Olynthos, Chalkidian League, Macedonia, 420 - 348 B.C.
In 432 B.C. Olynthos broke away from Athens and, with several other cities, formed the Chalkidian league. In 393, Amyntas III of Macedonia temporally transferred territory to Olynthos when he was driven out of Macedonia by Illyrians. When he was restored and the league did not return his lands, he appealed to Sparta. Akanthos and Apollonia, also appealed to Sparta, claiming league membership was not voluntary but enforced at the point of a sword. After a long war, in 379 these cities were made "autonomous" subject allies of Sparta. Weakened by the division, the league was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 B.C.
SH64053. Silver tetrobol, Robinson and Clement group D, 38 (same dies); Traité pl. 313, 10; SNG ANS -; SNG Cop -; BMC -, VF, weight 2.044 g, maximum diameter 10.015.3 mm, die axis 0o, Olynthos mint, c. 420 - 348 B.C.; obverse OΛYNΘ (counter-clockwise), laureate head of Apollo left; reverse XAΛKI∆EΩN, kithara with eight strings, squared legend around, all within a shallow incuse square; scarce; $350.00 (€262.50)
Phokis, Greece, Federal Coinage, Magistrate Phayllos, 352 - 351 B.C.
Phocis was mainly pastoral. The twenty-two confederate Phocian towns held their periodic synedrion (assembly) in a building called Phokikon, near Daulis, and here, perhaps, rather than at any one of the Phocian towns, the federal mint may have been established. Money would be issued at this mint only on the occasions of the meetings of the synedrion, when it may be supposed that a concourse of people from all parts of the Phocian territory was gathered together, and that a fair or market was held for the exchange and purchase of commodities, as at Delphi during the Pythian festivals. The bull's head is perhaps symbolical of a special sacrifice held on behalf of the whole people, when a prize bull may have been the victim.
SH68678. Silver triobol, Williams 401 (O.266/R.233); SNG Cop 122 (same dies); BMC Central Greece 21, 78 ff.; BCD Phokis 311, VF, attractive style, toned, weight 2.614 g, maximum diameter 15.4 mm, die axis 0o, Phokis mint, struck under Phayllos, 352 - 351 B.C.; obverse bull head facing; reverse laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind, Φ − Ω below, all within a round convex field; $350.00 (€262.50)
Roman Republic, P. Clodius M.f. Turrinus, 42 B.C.
This coin refers to the Sabine origin of the moneyer's family, worship of Diana was introduced into Rome by the Sabines.
Lucifer means lightbringer, from the Latin lux light and ferre to bear or bring. The word Lucifer is found in only one place in the Bible -- Isaiah 14:12 -- but only in the King James and related versions: How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! The King James Version is based on the Vulgate, the Latin translation of Jerome. Jerome translated the Hebrew helel (bright or brilliant one) as lucifer, which was a reasonable Latin equivalent. And yet it is this lucifer, the bright one or lightbearer, that came to be understood by so many as the name for Satan, Lord of Darkness. -- Sunrise magazine, October/November 1996.
RR63661. Silver denarius, SRCV I 492, RSC IClaudia 15, Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/21, BMCRR 4287, aVF/F, weight 3.854 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 42 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind; reverseDianaLucifera (the light bringer) standing right holding two long lit torches, M•F• left, P•CLODIVS right; $220.00 (€165.00)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Pella, Macedonia
Pan is depicted in the pose of the life-size marble statue known as the Barberini Faun (Drunken Satyr) in the Glyptothek in Munich. A Faun is the Roman equivalent of a Greek Satyr. The position of the right arm over the head was a classical artistic convention indicating sleep. The statue is believed to have once adorned Hadrian's Mausoleum. The historian Procopius recorded that during the siege of Rome in 537 the defenders had hurled down upon the Goths the statues adorning Hadrian's Mausoleum. When discovered, the statue was heavily damaged; the right leg, parts of both hands, and parts of the head were missing. Johann Winckelmann speculated that the place of discovery and the statue's condition suggested that it had been such a projectile.
RP66884. Bronze AE 26, cf. Varbanov III 3757 (R4), BMC Macedonia p. 95, 46; AMNG III 35; SNG Hunterian 660; SNG Cop 287 (bust obscure); SNG ANS 639 (laureate); Lindgren -, VF, weight 10.082 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 135o, Pella mint, obverse IMP C M ANT GORDIANVS, radiate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse COL IVL AVS PGLLA (sic, error not in refs), Pan seated left, on a rock, right arm over head, left elbow resting on syrinx; ex Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung auction 208, lot 1783; $220.00 (€165.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
In 194, Septimius Severus marched with his army of 12 legions to Cilicia and defeated Pescennius Niger, the governor of Syria, at the Battle of Issus. Pescennius retreated to Antioch where he was executed by Severus' troops.
