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Home>Catalog>ByzantineCoins>HeracleanDynasty>Heraclius

Heraclius, 5 October 610 - 11 January 641 A.D.

Joint rule with Heraclius Constantine (his son), 23 January 613 - 3 July 638 A.D.
Joint rule with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas (his sons), 4 July 638 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Heraclius came to power in 610 following a successful revolt in North Africa against the tyrannical rule of the Emperor Focas. His son Heraclius Constantine was elevated to joint rule in 613 A.D. Heraclius' most spectacular military achievement was the total defeat of Rome's old enemy on the eastern frontier, the Sassanid Persians. Unfortunately, this only facilitated the Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern provinces of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died in early 641 A.D. and Egypt fell to the Arabs soon after.


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In "Le trésor byzantine de Nikertai" in Revue Belge de Numismatique 118 (1972), Morrisson writes that this officina mark is horizontal, perpendicular to the rest of the legend, and indicates the 7th officina (a reversed Z, not an H). Hahn lists the Nikertai Hoard coin 146, described by Morrisson as 7th officina, as his only example from the H (8th) officina. The 8th officina probably did not strike this variant with an I in the right field. Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 196, lot 3100, was struck with the same dies in a similar state of wear.
SH69990. Gold solidus, Nikertai Hoard 146; Hahn MIB 13 (Z) and 14 (H); Sommer 11.10; SBCV 739; DOC II - (type 14, officina not listed); Morrisson BnF -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, VF, worn dies, weight 4.431 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 225o, 7th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIVS Et hERA CONSt PP A, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGu Z (Z reversed), cross potent on three steps, I right, CONOB in ex; scarce; $650.00 (€487.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius Constantine, 11 January - 20 April 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Most references attribute this type to Heraclius; however, Hahn (MIB) convincingly argues that the K in the reverse right field refers to Heraclius Constantine. During his very short reign, he may have thought it prudent to maintain the same type struck by his father.
SH70074. Gold solidus, Wroth BMC 66; Tolstoi 395; DOC II, part 1, 45a (not in the collection, refs BMC); SBCV 771; Sommer 11.36; Hahn MIB 52 (Heraclius Constantine), gVF, some luster, graffiti on reverse, weight 4.429 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 225o, 5th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 11 Jan - 20 Apr 641; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu E, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, K right, CONOB in ex; scarce; $600.00 (€450.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 626, Constantinople was under siege by horde of about 80,000 Avars, Slavs, Bulgars, and other "barbarians" and a small Persian army allied with them. On 31 July, the barbarian and Persian allies launched an attack along the entire 5.7 kilometer length of the Theodosian Walls using the most current trebuchets, mobile armored shelters, and siege towers. On the walls, 12,000 well-trained Byzantine troops fought fiercely, holding off assault after assault. On 7 August the Persian fleet was destroyed while ferrying reinforcements. The Avars, having suffered terrible losses, and short of food and supplies, burned their siege engines and retreated to the Balkan Peninsula. Constantinople was saved.
SH70018. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 13d; Sommer 11.9.2; Tolstoi 138; Morrisson BnF 16; Hahn MIB 11; SBCV 738; Ratto -; Wroth BMC -, aEF, well centered, part of obverse legend unstruck, weight 4.337 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 613 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONST PP AVG, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGu E, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex, graffiti in fields; $580.00 (€435.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Ninth officina examples for this type are missing from Dumbarton Oaks, the British Museum, and the Bibliothèque Nationale, but we have handled a few examples.
