, , Fifth Democracy, 214 - 212 B.C.
Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcellus took in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.GI76346. Bronze tetras, II p. 418, 209/3; 1052 var. ( arrangement, etc.); 1514 var. ( left, etc.); -, VF, nice green , 4.176 g, maximum 16.5 mm, 105o, mint, c. 214 - 212 B.C.; diademed of Poseidon right; ΣYPAKO−ΣIΩN (clockwise from upper right), ornamented trident ; very ; $400.00 (€356.00)
Kamarina, , 413 - 405 B.C.
Kamarina was suffering a plague. A of the city was the suspected source. The town oracle advised them not to drain the , but in 405 B.C., the leaders ignored the advice. Once the was dry, there was nothing to stop the Carthaginian army. They marched across the newly drained , razed the city, and killed every last inhabitant.GI76938. Bronze tetras, 200; III pp. 63 - 65, 33; p. 40; 40; 415; 1228; 169; 548, gVF, nice green , , 3.242 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 90o, Kamarina (near Scoglitti, , Italy) mint, 413 - 405 B.C.; of left, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with wing, dot ; KAMA (downward on right), owl standing left on left leg, facing, lizard in right talon, three pellets (mark of value) in ; $400.00 (€356.00)
, , 450 - 440 B.C.
Located on a plateau overlooking Sicily's southern coast, was founded c. 582 B.C. by from Gela. It grew rapidly, becoming second only to in importance on but was sacked by in 406 B.C. and never fully recovered. It was renamed after it fell to Rome in 210 B.C.GI76829. Cast bronze trias, I, p. 143, 1; pl. I, 1; 61; 1015; 832; 126 (R1);, VF, green , earthen deposits, some light corrosion, 16.186 g, (Agrigento, , Italy) mint, 450 - 440 B.C.; cast near tooth-shaped flattened form, four pellets on flat top, sea-eagle standing left on one side, crab opposite; ; $360.00 (€320.40)
, , Dionysos I, 405 - 367 B.C.
Dionysius I was tyrant of . He conquered several cities in and southern Italy, opposed Carthage's influence in and made the most powerful of the Western Greek colonies. He was regarded by the ancients as an example of the worst kind of despot - cruel, suspicious and vindictive.GI76358. Bronze hemilitron, II p. 76, 34 (c. 409 B.C.); 1456 (c. 375 - 344 B.C.); p. 187, 292; 426 ff. (end 5th c. B.C.); -, gVF, attractive , , some light corrosion, 5.429 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 90o, mint, c. 405 - 390 B.C.; ΣYPA, of left, wearing Corinthian helmet, no ornament on helmet, no control ; left, no bridle; $350.00 (€311.50)
Kalakte, , 240 - 210 B.C.
Kalakte was founded by the Duketios, the Hellenized leader of the Sicels, in 446 B.C. when he returned from his exile in Corinth. The name means beautiful beach. Nothing else is known of the city until Roman times when it became a decumana, paying 1/10th of its annual harvest to Rome. Kalakte was the birthplace of Caecilius of Calacte, historian of the servile wars. The city survived until at least the second century A.D.GI76362. Bronze , I p. 129, 2 Ds 1; 1200; 545; p. 32, 3; 513 (R1), F, glossy green , 2.689 g, maximum 15.1 mm, 0o, Kalakte (Caronia, ) mint, 240 - 210 B.C.; wreathed of young Dionysos right, over left (far) shoulder; KAΛA-KTINΩN (upward on left and right), grape bunch on vine tendril; ; $350.00 (€311.50)
The Sileraioi, , c. 357 - 330 B.C.
Sileraioi was not a city. The Sileraians were Campanian mercenaries who took their name from their proximity to the river Silaros. These coins have been found at the site of their settlement, Cozzo Mususino, a natural strong-hold in central . The coins are often on coins from minted c. 375 - 345 B.C.SH68704. Bronze p. 301, 2; 1243 (R1); -; -; -; -, VF/F, rough, 7.521 g, maximum 20.6 mm, 90o, Sileraian mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; ΣI−ΛEPAIΩ−N (retrograde counterclockwise from 3:00), forepart charging right; SIL (retrograde, upward behind), warrior advancing right, spear in right hand, in left; ; $330.00 (€293.70)
Piakos, , c. 425 - 400 B.C.
