Olynthos, Chalkidian League, Macedonia, 420 - 348 B.C.
In 432 B.C. Olynthos broke away from Athens and, with several other cities, formed the Chalkidian league. In 393, Amyntas III of Macedonia temporally transferred territory to Olynthos when he was driven out of Macedonia by Illyrians. When he was restored and the league did not return his lands, he appealed to Sparta. Akanthos and Apollonia, also appealed to Sparta, claiming league membership was not voluntary but enforced at the point of a sword. After a long war, in 379 these cities were made "autonomous" subject allies of Sparta. Weakened by the division, the league was destroyed by Philip II of Macedon in 348 B.C.
SH64053. Silver tetrobol, Robinson and Clement group D, 38 (same dies); Traité pl. 313, 10; SNG ANS -; SNG Cop -; BMC -, VF, weight 2.044 g, maximum diameter 10.015.3 mm, die axis 0o, Olynthos mint, c. 420 - 348 B.C.; obverse OΛYNΘ (counter-clockwise), laureate head of Apollo left; reverse XAΛKI∆EΩN, kithara with eight strings, squared legend around, all within a shallow incuse square; scarce; $350.00 (€262.50)
Rhegion, Bruttium, Italy, c. 260 - 215 B.C.
During the Hellenic Era, the polis of Rhegion reached great artistic and cultural heights; it was home to art, philosophy and science academies, such as the Pythagorean School, and also to well-known poets, historians and sculptors such Ibycus, Ippy and Pythagoras of Rhegium.
GB66021. Bronze AE 16, SNG ANS 727, HN Italy 2545, SNG Cop -, gVF, smoothing, weight 1.956 g, maximum diameter 16.0 mm, die axis 315o, Rhegion mint, c. 260 - 215 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind; reverse PHΓINΩN (in exergue), lion advancing right; rare; $300.00 (€225.00)
Roman Republic, P. Clodius M.f. Turrinus, 42 B.C.
This coin refers to the Sabine origin of the moneyer's family, worship of Diana was introduced into Rome by the Sabines.
Lucifer means lightbringer, from the Latin lux light and ferre to bear or bring. The word Lucifer is found in only one place in the Bible -- Isaiah 14:12 -- but only in the King James and related versions: How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! The King James Version is based on the Vulgate, the Latin translation of Jerome. Jerome translated the Hebrew helel (bright or brilliant one) as lucifer, which was a reasonable Latin equivalent. And yet it is this lucifer, the bright one or lightbearer, that came to be understood by so many as the name for Satan, Lord of Darkness. -- Sunrise magazine, October/November 1996.
RR63661. Silver denarius, SRCV I 492, RSC IClaudia 15, Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/21, BMCRR 4287, aVF/F, weight 3.854 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 42 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, lyre behind; reverseDianaLucifera (the light bringer) standing right holding two long lit torches, M•F• left, P•CLODIVS right; $220.00 (€165.00)
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
In 194, Septimius Severus marched with his army of 12 legions to Cilicia and defeated Pescennius Niger, the governor of Syria, at the Battle of Issus. Pescennius retreated to Antioch where he was executed by Severus' troops.
RS67078. Silver denarius, RIC IV 345, BMCRE IV 320, RSC III 42a, VF, weight 3.420 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria mint, Feb 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right; reverse APOLLINI AVGVSTO, Apollo standing left, patera in right, lyre in left ; rare; $185.00 (€138.75)
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D., Koinon of Thessaly
The Thessalian League was a loose confederacy of city-states and tribes in the Thessalian valley in Northern Greece. Philip II of Macedon took control of Thessaly in 344 B.C and it remained under Macedonia until the Roman victory in 197 B.C. The league was reestablished in 196 B.C. but had little autonomy after Thessaly became part of the province of Macedonia in 146 B.C.
RP63959. Bronze triassarion, Burrer 9, BCD Thessaly II 922, RPC I 1433, SNG Evelpidis 1669, F, weight 13.554 g, maximum diameter 24.3 mm, die axis 0o, strategos Antigonos, 45 - 54 A.D.; obverse ΘEΣΣAΛΩN ΣEBAΣTHΩN, laureate head of Claudius left; reverse ANTIΓONOY ΣTPATHΓOY, Apollo Citharoedus standing right, playing cithara, Antigonos monogram inner left; $180.00 (€135.00)
Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Deultum, Thrace
Cybele, the Phrygian deification of the Earth Mother, was born a hermaphrodite but castrated by the gods, she became female. Heeding the Sibylline oracle, the senate brought her worship to Rome in 204 B.C. as the first officially sanctioned Eastern cult. After approval they were dismayed to learn that the priesthood required voluntary self-castration, which was abhorrent to the Romans. Romans were barred from entering the priesthood or even entering the priest's sanctuary. The eunuch priests, recruited from outside Rome, were confined to their sanctuary, leaving only to parade in the streets during festivals in April. Claudius removed the bans on Roman participation, making worship of Cybele and her consort Attispart of the state religion.
