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Home>Catalog>CollectingThemes>Types>Agriculture PAGE 1/2«««12

Agriculture on Ancient Coins


Leontini, Sicily, c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Leontini was founded by colonists from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in Sicily not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the north.
GS65783. Silver hemilitra, SNG München 548; Boehringer Leontini B; cf. HGC 2 688 (R2, obol); SNG ANS 216 (obol, finer style); BMC Sicily p. 88, 22 (same); SNG Cop 342 (same), F, toned, porous, crude style (perhaps a barbaric imitative), weight 0.297 g, maximum diameter 9.5 mm, die axis 225o, Leontini (or unofficial?) mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; obverse crude facing lion scalp, dot border; reverse LE/ON (retrograde), barley grain, within shallow round incuse; from the old stock of a retiring Ohio dealer acquired by Forum in 2012; very rare; $160.00 (€120.00)

Leontini, Sicily, c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Leontini was founded by colonists from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in Sicily not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the north.
GS65784. Silver hemilitra, SNG München 548; Boehringer Leontini B; cf. HGC 2 688 (R2, obol); SNG ANS 216 (obol, finer style); BMC Sicily p. 88, 22 (same); SNG Cop 342 (same), aVF, toned, crude style (perhaps a barbaric imitative), weight 0.280 g, maximum diameter 9.5 mm, die axis 0o, Leontini (or unofficial?) mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; obverse crude facing lion scalp, dot border; reverse LE/ON (retrograde), barley grain, within shallow round incuse; from the old stock of a retiring Ohio dealer acquired by Forum in 2012; very rare; $150.00 (€112.50)

Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Lysimachus, one of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguards, was appointed strategos (general) in Thrace and the Chersonesos after Alexander's death. He became one of the diadochi (successors of Alexander) who were initially generals and governors, but who continuously allied and warred with each other and eventually divided the empire. In 309, he founded his capital Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonesos with the mainland. In 306, he followed the example of Antigonus in taking the title of king, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia. In 281, he was killed in battle against Seleucus, another successor of Alexander.
GB68080. Bronze AE 13, Müller pl. XLII, 14; SNG Cop 1168, SGCV II 6822, VF, weight 2.519 g, maximum diameter 12.8 mm, die axis 0o, Kallatis (Mangalia, Romania) mint, c. 297 - 281 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right clad in lion's scalp headdress; reverse BAΣI/ΛYΣI within a wreath of grain; $150.00 (€112.50)

Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Annona was the goddess of harvest and her main attribute is grain. This reverse suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces (especially from Egypt) and its distribution to the people.
RS68303. Silver denarius, RIC IV 501, RSC III 39, BMCRE V 652, SRCV II 6262, VF, excellent centering, weight 3.572 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, Laodicea ad Mare (Latakia) mint, 198 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head right; reverse ANNONAE AVGG, Annona standing half left, right foot on prow, stalks of grain in right hand, cornucopia in left; $150.00 (€112.50) ON RESERVE

Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The Romans used poppy for cooking and medicinal purposes. For cooking, it was used mainly as a garnish or sprinkled on bread, perhaps also in desserts. Pliny sites the medicinal purpose: '..allow the poppy sap to thicken, roll it into pastilles and allow these to dry in the shade. It is a tranquillizer, but if you take too much, you will die in your sleep.' (N.H. XX-lxxvi)
RS71544. Silver denarius, SRCV II 3461, RIC II 230, RSC II 170a, BMCRE III 600, VF, nice portrait, centered, toned, weight 3.403 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 135 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right; reverse ANNONA AVG, modius with four stalks of grain and one poppy in center; $150.00 (€112.50)

Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Berytos, Phoenicia
Click for a larger photo Named for the daughter of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus was founded in 14 B.C. with veterans of the 5th and 8th legions. Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments and sponsored gladiatorial combats at Berytos. After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews.
RP55005. Bronze AE 25, RPC II 2045, Rouvier 513, F, weight 13.564 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 180o, Berytos mint, obverse IMP T CAESAR AVG F, bare head left; reverse COL IVL / [AVG], priest with yoke of two oxen right, plowing the pomerium (sacred boundary), founding the new colony; $140.00 (€105.00)

Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 193, Laodicea was sacked by the governor of Syria, Pescennius Niger, in his revolt against Septimius Severus. In 194, Septimius Severus reorganized Syria into five new provinces. One of these, Coele-Syria, including all of northern Syria, briefly had its capital in Laodicea before reverting to Antioch. Septimius sought to punish Antioch for having supported Pescennius Niger. Septimius Severus endowed Laodicea with four colonnaded streets, baths, a theater, a hippodrome, numerous sanctuaries and other public buildings in the city. The city was a key strategic seaport for Roman Syria.
RS90492. Silver denarius, RIC IV 511(a), RSC III 4 55a; BMCRE V p. 294, 712; SRCV II -, aEF, toned, nice style, good strike, weight 3.375 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, Laodicea ad Mare (Latakia, Syria) mint, 200 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, laureate head right; reverse P MAX TR P VIII COS II P P, Fides standing facing, head left, raising a plate of fruits in right, two stalks of grain downward in left; $135.00 (€101.25)

Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius
Click for a larger photo Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
RB63872. Copper as, RIC III 1169, SRCV II 4645, BMCRE IV 1566, Cohen 80, VF, nice portrait, green patina, weight 10.727 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA S C, Ceres standing half left, veiled, grain-ears downward in right, long torch vertical behind in left; $125.00 (€93.75)

Leontini, Sicily, c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Leontini was founded by colonists from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in Sicily not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the north.
GS67480. Silver hemilitra, SNG München 548; Boehringer Leontini B; cf. HGC 2 688 (R2, obol); SNG ANS 216 (obol, finer style); BMC Sicily p. 88, 22 (same); SNG Cop 342 (same), VF, weight 0.282 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 225o, Leontini (or unofficial?) mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; obverse crude facing lion scalp, dot border; reverse LE/ON (retrograde), barley grain, within shallow round incuse; very rare; $125.00 (€93.75)

Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
RS70254. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 976 (C); RSC II 30; BMCRE II Vespasian 323; BnF III 285; SRCV I 2636, F, nice portrait, toned, weight 3.354 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right; reverse CERES AVGVST, Ceres standing slightly left, head left, stalks of grain in right hand, torch in left; $125.00 (€93.75)

Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Annona was the goddess of harvest and her main attribute is grain. This reverse suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces (especially from Africa) and its distribution to the people.
RS71148. Silver denarius, RIC III 175; RSC II 284; BMCRE IV p. 95, 657; Strack III 191; cf. SRCV 4067 (TR P XI), aVF, toned, flan flaw obverse right, weight 3.239 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 148 - 149 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Annona standing left holding stalks of grain over modius left and anchor; $125.00 (€93.75)

Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 128, Hadrian's Wall was completed. Built mostly of stone in the east and with a wooden palisade in the west, it included at least 16 forts. About 15,000 legionaries constructed the wall; digging ditches, quarrying rock and cutting stone, preventing idleness which led to unrest and rebellions in the ranks.
RS90478. Silver denarius, RSC II 380, BMCRE III 385 488, RIC II 338, Choice aVF, well centered on a broad flan, weight 3.328 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 128 - 132 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head right; reverse COS III, Annona seated left, reaping hook in right, cornucopia in left, modius overflowing with stalks of grain at feet; $120.00 (€90.00)

Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Annona was the goddess of harvest and her main attribute is grain.
RB65254. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 168a, Cohen 26, VF/F, grainy with some marks and encrustations, weight 15.635 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 247 - 249 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG S C, Annona standing left, grain in right over modius at feet, cornucopia in left; $110.00 (€82.50)

Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Marcianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Click for a larger photo Renamed by Trajan after his sister, Ulpia Marciana, Marcianopolis was an important strategic center for centuries. The city was repeatedly destroyed by barbarian raids (Goths, Huns, Avars and others) but also was repeatedly rebuilt and prospered. During Valens' conflict with the Goths, Marcianopolis was a temporary capital of the empire and the largest city in Thrace. An Avar raid destroyed the city in 614 or 615.
RP70504. Bronze pentassarion, H-J Marcianopolis 6.37.5.- var (R6, obv legend, reverse legend arrangement), Varbanov I 1976 ff. var (R3, same); SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, VF, scratches, weight 11.799 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 0o, Markianopolis (Devnya, Bulgaria) mint, Tullius Menophilus, consular legate; obverse M ANTΩNIOX ΓOP∆IANOC AY, confronted busts; Gordian on left, laureate, draped, and cuirassed from behind; Serapis on right, draped, kalathos on head; AYT K M below; reverse YΠ MHNOΦIΛOY MAPKIANOΠOΛ,I/T/Ω/N (last four letters in right field), Demeter standing facing, wearing kalathos, grain in right, long torch vertical behind in left, E in left; an unpublished variation of a scarce type; $100.00 (€75.00)

Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Tomis, Moesia Inferior
Click for a larger photo The Roman poet Ovid was banished by Augustus to Tomis in 8 A.D. and died there eight years later. By his account, Tomis was "a town located in a war-stricken cultural wasteland on the remotest margins of the empire."
RP48205. Bronze AE 27, Varbanov 5567, AMNG I/II 3402, SNG Stancomb -, VF, cleaning scratches, weight 13.328 g, maximum diameter 26.8 mm, die axis 30o, Tomis (Constanta, Romania) mint, obverse AYT K M ANT ΓOP∆IANOC AYΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from front; reverse MHTPO ΠONTOY TOMEΩC (final C in right field), Demeter standing left, grain and poppy in right, long torch vertical in left, ∆ left; $90.00 (€67.50)

Ilipense, Hispania Ulterior, c. 150 - 100 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Ancient Ilipa is close to modern Alcala del Rio, Seville, Spain. It is best known for the battle of Ilipa during which Scipio Africanus crushed the Carthaginian army in the Second Punic War, bringing the whole Iberia under Roman control and paving the road for the invasion of Africa.
CE66777. Bronze AE 32, Villaronga-Benages 2335 (R2), Burgos 1531, SNG BM 1541 ff., SNG Cop 147, F, weight 21.397 g, maximum diameter 31.8 mm, die axis 0o, Ilipa mint, c. 150 - 100 B.C.; obverse grain stalk; reverse shad (fish) right, crescent with horns up above, ILIPENSE between two horizontal lines below; $90.00 (€67.50)

Leontini, Sicily, 2nd Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo In 214 B.C., Roman forces lead by Marcus Claudius Marcellus stormed Leontini, which had been subject to Syracuse. Marcellus executed 2000 Roman deserters who were hiding in the city and then moved to lay siege to Syracuse. The siege would last for two years, thwarted in part by the military machines created by the famous inventor Archimedes.
GB69013. Bronze AE 22, Calciati III p. 85, 21; SNG Cop 362, SNG München 572, HGC 2 715 (R1); SNG Morcom -, aVF, green patina, uneven strike with weak areas, weight 8.810 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 45o, Leontini mint, Roman rule, 2nd century B.C.; obverse laureate bust of Artemis (or Apollo) right, quiver behind shoulder; reverse ΛEONTIN−ΩN (clockwise from upper right), Demeter standing left, grain ears upward in extended right, long long torch vertical behind in left, plough at feet left; rare; $90.00 (€67.50)

Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of corn. Like gold and silver quinarii, bronze quadrans were not regularly issued denominations. Rather, they were issued on special occasions. It is possible that the small denominations were used in imperial distributions. The heavier sestertii might have inflicted injury! Suetonius notes that Caligula had used the Basilica Julia as a platform "from its roof Caligula threw coins among the people." (Suetonius, Caligula 37; Josephus xix.11.1.11). Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Titus himself at a similar event.
RR69893. Bronze quadrans, SRCV I 2555; RIC II, part 1, 255; BMCRE II 220; Cohen 252, F, rough, ragged flan, weight 2.210 g, maximum diameter 15.4 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse IMP T VESP AVG COS VIII, three-legged modius, filled with grain; reverse large S C within laurel wreath, closed with an annulet at the top; rare; $90.00 (€67.50)

Roman Republic, C. Memmius C.f., 56 B.C.
Click for a larger photo The reverse refers to the victories in Bithynia and Pontus of the moneyer's uncle, C. Memmius L.f. Gemellus. Gemellus, a son in law of Sulla, assumed the title imperator in 57 B.C.
RR69354. Silver denarius, SRCV I 387, Sydenham 920, Crawford 427/1, RSC I Memmia 10, aF, weight 2.740 g, maximum diameter 16.3 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 56 B.C.; obverse head of Ceres right, wreathed in grain; reverse naked captive at the foot of a trophy of captured arms, on right knee, hands bound behind his back, C·MEMMI·C·F downward on right, IMPERATOR downward on left; $90.00 (€67.50)

Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius
Click for a larger photo Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
RB57166. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III A. Pius 1116(a), Cohen 79, SRCV II 4614, F, weight 23.322 g, maximum diameter 32.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA S C, Ceres standing half left, grain-ears in right, long torch vertical behind in left; $85.00 (€63.75)

Sardinia, Punic Rule, 241 - 238 B.C.
Click for a larger photo After the Roman fleet decisively defeated the Carthaginian fleet in 241 B.C., ending the First Punic War, Carthage was forced to agree to abandon all claims on Sicily, to refrain from sailing warships in Italian waters, and to pay an indemnity of 3,200 talents. In 238 B.C., Rome declared war on Carthage demanding control of Sardinia. To avoid war, Carthage abandoned Sardinia.
GB65898. Bronze AE 19, SNG Cop I 1106; SNG Cop VII 252; Lindgren II 645 - 646, F, pitted, crude style, weight 3.748 g, maximum diameter 22.2 mm, die axis 225o, Sardinian mint, c. 264 - 241 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit wreathed in barley left; reverse three barley stalks, pellet in crescent with horns downward above; $80.00 (€60.00)