SH70025. Gold solidus, Ratto 1364; DOC II 13h (not in the collection, refs Ratto); Hahn MIB 11; Sommer 11.9; SBCV 738; Tolstoi -; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, aEF, uneven strike with unstruck area, weight 4.280 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 9th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA C[...], facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGU Θ, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $580.00 (€435.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 639, the Islamic Rashidun army invaded Byzantine Egypt with 4,000 men. They captured the strategic town of Pelusium after a two-month siege. Reinforcements from Medina and Sinai Bedouin tribes increased the Arab force to 15,000 men. On 6 July 640, the Arab army surrounded and defeated a Byzantine army, and captured the city of Heliopolis. On 21 December 640, after a seven-month siege the Arabs captured the fortress at Babylon, Egypt. The Arabs laid siege to Alexandria in March 641. The city was heavily fortified with walls within walls, and forts within forts, was well supplied with provisions and food, and with direct access to the sea, men and supplies could be delivered at any time. It is said that Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, collected a large army at Constantinople and intended to personally march at the head of these reinforcements to Alexandria. Before he could finalize the arrangements, he died. The troops mustered at Constantinople dispersed, no help came to Alexandria, and the city fell in September 641. Thousands of Byzantine soldiers were killed or taken captive while others managed to flee to Constantinople on ships that had been anchored in the port. Some wealthy traders also left. 'Amr is reported to have written to Caliph 'Umar: "We have conquered Alexandria. In this city there are 4,000 palaces, 400 places of entertainment, and untold wealth."
SH70050. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 43e; Wroth BMC 67; Tolstoi 396; Ratto 1490; Morrisson 70; Hahn MIB 50; SBCV 769, VF, weight 4.314 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, 6th officina, Constantinople mint, 639(?) - 641; obverse Heraclius with long beard and mustache between his sons, Heraclonas on left and Heraclius Constantine on right, all stand facing, each wears crown and chlamys and holds globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu S, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, no symbol right, CONOB in ex; $560.00 (€420.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In September 629, after 15 years of Persian occupation, Jerusalem was reconquered by the Byzantines. A new "Golden Age" began for the Byzantine Empire. On 14 September Heraclius entered Constantinople in triumph. In a ceremonial parade, accompanied by the True Cross, he was welcomed by the citizens and his son Heraclius Constantine.
SH70063. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 26a; Tolstoi 170; Hahn MIB 29; Sommer 11.19; SBCV 749; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -; Ratto -, gVF, obverse a little off center, weight 4.396 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople mint, c. 629 - 631 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIuS et hERA CONSt pp AV, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with long beard and his son Heraclius Constantine, short beard, cross above; reverse VICTORIA AVGY A, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $560.00 (€420.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
In April 637, Jerusalem became one of the Arab Caliphate's first conquests. The Rashidun Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab personally went to the city to receive its submission and prayed on the Temple Mount. Umar ibn al-Khattab also allowed the Jews back into the city and freedom to live and worship. Sixty years later the Dome of the Rock was built, a structure enshrining a stone from which Muhammad is said to have ascended to heaven during the Isra. The oldest part of Jerusalem was settled in the 4th millennium B.C., making it one of the oldest cities in the world. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.Dome of the Rock
SH69983. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 36g; SBCV 761; Sommer 11.26; Hahn MIB 42; Wroth BMC -; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, aEF, graffiti, weight 4.391 g, maximum diameter 19.17 mm, die axis 180o, 10th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 636 - 637; obverse Heraclius with his sons, all stand facing holding globus cruciger in right; Heraclius with mustache, long beard, and crown; Heraclius Constantine (on right) beardless wearing crown; Heraclonas (on left) wearing plain cap, cross above his head; reverse VICTORIA AVGu I, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, I right, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
In 638, Heraclius created a buffer zone or no man's land in the heartland of Asia Minor. In the mountainous terrain of Anatolia, the Byzantine forces used defensive guerrilla warfare, known as "shadowing warfare." They avoided battle with major Muslim invasions and instead attacked raiding parties on their return when laden with booty, captured livestock or prisoners.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH69984. Gold solidus, Wroth BMC 80; Hahn MIB 49; Tolstoi 418; DOC II part 1, 42d (not in the collection, refs BMC); Sommer 11.33; SBCV 768; Morrisson BnF -, aEF/VF, some luster, graffiti on reverse, weight 4.439 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 225o, 10th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 638 - 639; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu I, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, B right, CONOBΛ in ex; scarce; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
In 638, An Islamic army under Khalid ibn al-Walid moved into Anatolia conquering without strong Byzantine resistance, the cities Kahramanmaras, Caesarea Cappadociae, Sebastia, and Malatya. Arab forces marched into Armenia where they captured the cities Edessa and Amida up to the Ararat plain. In autumn, Islamic forces under Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah stormed Caesarea Maritima, the capital of Byzantine Palestine.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH69994. Gold solidus, Hahn MIB 48; Sommer 11.32; SBCV 767; DOC II part 1, 41 var (officina not listed); Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, graffiti on rev right (E), weight 4.424 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, 10th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 638 - 639; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu I, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, IB ligature right, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 11 February 641, Heraclius, age 65, after a 31-year reign, died of dropsy at Constantinople. During his reign, the Empire lost Armenia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and much of Mesopotamia to the Muslim Arabs. Heraclius was succeeded by his sons Heraclius Constantine (Constantine III) and Heraklonas.
