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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Byzantine Coins ▸ Heraclean Dynasty ▸ HeracliusView Options:  |  |  | 

Heraclius, 5 October 610 - 11 January 641 A.D.

Joint rule with Heraclius Constantine (his son), 23 January 613 - 3 July 638 A.D.
Joint rule with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas (his sons), 4 July 638 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Heraclius came to power in 610 following a successful revolt in North Africa against the tyrannical rule of the Emperor Focas. His son Heraclius Constantine was elevated to joint rule in 613 A.D. Heraclius' most spectacular military achievement was the total defeat of Rome's old enemy on the eastern frontier, the Sassanid Persians. Unfortunately, this only facilitated the Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died in early 641 A.D. and Egypt fell to the Arabs soon after.


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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In "Le trésor byzantine de Nikertai" in Revue Belge de Numismatique 118 (1972), Morrisson writes that this officina mark is horizontal, perpendicular to the rest of the legend, and indicates the 7th officina (a reversed Z, not an H). Hahn lists the Nikertai Hoard coin 146, described by Morrisson as 7th officina, as his only example from the H (8th) officina. The 8th officina probably did not strike this variant with an I in the right field. Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 196, lot 3100, was struck with the same dies in a similar state of wear.
SH69990. Gold solidus, Nikertai Hoard 146; Hahn MIB 13 (Z) and 14 (H); Sommer 11.10; SBCV 739; DOC II - (type 14, officina not listed); Morrisson BnF -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, VF, worn dies, weight 4.431 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 225o, 7th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIVS Et hERA CONSt PP A, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGu Z (Z reversed), cross potent on three steps, I right, CONOB in exergue; scarce; $520.00 (€462.80)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.

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In 638, An Islamic army under Khalid ibn al-Walid moved into Anatolia conquering without strong Byzantine resistance, the cities Kahramanmaras, Caesarea Cappadociae, Sebastia, and Malatya. Arab forces marched into Armenia where they captured the cities Edessa and Amida up to the Ararat plain. In autumn, Islamic forces under Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah stormed Caesarea Maritima, the capital of Byzantine Palestine.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH69994. Gold solidus, Hahn MIB 48; Sommer 11.32; SBCV 767; DOC II part 1, 41 var. (officina not listed); Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, graffiti on rev right (E), weight 4.424 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, 10th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 638 - 639; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu I, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, IB ligature right, CONOB in exergue; $440.00 (€391.60)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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On 11 February 641, Heraclius, age 65, after a 31-year reign, died of dropsy at Constantinople. During his reign, the Empire lost Armenia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and much of Mesopotamia to the Muslim Arabs. Heraclius was succeeded by his sons Heraclius Constantine (Constantine III) and Heraklonas.
SH70024. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 44a.1; Morrisson BnF 72; Hahn MIB 53; SBCV 770; Sommer 11.35; Wroth -; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, aEF, tight flan, graffiti on obverse and reverse, weight 4.385 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 639(?) - 641; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown, chlamys, tablion ornamented with pellets, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu A, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, E right, CONOB in exergue; $440.00 (€391.60)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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In 622, Heraclius sailed from Constantinople with an expeditionary force (probably 50,000 men) and began his counter-offensive against the Sasanian Persian Empire. Victory would come in 628. The Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, and most importantly for them, the True Cross and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614.
SH70032. Gold solidus, Ratto 1364; DOC II 13h (not in the collection, refs Ratto); Hahn MIB 11; Sommer 11.9; SBCV 738; Tolstoi -; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, graffiti on the reverse, weight 4.523 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 9th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA CONST PP, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGU Θ, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue; $440.00 (€391.60)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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In 638, An Islamic army under Khalid ibn al-Walid moved into Anatolia conquering without strong Byzantine resistance, the cities Kahramanmaras, Caesarea Cappadociae, Sebastia, and Malatya. Arab forces marched into Armenia where they captured the cities Edessa and Amida up to the Ararat plain. In autumn, Islamic forces under Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah stormed Caesarea Maritima, the capital of Byzantine Palestine.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH70069. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 41g; Wroth BMC 74; Tolstoi 403; Hahn MIB 48; Sommer 11.32; SBCV 767; Morrisson BnF -, aEF, graffiti on rev (NE, AS), weight 4.388 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, 7th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 638 - 639; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu Z, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, IB ligature right, CONOB in exergue; $400.00 (€356.00)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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This coin is unusual and possibly unique because it was struck with small dies on a larger older coin, resulting in an appearance similar to countermarking. Other coins were struck in Sicily for Heraclius with countermark-like dies, but not with these types. This coin may have been struck under Constans II vice Heraclius.
SH68126. Bronze half follis, for Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine: cf. DOC II, part 1, 124; for Constans II and Constantine IV: cf. DOC II, part 2, 94, F, overstruck, obverse off center, weight 3.329 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Syracuse (or Constantinopolis?) mint, obverse Heraclius (or Constans II?), on left, wearing military dress, long cross in right and akakia in left; Heraclius Constantine (or Constantine IV), on right (mostly off flan), wearing chlamys, globus cruciger in right; reverse large K (20 nummi), ANNO left, X[?] right, A below; unique(?); $320.00 (€284.80)
 


