, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C.
Hieron II was tyrant and then of , c. 270 to 215 B.C. His rule brought 50 years of peace and prosperity, and became one of the most renowned capitals of antiquity. He enlarged the theater and built an immense . The literary figure Theocritus and the philosopher Archimedes lived under his rule. After struggling against the , he eventually allied with Rome.GB90187. Bronze AE 28,
, , Timoleon and the 3rd Democracy, 344 - 317 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.GB63873. Bronze dilitron,
, , Timoleon, 3rd Democracy, 344 - 336 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.SH58244. Bronze dilitron,
, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened.GS90331. Silver hemilitron,
, , Fifth Democracy, 214 - 212 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcellus took in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GB70546. Bronze tetras,
, , Dionysos I, 405 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of . He conquered several cities in and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in and made the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.GB73158. Bronze
, , Timoleon and the Third Democracy, c. 344 - 317 B.C.
The goddess on the has been identified by different authorities as Aphrodite, Arethusa and .SH63881. Bronze hemilitron,
Katane, , c. 415 - 403 B.C.
Katane was captured by Dionysios of in 403 B.C., who sold the population into slavery and resettled the city with Campanian mercenaries. The city submitted to Rome during the First Punic war. GB71042. Bronze tetras,
as Hispani, , c. Late 2nd - Early 1st Century B.C.
In 214, during the Second Punic War, switched its allegiance from Rome to . remained autonomous until 211, when it became the last Sicilian town to be captured by the Romans. It was given as payment by Rome to a group of Spanish mercenaries, who issued coins with the HISPANORVM.
Erim and Jaunzems note that all coins of this were "struck from the same die. There is probably no other instance in all of the ancient coinages of the survival of so many pieces from a single die...In spite of the number of specimens, however, not a single piece allows us to examine this die in a fresh state, for invariably either the coin is in condition or die breaks are evident -- usually both. Particularly noticeable is a flaw that extends across the figure's and into the at the level of the nose. It is visible to some extent on almost all specimens."GB72288. Bronze AE 22,
, , Dionysius I, 405 - 367 B.C.
"The model for the on the is derived from the facing Arethusa by Kimon. Exemplars signed by the great master are known. This issue is usually attributed to Exakestidas with several exemplars signed E. However, stylistic evidence of many exemplars reveals such substantial differences the intervention of other engravers seems to be certain, while the discovery of traces of signature not completely legible but certainly not pointing to Exakestidas confirm the assumption." - p. 59GB72316. Bronze tetras,
, , c. 425 - 406 B.C.
Located on a plateau overlooking Sicily's southern coast, was founded c. 582 B.C. by from Gela. It grew rapidly, becoming second only to in importance on , but was sacked by in 406 B.C. and never fully recovered. It was renamed after it fell to Rome in 210 B.C.SH56732. Bronze hemilitron,
Segesta, , c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Segesta, in the northwestern , was one of the major cities of the Elymians, one of the three indigenous peoples of . Greeks settled in the city and the Elymians were quickly Hellenized. Segesta was in eternal conflict with Selinus. The first clashes were in 580 - 576 B.C., and again in 454 B.C. In 415 B.C. Segesta asked Athens for against Selinus, leading to a disastrous Athenian expedition in . Later they asked for . After destroyed Selinus, Segesta remained a loyal ally. It was besieged by Dionysius of in 397 B.C., and destroyed by Agathocles in 307 B.C., but recovered. In 276 B.C. the city allied with Pyrrhus, but changed sides and surrendered to the Romans in 260 B.C. Due to the mythical common origin of the Romans and the Elymians (both descendants of refugees from Troy), Rome designated Segesta a "free and immune" city. In 104 B.C., the slave rebellion led by Athenion started in Segesta. Little is known about the city under Roman rule. It was destroyed by the .GB65636. Bronze AE 16,
Agyrion, , c. 344 - 336 B.C.
Agyrion (modern Agira) was a Sicel city ruled by tyrants, one of whom, Agyris, was the most powerful ruler in the center of . In 392 B.C., he and Dionysius the Elder, together successfully resisted the Carthaginians under Magno. Agira was not colonized by the Greeks until the Corinthian general Timoleon drove out the last Sicel tyrant in 339 B.C. and settled 10,000 Greeks.GB63889. Bronze AE 14,
Leontini, , c. 207 - 200 B.C.
Leontini was founded by from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the .
When the Roman general Marcellus stormed the city in 214 B.C., Leontini was subject to and the rulers of actually resided there. Marcellus had 2000 Roman deserters who were hiding in the city killed, and then moved to lay siege to itself.GB65520. Bronze AE 16,
, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C., Ptolemaic Imitative
Wolfram was first to tentatively attribute a Ptolemaic ( 612) to Hieron II of . Cathy and Dan Wolf agree and have also attributed some additional Ptolemic types, including this , as Hieron II imitatives. Wolf and note, "the coins are distinguished from other types of Ptolemaic bronze diobols by artistic , anomalous (variable) die axes, and (almost always) circular borders. They are found almost exclusively in . They also share size, , variability, and control marks with some bronze portrait coins of Hieron II...Hieron may have struck the imitative coins to trick his mercenaries into believing that they were on the payroll of Ptolemy II. If the veteran soldiers distrusted their commander, they would probably have demanded their pay in precious metal currency. The ruse of pseudo-Ptolemaic bronze coins perhaps enabled Hieron to pay his mercenaries in a fiduciary coinage they would not otherwise have accepted..."GB72053. Bronze
Himera, , c. 420 - 409 B.C.
Himera (Termini), on the coast of , was an ancient Chalcidic colony from Zancle, founded in the middle of the seventh century B.C.GB69175. Bronze hemilitron,
Arpi, , Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal
Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty. GB73614. Bronze AE 20,
, , Hiketas II, 288 - 279 B.C.
Hicetas was tyrant of for about nine years. The only recorded events during his rule are his over Phintias, tyrant of , and his defeat to the Carthaginians at the river Terias. He was expelled from by Thynion shortly before Pyrrhus arrived in .GB66247. Bronze
, , , Late 4th - Early 3rd Century B.C.
on an earlier Siculo-Punic bronze, with of Tanit / horse with behind. The male image lacks signs of a deity and may be one of the leaders of the Punic forces.GB65846. Bronze AE 17,
Leontini, , c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Leontini was founded by from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the .GS65783. Silver hemilitra,
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