decide. Each of the three finalists offered a bribe. promised he would rule the world. said she would make him victorious in battle. Aphrodite guaranteed the love of the most beautiful woman in the world. This was Helen, who was married to the of Sparta. awarded the golden to Aphrodite. Aphrodite enabled to elope with Helen, Helen of Troy. Helen's husband raised a Greek army to retrieve his wife, starting the Trojan War.SH73705. , AP1388b; AP2147; p. 300, 30; 268; 4720, VF, nice , , crack, 24.039 g, maximum 35.1 mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under , 148 - 152 A.D.; FAVSTINAE AVG , draped right with bare, hair waived and coiled tied with double band of pearls on back of ; , standing half left, in right hand, grounded rudder in left hand, coiled around rudder, low across ; $600.00 (€528.00)
and , 24 January 41 - 48 A.D., Knossos,
was Claudius' 3rd wife and mother of and . They were married when she was 14. In 48 A.D., while was away in , even though she was married to the emperor, married her lover, Gaius Silius. Silius was executed and driven to suicide.SH74280. Bronze AE 20, 1001 (rev ending ) or 1002, 214 ( ) or 212, -, -, aVF, crowded , 4.393 g, maximum 20.4 mm, 180o, Knossos mint, Cytherus und Capito, 41 A.D.; TI CLAVDIVS AVG , of left; [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE ] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of off ), draped of right; extremely ; $600.00 (€528.00)
, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D., Hadrianopolis,
refounded a Thracian tribal capital, changed its name to Hadrianopolis, developed it, adorned it with monuments, and made it the capital of the Roman province. The city is Edirne, Turkey today. From ancient times, the around Edirne has been the site of no fewer than 16 major battles or sieges. Military historian John Keegan identifies it as "the most contested spot on the globe" and attributes this to its geographical location. Licinius was defeated there by in 323, and was killed by the Goths during the Battle of Adrianople in 378.SH65237. Bronze AE 25, p. 157 & pl. XXII, 244 (V137/R244); , Suppl. II, 658; -, -, -, VF, green , 7.837 g, maximum 24.7 mm, 180o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, IOYΛIA ∆O CEBACTH, draped right; A∆PIANOΠOΛEITΩN, galley left with four oarsmen and steersman in stern; very ; $540.00 (€475.20)
Odessos, , c. 125 - 70 B.C., Civic Issue in the Types and Name of Alexander the Great
Odessus surrendered to Alexander the Great in 335 B.C. Rule passed to his diadochus , but in coalition with other Pontic cities and the Getae, Odessus rebelled in 313 B.C. After Lysimachus' death in 281, the city reverted to striking in the types and name of Alexander the Great and continued to strike Alexandrine tetradrachms until at least 70 B.C.SH63508. Silver , 1179, VF, , 15.721 g, maximum 29.8 mm, 0o, Odessos (Varna, Bulgaria) mint, c. 125 - 70 B.C.; of right, wearing lion-scalp headdress; AΛEΞAN∆POY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, Zeus seated left, in right, long vertical in left, ∆H under arm, below throne; $500.00 (€440.00)
Roman Republic, Q. Pomponius Musa, 66 B.C.
Many of the Roman had a solid sense of humor and word play with homonyms was very popular. Pomponius Musa, playing on his name, issued ten types each depicting Musagetes (Conductor of the Muses) or one of nine different Muses, creating one of the most interesting and sought after series of the Republican coinage. This coin depicts , the Muse of History.SH90301. Silver , 11, 353, 813, 410/3, gF, banker's marks, 3.585 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 45o, Rome mint, 66 B.C.; laureate of right, scroll tied with cord behind; MVSA on left, Q POMPONI on right, , Muse of History standing left, reading from open scroll which she holds in both , left elbow rests on column; ex CNG auction 233 (26 April 2010), lot 315; $490.00 (€431.20)
of Chalkis, Coele , Lysanias, 40 - 36 B.C.