SH70024. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 44a.1; Morrisson BnF 72; Hahn MIB 53; SBCV 770; Sommer 11.35; Wroth -; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, aEF, tight flan, graffiti on obverse and reverse, weight 4.385 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople mint, 639(?) - 641; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown, chlamys, tablion ornamented with pellets, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu A, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, E right, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo According to Islamic tradition, in 621, Muhammad made the Night Journey on the steed Buraq from Mecca to Jerusalem's Temple Mount, and then he ascended to heaven where he spoke with God who gave instructions regarding prayer, and then rode back to Mecca.
SH70030. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 13e; Tolstoi 151; Hahn MIB 11; Sommer 19.9; SBCV 738; Ratto -; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, excellent centering, graffiti on both sides, weight 4.428 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 225o, 6th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - c. 625; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONST PP A, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGU S, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 622, Heraclius sailed from Constantinople with an expeditionary force (probably 50,000 men) and began his counter-offensive against the Sasanian Persian Empire. Victory would come in 628. The Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, and most importantly for them, the True Cross and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614.
SH70032. Gold solidus, Ratto 1364; DOC II 13h (not in the collection, refs Ratto); Hahn MIB 11; Sommer 11.9; SBCV 738; Tolstoi -; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, graffiti on the reverse, weight 4.523 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 9th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA CONST PP, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGU Θ, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 632, Heraclonas, Heraclius younger son, was designated Caesar and added to the coinage. Heraclonas was seven years old. The Heraclian monogram on the reverse replaces the more typical obverse inscription.
SH70037. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 43b; Tolstoi 396; Ratto 1490; Hahn MIB 50; Sommer 11.34; SBCV 769; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, gVF, light graffiti on reverse, weight 4.406 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Constantinople mint, 639(?) - 641; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in rig; reverse VICTORIA AVGu Γ, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, no symbol right, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
After Muhammad's death in 632, his successors started a military campaign to increase the territory of the new Caliphate. In 638, the invading Rashidun army under Khalid ibn al-Walid moved into Anatolia conquered without strong Byzantine resistance, the cities Kahramanmaras, Caesarea Cappadociae, Sebastia, and Malatya (west of the Taurus Mountains). Arab forces marched into Armenia where they captured the cities Edessa and Amida up to the Ararat plain.Islamic advances 630-641
SH70040. Gold solidus, Morrisson BnF 54; DOC II part 1, 39 (officina not listed); Ratto 1498; Hahn MIB 45; SBCV 764; Sommer 11.29; Wroth BMC -, VF, weight 4.335 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Constantinople mint, 637 - 638(?); obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu B, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, A with elongated top right, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 624, Heraclius enjoyed further success against the Sassanid Persians. He destroyed the fortress city of Dvin, the capital of Armenia, and Nakhchivan (in modern Azerbaijan). At Ganzak, Heraclius defeated the Persian army and destroyed the fire temple at Takht-e Soleyman, an important Zoroastrian shrine. Khosrau II withdrew most of his troops with a plan to trap and destroy Heraclius. But Heraclius attacked and routed the Persians at Tigranakert (Western Armenia) and destroyed their baggage train.