Sasanian Empire, Khusro II, Occupation of Egypt, 618 - 628 A.D.

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During his temporary domination of Egypt, 618 - 628 A.D., Khusru allowed the Alexandria mint to continue issuing the normal Byzantine coinage, but substituted his portrait for the Byzantine emperor's. The sun and moon replaced the obverse legend, just as on contemporary Sasanian coinage. It may seem strange that a Persian king would wear a crown surmounted by a cross; however, his wife Sira was a Christian, he was a benefactor of the church of St. Sergius in Edessa, he honored the Virgin, and he sometimes wore a robe embroidered with a cross which he had received as a gift from the Emperor Maurice Tiberius. The Byzantine emperors resumed the imperial coinage of Alexandria after their recapture of Egypt in 628 A.D.
WA77071. Bronze 12 nummi, DOC II, part 1, 191; Hahn MIB 202b; Wroth BMC 277; Tolstoi 109; Ratto 1316; Morrisson BnF 10/Al/AE/32; SBCV 855; Sommer 11.92, aVF, as-found slightly rough near black patina, well centered, weight 10.428 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Alexandria mint, 618 - 628 A.D.; obverse bust of the Sassanid King Khusru II wearing a crown with pendilia and surmounted by a cross, star left, crescent moon right; reverse large I B with cross potent on globe between, AΛEZ in exergue; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection, Caesarea Maritima surface find; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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The 3/4 follis (30 nummi) denomination is rare.
BZ65328. Bronze three-quarter follis, DOC II 117c.1; Hahn MIB III 168a, SBCV 812, Wroth -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, VF, weight 5.804 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, die axis 135o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 629 - 630 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (on left) in military dress holding long cross, Heraclius Constantine (on right) in chlamys holding globus cruciger, star above, Heraclius monogram left, K (Konstantine) right; reverse large Λ (30 nummi), ANNO left, X/X (year 20) right, Γ (3rd officina) below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; rare; $140.00 (€124.60)
 


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In 613, a Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Heraclius led to the conquest of Jerusalem in 614 by combined Persian and Jewish forces. The Persians looted the city, and are said to have massacred its 90,000 Christian inhabitants; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was destroyed and the True Cross captured and taken to Ctesiphon as a battle-captured holy relic. Jewish Autonomy was established in the city until the Persian defeat. The Cross was returned to Jerusalem by Emperor Heraclius in 628 and in 629 the Jews in the city were massacred by the Byzantines.
BZ77964. Bronze half follis, DOC II part 1, 235; Wroth BMC 354; Morrisson BnF 10/Ct/AE/04; Tolstoi 81; Ratto 1335; Hahn MIB 235; SBCV 874; Sommer 11.108, aVF, nice green patina, tight flan, reverse a little off center, weight 5.964 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, Carthage mint, 614 - 615 A.D.; obverse D N ERACLIO PP AV, facing, bearded and crowned bust of Heraclius, globus cruciger in right; reverse large XX (20 nummi), pellet in center, cross above, star left, E (regnal year 5) right, KRTS in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $120.00 (€106.80)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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Heraclius offered peace to Khusro, presumably in 624, threatening otherwise to invade Persia, but Khusro rejected the offer. Heraclius marched into Persia with an army of probably less than 25,000 men, willingly abandoning any attempt to secure his rear or maintain lines of communication. Heraclius fought brilliantly and bravely repeatedly defeated the Persian forces. When the war ended in 628, Khusro had been murdered by his own men, the Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, and most importantly for them, the True Cross and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614.
BZ64050. Bronze decanummium, Anastasi 62; DOC II part 1, 257; Wroth BMC 410; SBCV 886; Hahn MIB 241, VF, pit (flan defect?) on reverse, weight 5.067 g, maximum diameter 10.0 mm, die axis 180o, Sicily, Catania mint, 625 - 626 A.D.; obverse facing busts of Heraclius on left, bearded, and Heraclius Constantine on right, beardless; both crowned, draped and cuirassed; cross between their heads; reverse large I (10 nummi), ANNO right, X/ς (year 16) right, CAT in exergue; scarce; $80.00 (€71.20)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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In 614, a Sassanid Persian and Jewish army (26,000 men) led by by Shahrbaraz captured and sacked Jerusalem after a 20-day siege. Somewhere between 57,000 and 66,500 citizens were slain; another 35,000 were enslaved, including the Patriarch Zacharias. Many churches in the city (including the "Church of the Resurrection" or Holy Sepulchre) were burned, and numerous relics, including the True Cross, the Holy Lance, and the Holy Sponge, were carried off to the Persian capital Ctesiphon.
BZ77962. Bronze follis, DOC II part 1, 159b.4 (same dies); Morrisson BnF 10/Ni/AE/07; Wroth BMC 242; Tolstoi 270; Ratto 1436; Hahn MIB 175a; SBCV 834; Sommer 11.73, F, overstruck on a large flan, small edge cracks, strong undertype effects, weight 13.375 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, die axis 195o, 2nd officina, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 613 - 614 A.D.; obverse Heraclius on left, Heraclius Constantine on right, both stand wearing crown and chlamys with globus cruciger in right hand, cross between heads, obscure blundered legend; reverse large M (40 nummi) between A/N/N/O and II/II (regnal year 4), cross above, B (2nd officina) below, NIK (Nicomedia) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $80.00 (€71.20)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D., Countermarked in Sicily