RP63225. Bronze AE 25, Draganov Deultum 958 (O102/R420), Jurukova Deultum 271, Varbanov II 2543 corr. (obv leg, R4), VF, weight 6.915 g, maximum diameter 24.9 mm, die axis 180o, Deultum mint, obverse IMP C GORDIANVS PIVS FE AVG (sic, AV ligate), laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverse COL FL PA-C DEVLT, Cybele seated left, kalathos on head, patera in right, transverse scepter in left, left arm resting on a tympanum, throne flanked by two lions reclining left; very rare; $150.00 (€112.50)
Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
Cybele, called mother of the gods, was originally Anatolian mother goddess. In Rome, Cybele was known as Magna Mater ("Great Mother"). Roman mythographers reinvented her as a Trojan goddess, and thus an ancestral goddess of the Roman people by way of the Trojan prince Aeneas. With Rome's eventual hegemony over the Mediterranean world, Romanised forms of Cybele's cults spread throughout the Roman Empire.
RS57063. Silver denarius, RIC IV (Caracalla) 382, BMCRE V 16, RSC III 137, VF, weight 3.064 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 211 - 215 A.D.; obverse IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right; reverseMATRI DEVM, Cybele standing facing, leaning with left arm resting on a column, head left, towered and veiled, legs crossed, drum in right, long scepter resting against left arm, lion at feet left; $145.00 (€108.75)
Teos, Ionia, c. 320 - 294 B.C.
A few examples of this type have sold at auction in the last few years. A CNG auction for this type refers to a similar coin in unpublished Ph.D. dissertation by Philip Kinns. It is apparently a diobol issued by the same magistrate but with the magistrates name downward on the left vice right.
GS58815. Silver diobol, H. D. Rauch GmbH, auction 89, lot 1150 (this coin); CNG auction 267, 184; Kinns 95 var (magistrate name left); SNG Cop -; BMC Ionia -, VF, toned, weight 0.956 g, maximum diameter 10.2 mm, die axis 0o, Teos mint, obversegriffin seated right, left forepaw raised; reverse THI MENTΩP (magistrate), chelys; ex H. D. Rauch GmbH; rare; $140.00 (€105.00)
Teos, Ionia, c. 320 - 294 B.C.
Democritus (460-390 B.C.) was a native of Teos. Only a few fragments of his works have survived. He declared that a single scientific discovery was worth more than being King of Persia. According to Democritus, nothing disappears or changes its form, it always remains the same. But besides being, there is also non-being or empty space. According to Democritus, matter is composed of indivisible, invisible particles distinguished in form, position in space, size and weight. These particles Democritus called "atoms." Democritus thus laid the foundations of a mechanist approach to natural philosophy, but in ancient times his views were to remain undeveloped. His approach to natural philosophy was taken up again only at the beginning of the modern age. He was the first to discover the law of cause and effect.
GS54505. Silver diobol, reduced Rhodian standard; SNG Kayhan 612, aVF, weight 0.884 g, maximum diameter 9.9 mm, die axis 0o, Teos mint, obversegriffin seated right, left forepaw raised; reverse THI AΛYΠIΩN (magistrate), lyre; $125.00 (€93.75)
Maximinus II Daia, Late 309 - 30 April 313 A.D., Antioch, Syria
In 311, after the death of Galerius in late April or May, representatives from Nicomedia presented themselves before Maximinus, bringing images of their gods and requested that Christians not be allowed to live in their city. Late in 311, an embassy from Antioch, led by their curator Theotecnus, also requested permission to banish Christians from their city and its territory. Other cities followed with the same request. Maximinus support for Antioch's requests is advertised by this coin type. Fearing his co-emperors, however, Maximinus changed his mind. His edict in May 313 restored privileges and property to Christians. Later in 313, Licinius captured Antioch and executed Theotecnus.
RP57060. Bronze AE 3/4, McAlee 170(h), Van Heesch 3(a), Vagi 2954, VF, rare this nice, weight 1.711 g, maximum diameter 16.0 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Antioch mint, c. 312 A.D.; obverse GENIO ANTIOCHENI, Tyche of Antioch seated facing on rocks, turreted and veiled, stalks of grain in right, river-god Orontes swimming below; reverseAPOLLONI SANCTO, Apollo standing left, patera in right, lyre in left, H right, SMA in ex; $120.00 (€90.00)