Vibo (Hipponion), , Italy, c. 192 - 89 B.C.
Vibo was originally the Greek colony of Hipponion. It was founded, probably around the late 7th century B.C., by inhabitants of Locri, a city south of Vibo on the Sea. In 388 B.C., the city was taken by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of , who deported the entire population. The population came back in 378 B.C., with the of the Carthaginians. In the following years Hipponion came under the dominion of the Bruttii. The town fell to and became a Roman colony in 194 B.C. with the name of Vibo . After a phase of prosperity during the late Republic and early Empire, the town was almost completely abandoned after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
GI76947. Bronze , 494; 1856; 1395; 510; p. 363, 31; 2266; -, VF, nice green , slightly off-center, bumps and marks, areas of light corrosion, 1.999 g, maximum 14.3 mm, 135o, Vibo mint, c. 192 - 89 B.C.; laureate of right, two pellets (mark of value) behind; , , two pellets (mark of value) right; $220.00 (€195.80)
Olynthos, Chalkidian League, , 420 - 348 B.C.
In 432 B.C. Olynthos broke away from Athens and, with several other cities, formed the Chalkidian league. In 393, Amyntas III of temporally transferred territory to Olynthos when he was driven out of by Illyrians. When he was and the league did not return his lands, he appealed to Sparta. Akanthos and Apollonia, also appealed to Sparta, claiming league membership was not voluntary but enforced at the point of a sword. After a long war, in 379 these cities were made "autonomous" subject allies of Sparta. Weakened by the division, the league was destroyed by of Macedon in 348 B.C.
SH64053. Silver tetrobol, group D, 38 (same dies); pl. 313, 10; -; -; -, VF, 2.043 g, maximum 14.8 mm, 0o, Olynthos mint, c. 420 - 348 B.C.; OΛYNΘ (counter-clockwise), laureate of left; XAΛKI∆EΩN, with eight strings, squared around, all within a shallow square; ; $190.00 (€169.10)
, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., , in with
This coin commemorates the ( ) between and . Cities in and sometimes formed alliances with other cities. The competition for prestige and rivalry between cities in the East was intense. Alliances could enhance a city’s status by aligning either with many cities or with particularly important ones. was of civic "foreign policy" and might have involved the exchange of delegates and joint celebrations and sacrifices. At least 87 cities issued coins celebrating their alliances.RP77255. Bronze AE 30, cf. , VI, 848 ff. var. (Vs.C/Rs.-, unlisted die); 3668; 4054; 596, aF, rough, 10.243 g, maximum 30.3 mm, 180o, (near Pamukkale, Turkey) mint, Oct 253 - c. Jun 260 A.D.; AY• K• - ΠOY• ΛIK• OYAΛEPAN/OC, , draped, and right, from the front, round on ; ΠOΛE/ITΩN - KE - CAP∆IANΩN NEWK/OPΩN, on left, standing right, in right hand, in left hand; cult statue of Kore facing, wearing and veil, OMONOYA in ; very ; $190.00 (€169.10)
Kingdom of , Prusias II , 185 - 149 B.C.
Prusias II, son of Prusias I, inherited his father's name but not his character. He first joined with Eumenes of in war against , but later turned on and invaded. He was defeated and demanded heavy reparations. Prusias sent his son Nicomedes II to to ask for aid in reducing the payments. When Nicomedes revolted, Prusias II was murdered in the temple of Zeus at Nikomedia.SH71012. Bronze AE 21, 636; p. 211 and pl. 38, 12; II.3 p. 225, 26; 256 var. ( ); 629; 7266, VF, adjustment marks, 5.468 g, maximum 20.7 mm, 45o, Nikomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, c. 180 - 150 B.C.; of young Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΠPOYΣIOY, standing right, playing , his cloak floating behind, ΠM inner right under raised foreleg; $180.00 (€160.20)
, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., Struck in the Name of Philip
Struck in the name of Philip III Arrhidaeus, Alexander the Great's half-brother, under the regent Perdikkas. Philip III and Alexander's infant son, Alexander IV, were made joint kings after Alexander's death. Philip was the bastard son of and a dancer, Philinna of . Alexander the Great's mother, , allegedly poisoned her stepson Philip III as a child, leaving him mentally disabled, eliminating him as a rival to Alexander. Neither Philip III nor Alexander IV was capable of actual rule and both were selected only to serve as pawns. The regents held power, while Philip III was actually imprisoned. In 317, Philip was murdered by to ensure the succession of her grandson.SH75320. Silver , P43, P50, 938, aEF, some die wear, 4.238 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 0o, , Kolophon (near Degirmendere Fev, Turkey) mint, c. 323 - c. 319 B.C.; of Herakles right, wearing scalp headdress; ΦIΛIΠΠOY, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, around hips and legs, right foot drawn back, feet on footstool, in extended right hand, long vertical behind in left, left; ex (2005); $160.00 (€142.40)
, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.