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Heraclius came to power through revolt against Phocas. He defeated the Sassanids, but this only facilitated the Arab conquests. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died and Egypt fell soon after. Heraclius Constantine was made joint emperor at 8 months old. He was in poor health when his father died and lived only about 100 days as senior emperor.
BZ65617. Bronze follis, Anastasi 65a, DOC II 242, SBCV 883; Sicilian countermarks applied on Heraclius follis, Constantinople, year 21, 630 A.D. (DOC II 106a, SBCV 810), VF, obscure due to undertype effects and the crude nature of the type, weight 10.057 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Sicilian mint, 630 - 638 A.D.; obverse SCL within oval punch, over lower part undertype: standing figures on original coin; reverse facing crowned and draped busts of Heraclius (on left) and Heraclius Constantine, cross between their heads all within oval punch; over undertype: large M (40 nummi), ANNO left, XXI right, A (1st officina) below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; scarce; $65.00 (€57.85)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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Heraclius came to power through revolt against the tyrannical Focas. He defeated the Sassanid Persians, but this only facilitated Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died and Egypt fell soon after.
BZ68100. Bronze follis, DOC II, part 1, 243; Anastasi 66; Wroth BMC 398; Tolstoi 315; Ratto 1450; Morrisson BnF 10/Sy/AE/35; SBCV 884; Sommer 11.115, F, overstruck, weight 5.875 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 632 - 11 Jan 641 A.D.; obverse facing busts of long-bearded Heraclius and his son Heraclius Constantine, wearing short beard, cross above, all within large round countermark; traces of undertype; reverse Heraclian monogram and SCs within large round countermark; traces of undertype; $65.00 (€57.85)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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Heraclius came to power through revolt against the tyrannical Focas. He defeated the Sassanid Persians, but this only facilitated Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died and Egypt fell soon after.
BZ77965. Bronze follis, DOC II, part 1, 243; Anastasi 66; Wroth BMC 398; Tolstoi 315; Ratto 1450; Morrisson BnF 10/Sy/AE/35; SBCV 884; Sommer 11.115, countermarks: F, uncertain undertype, weight 5.609 g, maximum diameter 25.9 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, 632 - 11 Jan 641 A.D.; obverse facing busts of long-bearded Heraclius and his son Heraclius Constantine, wearing short beard, cross above, all within large round countermark; traces of undertype; reverse Heraclian monogram and SCs within large round countermark; traces of undertype; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $60.00 (€53.40)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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The Byzantine-Sassanid War ended with a Byzantine victory in 628, but the war, after a century of nearly continuous conflict, left both empires crippled. The Persians suffering economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, dynastic turmoil and other social problems, plunged into civil war. The Byzantines had exhausted their treasure, the Balkans had been largely lost to the Slavs, and Anatolia was devastated. Neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were struck by the onslaught of the Arabs, newly united by Islam. The Sassanid Empire would soon be completely destroyed. The Muslim conquest of Syria, Egypt and North Africa, would reduce the Byzantine Empire to a territorial rump consisting of Anatolia and a scatter of islands and footholds in the Balkans and Italy.
BZ68099. Bronze half follis, DOC II, part 1, 118a; Wroth BMC 206; Tolstoi 286; Ratto 1422; Morrisson BnF 88; Hahn MIB 171a; Sommer 11.65; SBCV 815, F, overstruck, weight 3.696 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 629 - 630 A.D.; obverse Heraclius, on left in military dress with long cross in right, and Heraclius Constantine, wearing chlamys holding globus cruciger in right, both stand facing wears crown with cross, Heraclius monogram left, K right; reverse large K (20 nummi), cross above, ANNO left, X/X (regnal year 20) right, A below; scarce; $55.00 (€48.95)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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In 629, the Islamic prophet Muhammad had recently succeeded in unifying all of the nomadic tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. Those tribes had previously been too divided to pose a serious military threat to the Byzantines or the Persians. Now unified and animated by their new conversion to Islam, they comprised one of the most powerful states in the region. The first conflict between the Byzantines and Muslims was the Battle of Mu'tah in September 629. A small Muslim skirmishing force attacked the province of Arabia but were repulsed. Because the engagement was a Byzantine victory, there was no apparent reason to make changes to the military configuration of the region. Also, once the severity of the Muslim threat was realized, the Byzantines had little preceding battlefield experience with the Arabs, and even less with zealous soldiers united by a prophet. Even the Strategicon, a manual of war praised for the variety of enemies it covers, does not mention warfare against Arabs at any length. The following year the Muslims launched raids into the Arabah south of Lake Tiberias, taking Al Karak. Other raids penetrated into the Negev reaching as far as Gaza. The Battle of Yarmouk in 636 resulted in a crushing defeat for the larger Byzantine army; within three years, the Levant had been lost again. By the time of Heraclius' death in Constantinople, on February 11, 641, most of Egypt had fallen as well.
BZ77961. Bronze follis, DOC II part 1, 106c; Wroth BMC 156; Tolstoi 248; Ratto 1415; Hahn MIB 164a; Sommer 11.57; SBCV 810; Morrisson BnF -, F, nice desert patina, overstruck, ragged flan, weight 10.185 g, maximum diameter 27.0 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 630 - 631 A.D.; obverse Heraclius in military dress holding long cross on left, Heraclius Constantine in chlamys holding globus cruciger on right; reverse large M (40 nummi), cross above, ANNO left, X/X/I right (regnal year 21), Γ below (3rd officina), CON (Constantinople) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $45.00 (€40.05)
 