RS67078. Silver denarius, RIC IV 345, BMCRE IV 320, RSC III 42a, VF, weight 3.420 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria mint, Feb 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right; reverse APOLLINI AVGVSTO, Apollo standing left, patera in right, lyre in left ; rare; $185.00 (€138.75)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Deultum, Thrace
Cybele, the Phrygian deification of the Earth Mother, was born a hermaphrodite but castrated by the gods, she became female. Heeding the Sibylline oracle, the senate brought her worship to Rome in 204 B.C. as the first officially sanctioned Eastern cult. After approval they were dismayed to learn that the priesthood required voluntary self-castration, which was abhorrent to the Romans. Romans were barred from entering the priesthood or even entering the priest's sanctuary. The eunuch priests, recruited from outside Rome, were confined to their sanctuary, leaving only to parade in the streets during festivals in April. Claudius removed the bans on Roman participation, making worship of Cybele and her consort Attispart of the state religion.
RP63225. Bronze AE 25, Draganov Deultum 958 (O102/R420), Jurukova Deultum 271, Varbanov II 2543 corr. (obv leg, R4), VF, weight 6.915 g, maximum diameter 24.9 mm, die axis 180o, Deultum mint, obverse IMP C GORDIANVS PIVS FE AVG (sic, AV ligate), laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse COL FL PA-C DEVLT, Cybele seated left, kalathos on head, patera in right, transverse scepter in left, left arm resting on a tympanum, throne flanked by two lions reclining left; very rare; $150.00 (€112.50)
Roman Republic, L. Marcius Censorinus, 82 B.C.
The moneyer selected the design to play on his name, Marsyas sounds like Marcius.
Marsyas found Athena's flute. Inspired by the breath of a goddess, it played beautifully. Foolishly he challenged Apollo to a musical contest. Apollo won by singing to the music of his lyre. As a just punishment for his presumption, Apollo flayed Marsyas alive. His blood was the source of the river Marsyas, and his skin was hung like a wine bag in the cave out of which that river flows.
RS69312. Silver denarius, SRCV 281, Sydenham 737, Crawford 363/1, RSC IMarcia 24, VF, dark toning, weight 3.723 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 82 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right; reverse the satyr Marsyas standing left with wine skin over shoulder, L·CENSOR before, a column topped with Victory behind; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; scarce; $125.00 (€93.75)
Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D., Antioch, Syria
In 311, after the death of Galerius in late April or May, representatives from Nicomedia presented themselves before Maximinus, bringing images of their gods and requested that Christians not be allowed to live in their city. Late in 311, an embassy from Antioch, led by their curator Theotecnus, also requested permission to banish Christians from their city and its territory. Other cities followed with the same request. Maximinus support for Antioch's requests is advertised by this coin type. Fearing his co-emperors, however, Maximinus changed his mind. His edict in May 313 restored privileges and property to Christians. Later in 313, Licinius captured Antioch and executed Theotecnus.
RP57060. Bronze AE 3/4, McAlee 170(h), Van Heesch 3(a), Vagi 2954, VF, rare this nice, weight 1.711 g, maximum diameter 16.0 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Antioch (Antakiyah, Syria) mint, c. 312 A.D.; obverse GENIO ANTIOCHENI, Tyche of Antioch seated facing on rocks, turreted and veiled, stalks of grain in right, river-god Orontes swimming below; reverseAPOLLONI SANCTO, Apollo standing left, patera in right, lyre in left, H right, SMA in ex; $120.00 (€90.00)
Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
The sistrum was a type of timbrel, or rattle, made of brass. It was oval, and its circumference perforated with several holes opposite each other, through which were inserted horizontally small metallic rods. Shaken in cadence it emitted a harsh sound. Isis is sometimes depicted holding a sistrum and it was carried by her priests.
RX58096. Bronze dichalkon, Dattari 1114, Kampmann-Ganschow 27.308, SRCV II 3319, Emmett 720, Geissen -, Milne -, SNG Cop -, BMC Alexandria -, SNG Milan -, SNG Hunterian -, VF, weight 1.576 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 109 - 28 Aug 110 A.D.; obverse no legend, laureate head right; reversesistrum, L - IΓ (year 13) flanking in lower fields; very rare (Emmett R5); $110.00 (€82.50)
Kolophon, Ionia, c. 190 - 30 B.C.
Homer is a legendary ancient Greek epic poet, traditionally said to be the author of the epic poems the Iliad and the Odyssey.
GB69196. Bronze AE 20, SNG Cop 186, F, weight 5.018 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Kolophon mint, c. 190 - 30 B.C.; obverse ΠYΘEOΣ (magistrate), Homer seated left in himation, right hand raised to chin (the thinker pose!), left holding volume on his knees; reverse KOΛOΦΩNIΩN, Apollo standing right, phiale in right, lyre in left; $110.00 (€82.50)