SH70049. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 13c; Nikertai Hoard 86 - 88; Sommer 11.9; Hahn MIB 11; SBCV 738; Morrisson BnF -; Wroth BMC -; Tolstoi -; Ratto -, VF, slightly clashed reverse die, weight 4.479 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIuS et hERA CONSt pp AVG, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGu Γ, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 21 March 630, Heraclius returned the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem. He issued a decree that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre followed around Jerusalem and in Galilee, some survivors fled to the Daraa area.
SH90294. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 26j; Wroth BMC 45; Morrisson BnF 34; Tolstoi 182; Hahn MIB 29; Sommer 11.19; SBCV 749; Ratto -, gVF, some strike weakness, reverse graffito, weight 4.418 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 225o, Constantinople mint, c. 629 - 631 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSt PP AV, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with long beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine with short beard, cross above; reverse VICTORIA AVGY I, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; ex CNG auction 233, lot 548; $550.00 (€412.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 632, Heraclonas, Heraclius younger son, was designated Caesar and added to the coinage. Heraclonas was seven years old. The Heraclian monogram on the reverse replaces the more typical obverse inscription.
SH69986. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 41a; Tolstoi 373; Morrisson BnF 62; Sommer 11.32; Hahn MIB 48; SBCV 767; Wroth BMC 55 var (2nd officina), gVF, some luster, graffiti on obv (S right) and rev (A below mintmark), weight 4.346 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople mint, c. 638 - 639; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu A (officina letter horizontal), cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, IB ligature right, CONOB in exergue; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 616, King Sæberht of Essex died after a 12-year reign and was succeeded by his son Sexred, who ruled conjointly with his two brothers Sæward and Sigeberht. The pagan brothers exiled Mellitus, the bishop of London, reputedly because he refused to allow them to taste the sacramental bread. More likely Mellitus was exiled when "overkingship" changed from the Christian Kentish Æthelberht to the pagan East Anglian Raedwald. Mellitus took refuge in Gaul. He returned to England about a year later but never returned to London, which remained pagan.
SH69991. Gold solidus, Sommer 11.9.1; Nikertai Hoard 89 - 90; Hahn MIB 11; SBCV 738; DOC II - (type 13, off. not listed); Morrisson BnF -; Wroth BMC -; Ratto -; Tolstoi -, VF, die wear, graffiti on reverse, weight 4.287 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 225o, 4th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIuS Et hERA CONSt pp AVG, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGu ∆, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 11 February 641, Heraclius, age 65, after a 31-year reign, died of dropsy at Constantinople. During his reign, the Empire lost Armenia, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and much of Mesopotamia to the Muslim Arabs. Heraclius was succeeded by his sons Heraclius Constantine (Constantine III) and Heraklonas.
SH70007. Gold solidus, SBCV 769; DOC II part 1, 43 (1st officina not listed); Hahn MIB 50; Sommer 11.34; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, graffiti on reverse, weight 4.398 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople mint, c. 639 - 641; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu A, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, no symbol right, CONOB in ex; scarce; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
In 638, Heraclius created a buffer zone or no man's land in the heartland of Asia Minor. In the mountainous terrain of Anatolia, the Byzantine forces used defensive guerrilla warfare, known as "shadowing warfare." They avoided battle with major Muslim invasions and instead attacked raiding parties on their return when laden with booty, captured livestock or prisoners.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH70009. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 39c; Wroth BMC 58; Morrisson BnF 56; Tolstoi 384; Hahn MIB 45; SBCV 764; Sommer 11.29; Ratto -, gVF, graffiti on obv and reverse, weight 4.353 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Constantinople mint, 637 - 638(?); obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu ∆, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, A with elongated top right, CONOB in ex; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 619 the Persians captured the besieged city of Alexandria. Nicetas, cousin of Heraclius, and the Chalcedonian patriarch, John V, fled to Cyprus. King Khosrau II then extended his rule southwards along the Nile. Heraclius prepared to leave Constantinople and move the Byzantine capital to Carthage, but he was convinced to stay by Sergius I, patriarch of Constantinople. He began to rebuild the Byzantine army aided by Church funds and treasures.