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.

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The Byzantine-Sassanid War ended with a Byzantine victory in 628, but the war, after a century of nearly continuous conflict, left both empires crippled. The Persians suffering economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, dynastic turmoil and other social problems, plunged into civil war. The Byzantines had exhausted their treasure, the Balkans had been largely lost to the Slavs, and Anatolia was devastated. Neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were struck by the onslaught of the Arabs, newly united by Islam. The Sassanid Empire would soon be completely destroyed. The Muslim conquest of Syria, Egypt and North Africa, would reduce the Byzantine Empire to a territorial rump consisting of Anatolia and a scatter of islands and footholds in the Balkans and Italy.
BZ77963. Bronze 12 nummi, DOC II, part 1, 189; Wroth BMC 289, Tolstoi 308; Ratto 1445; Morrisson BnF 10/A1/AE/01; Hahn MIB 200a; SBCV 853; Sommer 11.91, F, highlighting buff earthen fill, flan crack, weight 5.090 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 180o, Egypt, Alexandria mint, c. 613 - 618 A.D.; obverse dm HERACL (or similar), facing busts of Heraclius and his son Heraclius Constantine; reverse large IB (12 nummi) divided by cross potent on two steps, AΛEZ (Alexandria) in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€35.60)
 


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On 13 August 612, Empress Eudokia, wife of Heraclius, died of epilepsy. She left two children, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople.
BZ77430. Bronze follis, DOC II, part 1, 154a; SBCV 833; Wroth BMC 231; Tolstoi 63; Ratto 1306; Hahn MIB 174; Sommer 11.72, VF, dark patina, weak blundered legend, weight 12.885 g, maximum diameter 31.9 mm, die axis 195o, 1st officina, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 611 - 612 A.D.; obverse d N hRACLYS PERP AV (or similar), bust facing, bearded, wearing trefoil crown and paludamentum, globus cruciger in right, cross above; reverse large M (40 nummi), cross above, A/N/N/O left, II (year 2) right, A (1st officina) below, NIKO (Nikomedia) in exergue; $35.00 (€31.15)
 







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Catalog current as of Thursday, June 30, 2016.
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Byzantine Coins of Heraclius