In 243, Timesitheus, Gordian's father-in-law and praetorian prefect became ill and died under suspicious circumstances. appointed Philip the Arab as his new praetorian prefect.RB76166. , 303a, 117, 262, 8732, VF, attractive green with red earthen fill, nice portrait, , light marks, small edge cracks, 17.522 g, maximum 30.5 mm, 0o, mint, 4th issue, 242 - 243 A.D.; IMP GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; V P P, enthroned left, laurel-branch in right hand, left forearm resting on on back of his seat, S C ( ) in ; $160.00 (€142.40)
, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Struck at for Use in
The ( ) was an ancient stringed musical instrument resembling the . The was a simpler folk-instrument with two strings and tortoise shell body. The had seven strings and a flat back. A symbol of , credited with inventing it, the Kithara's origins were likely Asiatic. The was primarily used by professional musicians, called kitharodes. In modern Greek, the word has come to mean "guitar."RY76699. as, 546, 684 (S), 1354, 442, -, VF, attractive dark with red earthen highlighting, nice , , 8.031 g, maximum 22.7 mm, 180o, mint, 119 - 10 Jul 138 A.D.; HADRIANVS , laureate and draped right, from behind; , ( ), ( ) flanking across the ; $145.00 (€129.05)
Leontini, , c. 405 - 402 B.C.
Leontini was founded as by from Naxos in 729 BC, itself a Chalcidian colony established five years earlier. It was the only significant Greek settlement in not located on the coast, being some 6 miles inland. The site, originally held by the Sicels, was seized by the Greeks owing to its command of the fertile plain to the . The city was reduced to subject status in 498 BC by Hippocrates of Gela, and in 476 BC Hieron of moved the inhabitants from Catania and Naxos to Leontini.
GI76342. Bronze tetras, III p. 77, 3; 360; 270; 606; 1070; p. 92, 56; 169; 709 (R1), VF, , glossy dark , 1.891 g, maximum 14.1 mm, 180o, Leontini mint, c. 405 - 402 B.C.; laureate of right, olive leaf and olive behind; with loop handles, a barley kernel flanking on each side, between legs of tripod, three pellets in ; $125.00 (€111.25)
, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.
was born a hermaphrodite, but castrated by the gods, she became female. Heeding the Sibylline oracle, the senate brought her worship to in 204 B.C. as the first officially sanctioned Eastern cult. After approval, they were dismayed to learn that the priesthood required voluntary self-castration, which was abhorrent to the Romans. Romans were barred from entering the priesthood or even entering the priest's sanctuary. The eunuch priests, recruited from outside , were confined to their sanctuary, leaving only to parade in the streets during festivals in April. removed the bans on Roman participation, making worship of and her consort of the state religion.RS84676. Silver , S564; 123; p. 163, S51; p. 42, S11; 6593, VF, nice portrait, and struck, tiny edge cracks, 3.747 g, maximum 19.1 mm, 180o, mint, c. 205 A.D.; IVLIA , draped right; (mother of the gods), seated left between two lions, wearing towered crown, branch in right hand, in left hand, resting left arm on drum; ; $110.00 (€97.90)
Kolophon, , 330 - 285 B.C.
Colophon was destroyed by c. 285 B.C., after which Colophon failed to recover and lost its importance. The name was actually transferred to the village of Notium.
GB59094. Bronze AE 18, 140A-C; 1498; -; -; -; -; -; -, VF, nice , 4.8191 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 315o, Kolophon (near Degirmendere Fev, Turkey) mint, magistrate Telegonos, 330 - 285 B.C.; laureate of right; KOΛ, horseman prancing right, flying behind, spear in right hand, upper left, magistrate's name THΛEΓONOΣ below; with this magistrate; $80.00 (€71.20)
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