Struck with unsigned dies by the ?Maestro della Foglia.? was the first to suggest that this famed artist who magnificent masterpieces for Katane, was also the engraver for the dies of this Piakos coinage. Other experts have agreed. This particular might have been his very first . dates the to a possible period of transitory independence, 425 - 424 B.C., during the time of the first Carthaginian invasion of to shortly after Gela's conference. Other authorities date it as late as 400 B.C.SH71341. Bronze tetras, III p. 198, 2; pl. LX, 14; 1101 (R1); -; -; -; -, VF, 2.357 g, maximum 14.4 mm, 45o, Piakos mint, c. 425 - 400 B.C.; P•I•A•K (pellets are mark of value), laureate and horned of a young river-god left; hound right attacking fallen stag right, seizing her by the throat, barley kernel on left and another on right; ; $330.00 (€293.70)
, , Pyrrhus of , 278 - 276 B.C.
This combination of control is not listed in the references examined. The control symbol is normally paired with a (thunderbolt) on the . The vertical trident control symbol is normally paired with a club on the .SH73164. Bronze AE 26, II p. 325, 177 Ds 69 var. (club vice cornucompia); 810 var.; 844 ff. var.; 1333 ff. var.; 1450 (S), VF, nice , nice , broad , edge split, 11.274 g, maximum 26.0 mm, 90o, mint, 278 - 276 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of Herakles left, clad in lion-skin headdress, (control symbol) behind; Promachos advancing right, helmeted and draped, hurling javelin with raised right hand, in left hand, no , vertical trident upward (control symbol) behind; variety; $320.00 (€284.80)
Gela, , 420 - 405 B.C.
Gela, named after the river Gela, was founded by from Rhodos and around 688 B.C. In 424 B.C., the Congress of Gela established a "Sicily for the Sicilians" platform and formed a league that pushed back the Athenian attempt to conquer the island. The city had a history of internal strife between its plebs and aristocrats. When the Carthaginians arrived in 311 BC, they easily captured the Gela with the of its elites. In 282 B.C., Phintias of Agrigento ruthlessly destroyed Gela to crush its power forever. In Roman times it was only a small settlement.SH76948. Bronze tetras, III p. 17, 32/1; 516; 115; 283; 314; , p. 73, 66; 379 (S), gVF, on a broad , nice green , light marks and corrosion, 3.408 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 90o, Gela mint, 420 - 405 B.C.; bull standing left, lowered and turned slightly facing, barley kernel over ΓEΛAΣ above, three pellets in ; horned of beardless young river-god Gela right, no diadem, floating hair, barley kernel behind; ; $320.00 (€284.80)
Katane, , c. 186 - 70 B.C.
For rescuing their aged parents from an eruption of Mt. Etna, the Romans idolized the Katanean brothers as the embodiment of the Roman virtue .GI76343. Bronze AE 21, III p. 98, 10; 1285; 196; 454; p. 52, 72; 626 (R2), VF/F, green , weak, light scratches, , 4.673 g, maximum 20.8 mm, 180o, Katane (Catania, , Italy) mint, Roman rule, c. 186 - 70 B.C.; of Dionysos right, wearing ivy , ΛAΣIO (magistrate) above, (ΩΣI?) behind; KATANΩN, the Katanean brothers, Amphinomos and Anapias, carrying their aged parents, saving them from an eruption of Mt. Etna; very ; $300.00 (€267.00)
Segesta, , c. 390 - 380 B.C.