Lysanias is called Tetrarch of by Josephus. Lysanias' father Ptolemaios was married to Alexandra, Mattathias Antigonus' sister. Lysanias offered the Parthian Barzapharnes a thousand talents and 500 women to depose Hyrcanus and put his uncle (or step-uncle) on the throne of (Josephus B.J. 1.248). When Lysanias continued to support against the Roman nominee Herod the Great, had him executed, and gave his territory to VII.GB90942. Bronze AE 19, 11.g, 4769, 145 ., 1243, -, VF, 3.505 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Chalkis sub Libano mint, c. 40 B.C.; veiled female right, no ; double , flanked by four ligatures ΛYCA, TETP, APX, IΦ (Lysanias tetrarch and high priest); very ; $400.00 (€352.00)
, Augusta c. 79 - 89 A.D.
was the daughter of the emperor , and although married, she had an affair with her uncle . In 83 A.D., divorced his wife and lived openly with her. It has been said that she died because forced her to have an abortion but modern research indicates this allegation is false.
SH72986. Silver , 14; 141; , 1, 56; p. 275, 1; 106; 2612, F, slightly , 3.030 g, maximum 21.0 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 79 - 81 A.D.; IVLIA TITI , diademed and draped right, hair in a long plait in back; , standing right, viewed from behind, nude to the hips, right knee bent, leaning with left elbow and forearm on column, transverse spear on far side in left hand, raising up helmet in right hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection collection, ex Zuzim (2012); only the second example of this handled by ; ; $385.00 (€338.80)
, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.
Livia was the wife of , mother of , paternal grandmother of , paternal great-grandmother of , and maternal great-great-grandmother of . Livia and remained married for 51 years. They had no children. Livia always enjoyed the status of privileged counselor to her husband, petitioning him on the behalf of others and influencing his policies, an unusual role for a Roman wife. Living very simply and frugally, Livia set an example of Roman virtue which made her quite popular with the people. According to some ancient historians, however, Livia poisoned Augustus' potential heirs and then himself to make her son emperor. When he was emperor, and Livia, had a falling out. On her death in 29 A.D., he did not see fit to have her consecrated. When came to power, he argued that every God needed a consort (referring to the deified ). The Senate accepted this logic, and she was declared a goddess.
SH72998. Silver , 14 (R2), 167, 43, 8, -, -, aVF, light corrosion, cleaning scratches, 2.996 g, maximum 18.4 mm, 180o, mint, Apr - Aug 68 A.D.; IMP , laureate right, globe behind the point of neck; , Livia standing slightly left, left, in right hand, long vertical behind in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; very ; $380.00 (€334.40)
Brettian League, , Italy, c. 211- 208 B.C., Time of Hannibal
The success of Hannibal at Cannae proved too much for the Bruttians' fidelity; they were among the first after the battle to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general. Some towns at first remained with Rome, but Petelia and Consentia were speedily reduced by other Bruttians and a small Carthaginian force, and the more important cities of Locri and Crotona followed not long after. Rhegium alone remained firm, and was able to defy throughout the war. The region became a Carthaginian stronghold, but the Romans, though avoiding any decisive engagement, continually gained ground by the successive reduction of towns and fortresses. The ravages of war were a severe blow to . Punishment by the Romans after the war completed their humiliation. They were deprived of most of their territory, and the whole nation was reduced to near servitude. A with an army was sent annually to watch over them. Colonies were established at Tempsa, Crotona, and Hipponium (renamed Vibo ). A fourth was settled at Thurii on their frontier. From this time the Bruttians as a people disappear from history. All coinage of the Brettii was issued while they were allied with Hannibal.SH72544. Bronze quarter unit, 120 - 122; 50; 1990; p. 332, 106 var (no controls), gVF, attractive green , 1.755 g, maximum 13.2 mm, 180o, mint, 211- 208; of a sea goddess ( or ) left, with crab headdress, (thunderbolt) below neck; BRET/TIWN, crab, bunch of grapes (control symbol) above between claws, linear ; ; $350.00 (€308.00)
Roman Republic, L. Aemilius Paullus, 62 B.C.