SH70029. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 13d; Sommer 11.9.2; Tolstoi 138; Morrisson BnF 16; Hahn MIB 11; SBCV 738; Ratto -; Wroth BMC -, VF, near perfect centering, some light scratches, weight 4.389 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONST PP AVG, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGY E, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex, graffiti in fields; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 21 March 630, Heraclius returned the True Cross, one of the holiest Christian relics, to Jerusalem. He issued a decree that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre followed around Jerusalem and in Galilee, some survivors fled to the Daraa area.
SH70068. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 26j; Wroth BMC 45; Morrisson BnF 34; Tolstoi 182; Hahn MIB 29; Sommer 11.19; SBCV 749; Ratto -, VF, weight 4.320 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 225o, Constantinople mint, c. 629 - 631 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSt PP AV, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with long beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine with short beard, cross above; reverse VICTORIA AVGY I, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
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In 638, An Islamic army under Khalid ibn al-Walid moved into Anatolia conquering without strong Byzantine resistance, the cities Kahramanmaras, Caesarea Cappadociae, Sebastia, and Malatya. Arab forces marched into Armenia where they captured the cities Edessa and Amida up to the Ararat plain. In autumn, Islamic forces under Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah stormed Caesarea Maritima, the capital of Byzantine Palestine.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH70069. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 41g; Wroth BMC 74; Tolstoi 403; Hahn MIB 48; Sommer 11.32; SBCV 767; Morrisson BnF -, aEF, graffiti on rev (NE, AS), weight 4.388 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, 7th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 638 - 639; obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu Z, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, IB ligature right, CONOB in ex; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, 632 - 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 632, Heraclonas, Heraclius younger son, was designated Caesar and added to the coinage. Heraclonas was seven years old. The Heraclian monogram on the reverse replaces the more typical obverse inscription.
SH70070. Gold solidus, Morrisson BnF 54; DOC II part 1, 39 (officina not listed); Ratto 1498; Hahn MIB 45; SBCV 764; Sommer 11.29; Wroth 50 var (officina), gVF, some luster, reverse graffiti and slightly double struck, weight 4.410 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Constantinople mint, 637 - 638(?); obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu B, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, A right, CONOB in ex; $500.00 (€375.00)

Click for a larger photo In September 629, after 15 years of Persian occupation, Jerusalem was reconquered by the Byzantines. A new "Golden Age" began for the Byzantine Empire. On 14 September Heraclius entered Constantinople in triumph. In a ceremonial parade, accompanied by the True Cross, he was welcomed by the citizens and his son Heraclius Constantine.
SH90293. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 26a; Tolstoi 170; Hahn MIB 29; Sommer 11.19; SBCV 749; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -; Ratto -, gVF, some strike weakness, reverse graffiti and slightly off center, weight 4.375 g, maximum diameter 21.0 mm, die axis 180o, 9th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 629 - 631 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIuS et hERA CONSt pp AV, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with long beard and his son Heraclius Constantine, short beard, cross above; reverse VICTORIA AVGY Θ, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; ex CNG auction 233, 545; $500.00 (€375.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo This coin is unusual and possibly unique because it was struck with small dies on a larger older coin, resulting in an appearance similar to countermarking. Other coins were struck in Sicily for Heraclius with countermark-like dies, but not with these types. This coin may have been struck under Constans II vice Heraclius.
SH68126. Bronze half follis, for Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine: cf. DOC II, part 1, 124; for Constans II and Constantine IV: cf. DOC II, part 2, 94, F, overstruck, obverse off center, weight 3.329 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Syracuse (or Constantinople?) mint, obverse Heraclius (or Constans II?), on left, wearing military dress, long cross in right and akakia in left; Heraclius Constantine (or Constantine IV), on right (mostly off flan), wearing chlamys, globus cruciger in right; reverse large K (20 nummi), ANNO left, X[?] right, A below; unique(?); $450.00 (€337.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 617, the Avars sent envoys to Constantinople for a meeting with Heraclius. He was warned it was an ambush and fled just in time to safety behind the city walls. Angry at their failure to capture the Byzantine emperor, the Avars plundered Thrace and returned to the Danube River carrying off 270,000 people.