Segesta, in the northwestern , was one of the major cities of the Elymians, one of the three indigenous peoples of . Greeks settled in the city and the Elymians were quickly Hellenized. Segesta was in eternal conflict with Selinus. The first clashes were in 580 - 576 B.C., and again in 454 B.C. In 415 B.C. Segesta asked Athens for against Selinus, leading to a disastrous Athenian expedition in . Later they asked for . After destroyed Selinus, Segesta remained a loyal ally. It was besieged by Dionysius of in 397 B.C., and destroyed by Agathocles in 307 B.C., but recovered. In 276 B.C. the city allied with Pyrrhus, but changed sides and surrendered to the Romans in 260 B.C. Due to the mythical common origin of the Romans and the Elymians (both descendants of refugees from Troy), Rome designated Segesta a "free and immune" city. In 104 B.C., the slave rebellion led by Athenion started in Segesta. Little is known about the city under Roman rule. It was destroyed by the .BB76867. Bronze hexas, I p. 302, 46; 1200 (R2); -; -; -; -, F, green , 5.372 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 0o, Segesta mint, c. 390 - 380 B.C.; of nymph Aigiste right, ; hound right, lowered scenting, no or ; very ; $300.00 (€267.00)
, , Agathokles, 317 - 289 B.C.
With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of and later most of . Machiavelli wrote of him, "It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious" and cited him as an example of "those who by their crimes come to be princes." According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.GI76945. Bronze , II p. 287, 150 Ds 14 Rs 63; p. 196, 391; 740; 767; 1465 var. (R1, 4th Democracy, different controls), aEF, dark sea-green , light marks, small spots of light corrosion, with ragged edge splits, 8.501 g, maximum 26.1 mm, 315o, mint, 305 - 295 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣIΩN, of young Herakles left, wearing , (control symbol) behind neck; walking right, right foreleg raised, club right above, arrow right (control symbol) in ; $300.00 (€267.00)
Kamarina, , 420 - 405 B.C.
Kamarina was suffering a plague. A of the city was the suspected source. The town oracle advised them not to drain the , but in 405 B.C., the leaders ignored the advice. Once the was dry, there was nothing to stop the Carthaginian army. They marched across the newly drained , razed the city, and killed every last inhabitant.GI76951. Bronze tetras, 195.12; p. 40, 38; III p. 57, 24; 168; V 410; 547 (S); 1226 var. ( ), gVF, , attractive dark brown surfaces, some light corrosion, 3.552 g, maximum 14.8 mm, 225o, Kamarina (near Scoglitti, , Italy) mint, 420 - 405 B.C.; facing of ( ) with neatly waved hair, pearled headband, smiling expression, dimpled cheeks; KAMA (downward on right), owl standing left on left leg, facing, lizard with down in right talon, three pellets (mark of value) in ; ; $300.00 (€267.00)
, , Timoleon, 3rd Democracy, 344 - 336 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.SH71353. Bronze dilitron, II p. 185, 80; 533; 717; 1159; 1456; p. 189, 311; 1439 (S), gVF, some corrosion, 18.018 g, maximum 28.8 mm, 225o, mint, 344 - 336 B.C.; ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPIOΣ, laureate of Zeus Eleutherios left; ΣYPAKOΣION, free horse prancing left; $290.00 (€258.10)
Selinous, , c. 450 - 440 B.C.
Selinous was once one of the most important Greek colonies in . In 409 B.C., the Carthaginians attacked with a vast army believed to include at least 100,000 men. Selinus, with a population of about 30,000 excluding slaves, was unprepared and an auxiliary force promised by , and Gela did not arrive. The Selinuntines defended themselves with courage, and after the walls were breached, continued to fight from house to house. After tens days the city fell. Of the citizens, 16,000 were slain and 5,000 made prisoners, but more than 2,600 escaped to Agrigento.GI79939. Bronze cast tetras, I p. 235, 4; 1272; 1233 (R1); -; -; -; -; -; -, F, green , 11.019 g, maximum 20.5 mm, 0o, Selinus mint, 450 - 440 B.C.; facing of ( ), ; wild celery (selinon) leaf, three pellets (mark of value) around, ; ; $280.00 (€249.20)
Gela, , c. 339 - 310 B.C.
Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of ," a subtle sign that she was worshiped long before she was made one of the . She and her daughter were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian . SH71027. Bronze tetras, , group XII, 549; III p. 29, 59; p. 74, 77; 287; 324; 123; 388 (R1), VF, , green , corrosion, 2.921 g, maximum 14.5 mm, 135o, Gela mint, c. 339 - 310 B.C.; ΓEΛΩI−ΩN (beginning upward on left), of Demeter facing slightly right, wreathed with barley, wearing earrings and necklace; bearded of river-god Gela left, short horn over forehead, bull's ear, wreathed with barley (or reeds?); ; $260.00 (€231.40)
, , Roman Rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.
Apollo's most famous attribute is the tripod, the symbol of his prophetic powers. It was in the guise of a that brought priests from to , explaining Apollo's cult title "Delphinios" and the name of the town. He dedicated a bronze tripod to the sanctuary and bestowed divine powers on one of the priestesses, and she became known as the "Pythia." It was she who inhaled the hallucinating vapors from the fissure in the temple floor, while she sat on a tripod chewing laurel leaves. After she mumbled her answer, a male priest would translate it for the supplicant.GI76347. Bronze AE 13, II p. 419, 212 DS 41; 894; 1079; 1523 (R1, Agathokles, c. 310 - 305 B.C.); -, Nice VF, nice , attractive green , 1.544 g, maximum 12.7 mm, 150o, mint, Roman rule, c. 212 - 133 B.C.; laureate of left, (control symbol) behind; with paw feet, three loop handles above the , surmounted by the Pythia's seat, ΣYPAKO/ΣIΩN in two downward lines, starting on right; $250.00 (€222.50)
Ziz (Panormos), Punic , c. 336 - 330 B.C.
Panormos was the ancient Greek name (meaning, 'All-haven') for present day Palermo. Palermo was, however, originally a Phoenician colony and numismatists identify the city before Greek rule with the Punic name Ziz. It seems the only evidence for this ancient name is the coinage and some scholars believe that Ziz may have been another city.GI76350. Bronze AE 12, I, p. 272, 10; 1061 (R1); 5, III, pl. 44, 1362; -; -; -, gVF, dark green , light , light marks and corrosion, small edge split, 1/5 off-center, 1.975 g, maximum 12.2 mm, 0o, Ziz (Palermo, , Italy) mint, c. 336 - 330 B.C.; horse galloping right, barley-kernel above, linear ; forepart of a right, Punic above: ZIZ; all within a deep round ; ; $250.00 (€222.50)
, , Agathokles, 317 - 289 B.C.
With an army of mercenaries, through deceit, and after banishing or murdering some 10,000 citizens, Agathocles made himself master of and later most of . Machiavelli wrote of him, It cannot be called prowess to kill fellow-citizens, to betray friends, to be treacherous, pitiless, and irreligious and cited him as an example of those who by their crimes come to be princes. According to the historian Justin, very early in life Agathocles parlayed his remarkable beauty into a career as a prostitute, first for men, and later, after puberty, for women, and then made a living by robbery before becoming a soldier and marrying a rich widow.GI76940. Bronze AE 13, cf. II p. 284, 149 R1 6 (controls, Timoleon); 744 (same); 748 (same); 1525 (R1); -; -, -, VF, , green , some corrosion, 1.877 g, maximum 12.9 mm, 90o, mint, c. 295 - 289 B.C.; ΣYPAKOΣION, laureate of left, behind; dog seated left, looking back right at tail?, Y (control letter) above, A (control letter) in ; $250.00 (€222.50)
, , Timoleon, 3rd Democracy, 344 - 336 B.C.
Timoleon installed a democracy in 345 B.C. After the long series of internal struggles had weakened Syracuse's power, Timoleon tried to remedy this, defeating the Carthaginians near the Krimisos river in 339 B.C. Unfortunately the struggle among the city's parties restarted after his death and ended with the rise of another tyrant, Agathocles, who seized power in 317 B.C.GI76978. Bronze dilitron, II p. 185, 80; 533; 717; 1159; 1456; p. 189, 311; 1439 (S), VF/F, attractive , nice green , weak, 19.755 g, maximum 28.5 mm, mint, 344 - 336 B.C.; ZEYΣ EΛEYΘEPIOΣ, laureate of Zeus Eleutherios left; ΣYPAKOΣION, free horse prancing left; $250.00 (€222.50)
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