At the end of the Third Macedonian War (171 - 168 B.C.), Perseus of was decisively defeated by Rome at the Battle of Pydna. He surrendered to general Aemilius Paullus and was imprisoned in Rome with his half-brother Philippus and his son Alexander. The Antigonid kingdom was replaced with four republics, which were later dissolved and became the Roman province of .SH74531. Silver , 366, 10, 415/1, Nice gVF, attractive coin, nice , some minor scratches and marks, small edge test cut, 3.901 g, maximum 19.4 mm, 150o, Rome mint, 62 B.C.; LEPIDVS , veiled and diademed of right; , Paullus on right, standing left, togate, touching in center; on the left, three standing bound captives: Perseus of , his half-brother, and his son; $300.00 (€264.00)
, Seleukos, in Babylon, 311 - 306 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Struck in the name of Alexander, this coin also bears the personal badge of Seleukos, an . Seleukos was first appointed in in 320 B.C. but was put to flight by in 315. He returned in 311 only to be forced to evacuate later that year by a counterattack by Antigonus' son, Demetrius. Not long after, however, Seleukos again recovered the city.SH60135. Silver , I 293, 3449 (Marthus), 1512, aVF/F, 16.601 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 225o, uncertain mint, c. 311 - 305 B.C.; of right, wearing scalp headdress; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, in extended right, long vertical behind in left, flukes up flanked by ∆ - I in left , under throne; $290.00 (€255.20)
, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D., Roman Provincial
(Greek for luck; the Roman equivalent was ) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. Increasingly during the Hellenistic period, cities had their own specific iconic version of , wearing a (a crown like the walls of the city).SH66838. , 5342; 2982; 91.47; 10716; p. 2266; 4140, aEF, 11.345 g, maximum 23.7 mm, 315o, mint, 29 Aug 266 - 28 Aug 267 A.D.; KOPNHΛIA CAΛWNEINA CEB, diademed and draped right; reclining left on couch, on , rudder in right hand, LI∆ (year 14) above; $280.00 (€246.40)
, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.
Personification of the siege of Sarmizegetusa! In 106 A.D., besieged Sarmizegetusa, the Dacian capital. With the aid of a Dacian traitor, the Romans found and destroyed water pipes supplying the city. Running out of water and food the city fell and was burned to the ground. fled but, followed by the Roman cavalry, committed suicide rather than capture. The river-god on the is usually described as , however, the likely personifies the impact of the Roman destruction of the Dacian's water supply. Dacia's own water supply has betrayed her, knocked her to the ground, and is choking her.SH63939. , 556, 793 note, 526, aF, 20.524 g, maximum 32.9 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 103 - 111 A.D.; TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P P, laureate right, slight drapery on far shoulder; S C, River-god, cloak billowing behind, leaning left with right knee on supine , forcing her to the ground, choking her with his right hand, reeds in left; very ; $240.00 (€211.20)
, Augusta Spring 274 - November 275 A.D.
This is sometimes attributed as an as, but it is more likely a reduced sesterius.SH65365. Bronze , 7, 9, 11711, VF, 8.682 g, maximum 24.8 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 274 A.D.; AVG, diademed and draped right; , standing slightly left, left, in right, long vertical behind in left, left at feet on left; $225.00 (€198.00)
, Augusta 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D.
was originally a household spirit. Later she was personified as the goddess of the hearth and given the stature of her Greek equivalent, Hestia. In the temple of her flame was kept alive by Virgins.SH66879. , 708, 389, 83, 8236, VF, 24.538 g, maximum 30.9 mm, 315o, Rome mint, 226 A.D.; IVLIA , diademed and draped right; , standing left, in right, long vertical in left; $225.00 (€198.00)
, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.
In Roman religion, was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. The cult of Augusta ("Majestic Harmony") was of special importance to the imperial household. She is usually depicted wearing a long cloak and holding a (sacrificial ), a (symbol of prosperity), or a (symbol of peace).RB68880. , 203a, 10, 14, 9164, Nice gVF, centered, as-found green , 20.216 g, maximum 30.8 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 244 - 249 A.D.; OTACIL AVG, diademed draped right; , seated left, in right, double in left, S C in ; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $225.00 (€198.00)
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