SH69997. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 13i; Morrisson BnF 19 ff.; Ratto 1365; Tolstoi 157; Hahn MIB 11; Sommer ; 11.9; SBCV 738, VF, well centered, struck with worn dies, weight 4.343 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 225o, 10th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse bb NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONST PP A (sic), facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGY I, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $450.00 (€337.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
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In 638, Heraclius created a buffer zone or no man's land in the heartland of Asia Minor. In the mountainous terrain of Anatolia, the Byzantine forces used defensive guerrilla warfare, known as "shadowing warfare." They avoided battle with major Muslim invasions and instead attacked raiding parties on their return when laden with booty, captured livestock or prisoners.Arab Invasion of Anatolia and Armenia
SH70022. Gold solidus, DOC II part 1, 39g; Morrisson BnF 59; Hahn MIB 45; SBCV 764; Sommer 11.29; Wroth BMC -; Tolstoi -, gVF, graffiti and minor flan flaw on reverse, weight 4.415 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, 8th officina, Constantinople mint, 637 - 638(?); obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown and chlamys, and hold globus cruciger in right; reverse VICTORIA AVGu H, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, A right, CONOB in ex; $450.00 (€337.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Ninth officina examples for this type are missing from Dumbarton Oaks, the British Museum, and the Bibliothèque Nationale, but we have handled a few examples.
SH70046. Gold solidus, Ratto 1364; DOC II 13h (not in the collection, refs Ratto); Hahn MIB 11; Sommer 11.9; SBCV 738; Tolstoi -; Wroth BMC -; Morrisson BnF -, VF, well centered, some legend weakly struck, graffiti on reverse, weight 4.427 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 180o, 9th officina, Constantinople mint, c. 616 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA CONST PP AV, facing busts of Heraclius, on left with short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, beardless and smaller, each wearing a simple crown with cross on circlet, cross between them above; reverse VICTORIA AVGU Θ, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in ex; $450.00 (€337.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 616, the Jews of Jerusalem gained complete control over the city, much of Judea and Galilee became an autonomous Jewish province of the Sasanian Persian Empire. The Jewish Temple was rebuilt by Nehemiah ben Hushiel (exilarch of Jerusalem) who establish a High Priesthood. In September 629 the Byzantines retook Jerusalem after 15 years of Persian occupation. In 630, Heraclius decreed that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre followed around Jerusalem and in Galilee, some survivors fled to the Dara'ah area.

The flan flaw is the result of a plug inserted into the flan prior to striking to increase and achieve the proper weight for the coin.
BZ65918. Silver hexagram, DOC II/I 61, Wroth BMC 107, Hahn MIB 134, Morrisson BnF 2, Sommer 11.44, SBCV 795, Ratto 1389, Tolstoi -, aVF, uneven strike, flan flaw, reverse graffiti, weight 6.455 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 315o, Constantinople mint, c. 615 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSTI (or similar), Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine enthroned facing, each holds globus cruciger, cross above; reverse DEUS ADIUTA ROMANIS (May God help the Romans), cross potent on globe above three steps; scarce; $400.00 (€300.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Struck on a planchet with a plug added to the center to adjust the weight. This type of flan adjustment can also be found on some USA 1794 and 1795 silver dollars.
BZ66805. Silver hexagram, SBCV 798; DOC II part 1, 64; Hahn MIB 140; Wroth BMC 100; Ratto 1390, Morrisson 6, VF, weight 6.513 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 225o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 615 - 638 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSTI (or similar), Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine enthroned facing, each holds globus cruciger, cross above; reverse DEUS ADIUTA ROMANIS (May God help the Romans), cross potent on globe above three steps, K right; scarce; $360.00 (€270.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The 3/4 follis (30 nummi) denomination is rare.
BZ65328. Bronze three-quarter follis, DOC II 117c.1; Hahn MIB III 168a, SBCV 812, Wroth -, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, VF, weight 5.804 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, die axis 135o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 629 - 630 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (on left) in military dress holding long cross, Heraclius Constantine (on right) in chlamys holding globus cruciger, star above, Heraclius monogram left, K (Konstantine) right; reverse large Λ (30 nummi), ANNO left, X/X (year 20) right, Γ (3rd officina) below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; rare; $180.00 (€135.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Heraclius offered peace to Khusro, presumably in 624, threatening otherwise to invade Persia, but Khusro rejected the offer. Heraclius marched into Persia with an army of probably less than 25,000 men, willingly abandoning any attempt to secure his rear or maintain lines of communication. Heraclius fought brilliantly and bravely repeatedly defeated the Persian forces. When the war ended in 628, Khusro had been murdered by his own men, the Byzantines regained all their lost territories, their captured soldiers, a war indemnity, and most importantly for them, the True Cross and other relics that were lost in Jerusalem in 614.
BZ64050. Bronze dekanummium, Anastasi 62; DOC II part 1, 257; Wroth BMC 410; SBCV 886; Hahn MIB 241, VF, pit (flan defect?) on reverse, weight 5.067 g, maximum diameter 10.0 mm, die axis 180o, Sicily, Catania mint, 625 - 626 A.D.; obverse facing busts of Heraclius on left, bearded, and Heraclius Constantine on right, beardless; both crowned, draped and cuirassed; cross between their heads; reverse large I (10 nummi), ANNO right, X/ς (year 16) right, CAT in exergue; scarce; $100.00 (€75.00)

Click for a larger photo In 618, a Persian expeditionary force under Shahrbaraz invaded Egypt and after defeating the Byzantine garrisons in the Nile Valley, occupied the province, marched across the Libyan Desert as far as Cyrene and besieged Alexandria. The defence of the city was led by Nicetas, a cousin of emperor Heraclius. Alexandria fell to the Persians in 619. Nicetas and the Chalcedonian patriarch, John V, fled to Cyprus.
BZ90140. Bronze six nummi, DOC II 198, SBCV 862, Sommer 11.98, Wroth BMC 309, Hahn MIB 210, Morrisson BnF 69, Ratto 1326, Tolstoi 118, VF, a little rough, weight 1.850 g, maximum diameter 10.9 mm, die axis 225o, Alexandria mint, 613 - 618 A.D.; obverse dd m hERACUCI (or similar, blundered), cross potent on two steps; reverse large S; ex CNG Auctions,auction 233 lot 552, ex Peter Lee Collection; $95.00 (€71.25)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D., Countermarked in Sicily
Click for a larger photo Heraclius came to power through revolt against Phocas. He defeated the Sassanids, but this only facilitated the Arab conquests. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died and Egypt fell soon after. Heraclius Constantine was made joint emperor at 8 months old. He was in poor health when his father died and lived only about 100 days as senior emperor.
BZ65617. Bronze follis, Anastasi 65a, DOC II 242, SBCV 883; Sicilian countermarks applied on Heraclius follis, Constantinople, year 21, 630 A.D. (DOC II 106a, SBCV 810), VF, obscure due to undertype effects and the crude nature of the type, weight 10.057 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Sicilian mint, 630 - 638 A.D.; obverse SCL within oval punch, over lower part undertype: standing figures on original coin; reverse facing crowned and draped busts of Heraclius (on left) and Heraclius Constantine, cross between their heads all within oval punch; over undertype: large M (40 nummi), ANNO left, XXI right, A (1st officina) below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; scarce; $90.00 (€67.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Heraclius came to power through revolt against the tyrannical Focas. He defeated the Sassanid Persians, but this only facilitated Arab conquest of Persia and the eastern Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines lost Syria and Palestine before Heraclius died and Egypt fell soon after.
BZ68100. Bronze follis, SBCV 884, F, overstruck, weight 5.875 g, maximum diameter 25.5 mm, die axis 180o, Syracuse mint, obverse facing busts of long-bearded Heraclius and his son Heraclius Constantine, wearing short beard, cross above, all within large round countermark; reverse Heraclian monogram and SCs within large round countermark, with traces of undertype; $90.00 (€67.50)

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BZ69578. Bronze decanummium, SBCV 878; DOC II, part 1, 238, Morrisson BnF 18; Ratto 1337; Hahn MIB 237b; Wroth BMC -; Sommer -; Tolstoi -, VF, centered, green patina, weight 2.166 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 270o, Carthage mint, obverse D N ERACLIO PP AV, bust of Heraclius facing, beardless, wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross; reverse large X between M and N (10 nummi), cross above, star below, pellet above and below both the N and M; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren, rare variant with the N and M reversed; $90.00 (€67.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The Byzantine-Sassanid War ended with a Byzantine victory in 628, but the war, after a century of nearly continuous conflict, left both empires crippled. The Persians suffering economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, dynastic turmoil and other social problems, plunged into civil war. The Byzantines had exhausted their treasure, the Balkans had been largely lost to the Slavs, and Anatolia was devastated. Neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were struck by the onslaught of the Arabs, newly united by Islam. The Sassanid Empire would soon be completely destroyed. The Muslim conquest of Syria, Egypt and North Africa, would reduce the Byzantine Empire to a territorial rump consisting of Anatolia and a scatter of islands and footholds in the Balkans and Italy.
BZ68099. Bronze half follis, DOC II, part 1, 118a; Wroth BMC 206; Tolstoi 286; Ratto 1422; Morrisson BnF 88; Hahn MIB 171a; Sommer 11.65; SBCV 815, F, overstruck, weight 3.696 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 629 - 630 A.D.; obverse Heraclius, on left in military dress with long cross in right, and Heraclius Constantine, wearing chlamys holding globus cruciger in right, both stand facing wears crown with cross, Heraclius monogram left, K right; reverse large K (20 nummi), cross above, ANNO left, X/X (regnal year 20) right, A below; scarce; $80.00 (€60.00)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The Byzantine-Sassanid War ended with a Byzantine victory in 628, but the war, after a century of nearly continuous conflict, left both empires crippled. The Persians suffering economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, dynastic turmoil and other social problems, plunged into civil war. The Byzantines had exhausted their treasure, the Balkans had been largely lost to the Slavs, and Anatolia was devastated. Neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were struck by the onslaught of the Arabs, newly united by Islam. The Sassanid Empire would soon be completely destroyed. The Muslim conquest of Syria, Egypt and North Africa, would reduce the Byzantine Empire to a territorial rump consisting of Anatolia and a scatter of islands and footholds in the Balkans and Italy.
BZ69576. Bronze 12 nummi, DOC II, part I, 193; Wroth BMC 287; Morrisson BnF 52; Tolstoi 306; Ratto 1443; Hahn MIB 203; Sommer 11.94; SBCV 857, F, weight 7.362 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 315o, Egypt, Alexandria mint, c. 625 - 629 A.D.; obverse facing busts of Heraclius, with a short beard, and his son Heraclius Constantine, each wears a chlamys and a crown with a cross and pendilia, cross potent on steps between them; reverse large IB (12 nummi) divided by cross potent on globe on triangular base, AΛEΞ (Alexandria) in ex; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (€37.50)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 613, a Jewish revolt against the Byzantine Heraclius led to the conquest of Jerusalem in 614 by combined Persian and Jewish forces. The Persians looted the city, and are said to have massacred its 90,000 Christian inhabitants; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre was destroyed and the True Cross captured and taken to Ctesiphon as a battle-captured holy relic. Jewish Autonomy was established in the city. In September 629 Jerusalem was reconquered by the Byzantines. The Cross was returned to Jerusalem and the Jews in the city were massacred.
BZ65917. Bronze follis, SBCV 810, Sommer 11.58, Hahn MIB 164b, F, large flan, weight 10.009 g, maximum diameter 32.3 mm, die axis 45o, 4th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey)v mint, 629 - 640 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (on left) in military dress holding long cross, Heraclius Constantine (on right) in chlamys holding globus cruciger, cross above, K right; reverse large M (40 nummi), cross over C above, ANNO left, obscure date right, ∆ (4th officina) below, CON (Constantinople) in exergue; $45.00 (€33.75)


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Catalog current as of Tuesday, September 02, 2014.
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Byzantine Coins of Heraclius