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Annona with a modius and anchor suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces, especially from Africa, and its distribution to the people. When Severus Alexander was away on his Persian and German campaigns (231-235) he continuously struck Annona types. With the legend PROVIDENTIA AVG, "The Foresight of the Emperor," he assured that, though he was away, he would be carefully monitoring Rome's grain supply!
RB66646. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 645, BMCRE V 815, Cohen 509, SRCV 8013, F, flaw on obverse, weight 19.429 g, maximum diameter 30.9 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 231 - 235 A.D.; obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder; reverse PROVIDENTIA AVG S C, Providentia (or Annona) standing left, holding grain over modius in right, anchor in left; $80.00 (€60.00)

Lysimachia, Thrace, c. 309 - 220 B.C.
Click for a larger photo A barley kernel lower or leaf on the lower left is not described in the references and this could just be a die break. Some of the plate coins appear to have a similar object. Most examples are described with a monogram below.
GB69753. Bronze AE 15, cf. Lindgren II 873; SNG Milan 195; SNG Cop 918; BMC Thrace p. 196, 16 ff.; SGCV 1623; SNG Tübingen -; SNG ANS -, aVF, nice green patina, weight 3.039 g, maximum diameter 14.7 mm, die axis 180o, Lysimachia (Eksemil, Turkey) mint, c. 309 - 220 B.C.; obverse lion head right; reverse ΛY− ΣI, ear of barley on stalk, barley kernel(?) or leaf(?) lower left; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $80.00 (€60.00)

Elaia, Aiolis, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
GB90177. Bronze AE 17, BMC Troas p. 127, 20; SNGvA 7685; SNG Cop 181; SNG München 395; SGCV II 4206, VF, weight 2.581 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, Aeolis mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right, wearing grain wreath, dot border; reverse EΛ−AI/T−ΩN, lit torch within grain wreath; ex Gerhard Rohde; $80.00 (€60.00)

Tiberius and Drusus Caesar, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Uncertain Mint (Philippi?), Macedonia
Click for a larger photo Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. Drusus' wife Livilla was seduced by the praetorian prefect Sejanus and she poisoned Drusus to support Sejanus' plot to become emperor. Dying before Tiberius, Drusus never obtained the throne. Sejanus' plot was discovered in 31 B.C. and he and Livilla were executed.
RP59942. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 1658; BMC Mysia p. 104, 92 (Parium); SNG Cop -; SNG ANS -, aF, weight 5.335 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, Philippi(?) mint, obverse TI AVG DRVSVS CAESAR, jugate heads of Tiberius and Drusus right; reverse two priests with yoke of two oxen right, plowing the pomerium (sacred boundary), founding a new colony; Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. Drusus' wife Livilla was seduced by the praetorian prefect Sejanus and she poisoned Drusus to support Sejanus' plot to become emperor. Dying before Tiberius, Drusus never obtained the throne. Sejanus' plot was discovered in 31 B.C. and he and Livilla were executed.; $75.00 (€56.25)

Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Annona was the goddess of harvest and her main attribute is grain.
RS71538. Silver denarius, RIC IV 200; RSC III 476; BMCRE p. 252, 489; SRCV 6338, VF, perfect centering, slightly porous surfaces, weight 3.071 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 206 A.D.; obverse SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Annona standing left, holding stalks of grain over modius in right, cornucopia in left; $75.00 (€56.25)

Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
Click for a larger photo The Greek numeral sixteen (Iς) above Nilus refers to what was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood, sixteen cubits. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
RX59672. Bronze drachm, Geissen 992; BMC Alexandria p. 92, 786 cor (says elephant); Milne 1267; Dattari 1805; SNG Cop 346; Kampman and Ganschow 32.462, aF, weight 25.972 g, maximum diameter 34.5 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 127 - 28 Aug 128 A.D.; obverse AVT KAIC TRA A∆PIA CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse Nilus reclining left, cornucopia from which genius emerges in right, reed in left, hippopotamus under elbow, Iς above, L ∆W∆EK (regnal year 12) in ex; big 34.5 mm bronze!; $70.00 (€52.50)

Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Petra, Provincia Arabia
Click for a larger photo The ceremonial founding of a new Roman colony included plowing a furrow, the pomerium, a sacred boundary, around the site of the new city.
RP90152. Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 1373 ff., SNG Cop 150, Spijkerman 56, Rosenberger 35, BMC Arabia -, aF, weight 6.509 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Petra mint, obverse IMP C M AVP ANTONINOC, laureate and draped bust right, from behind; reverse PETΛA COLONIA, founder ploughing right with pair of oxen, togate, right hand raised; $65.00 (€48.75)

Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Caesarea, Cappadocia
Click for a larger photo Kayseri, Turkey was originally named Mazaca. It was renamed Eusebia by Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia, 163 - 130 B.C. The last king of Cappadocia, King Archelaus, renamed it "Caesarea in Cappadocia" to honor Caesar Augustus upon his death in 14 A.D. Muslim Arabs slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, which became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control, c. 1080 A.D.
RP82523. Bronze AE 19, BMC Galatia p. 86, 318 var (reverse legend), aVF, weight 6.709 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea mint, 227 A.D.; obverse AVK CEOVH AΛEΞAN[...], laureate head right; reverse MHTPO KAICA, three double-head stalks of grain tied together, ET - ϖ across bottom; $60.00 (€45.00)

Sardinia, Punic Rule, 241 - 238 B.C.
Click for a larger photo After the Roman fleet decisively defeated the Carthaginian fleet in 241 B.C., ending the First Punic War, Carthage was forced to agree to abandon all claims on Sicily, to refrain from sailing warships in Italian waters, and to pay an indemnity of 3,200 talents. In 238 B.C., Rome declared war on Carthage demanding control of Sardinia. To avoid war, Carthage abandoned Sardinia.
GB63422. Bronze AE 19, SNG Cop Vol. 1, 1106; SNG Cop Vol. 7, 252; Lindgren II 645 - 646, F, green patina, weight 7.660 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Sardinian mint, c. 264 - 241 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit wreathed in barley left; reverse three barley stalks, pellet in crescent with horns downward above; $60.00 (€45.00)

Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Hadrianopolis, Thrace
Click for a larger photo Demeter in Greek mythology is the goddess of grain and fertility, the pure; nourisher of the youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death; and preserver of marriage and the sacred law. In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, dated to about the seventh century B.C. she is invoked as the "bringer of seasons," a subtle sign that she was worshipped long before she was made one of the Olympians. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries that also predated the Olympian pantheon.
RP63411. Bronze AE 25, Jurukova 607 var (different obv die and obv legend break, -/R587), Varbanov II -, SNG Cop -, SNG Milan -, BMC Thrace -, VF, weight 9.943 g, maximum diameter 25.0 mm, die axis 180o, Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) mint, obverse AYT K M AN−T ΓOP∆IANOC AYΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse A∆PIANOΠOΛITΩN, Demeter standing left, patera extended in right, long grounded torch vertical behind in left; very rare; $60.00 (€45.00)

Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius
Click for a larger photo Faustina I was the wife of Antoninus Pius. Little is known of her, except that she was regarded as vain and frivolous, though this may have just been malicious gossip. Antoninus Pius loved her greatly, and upon her death in 141 A.D. she was deified and a temple was built in her honor.
RB57873. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 1118, aF, weight 28.776 g, maximum diameter 32.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA, Ceres standing half left, torch in right, grain in left,; $55.00 (€41.25)

Lysimachia, Thrace, 309 - 220 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Lysimachia was built by Lysimachus in 309 B.C., when he was preparing for his last struggle with his rivals; for the new city, being situated on the isthmus, commanded the road from Sestos to the north and the mainland of Thrace. To obtain inhabitants for his new city, Lysimachus destroyed the neighboring town of Cardia, the birthplace of the historian Hieronymus, and settled the inhabitants of it and other Chersonese cities here. Lysimachus no doubt made Lysimachia the capital of his kingdom and it must have rapidly risen to great splendor and prosperity.
GB71306. Bronze AE 10, Lindgren II 874, SNG Cop 920, BMC Thrace -, VF, some corrosion, weight 0.814 g, maximum diameter 10.7 mm, die axis 0o, Lysimachia (Eksemil, Turkey) mint, 309 - 220 B.C.; obverse lion head right; reverse stalk of barley, Λ−Y flanking across field; scarce; $55.00 (€41.25)

Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt
Click for a larger photo Struck in the year that Faustina Senior died.
RX58856. Billon tetradrachm, Geissen 1327; Dattari 2183; Kampmann-Ganschow 35.61; BMC Alexandria p. 109, 934 (poppy head(?) vice crescent); Milne 1655 var (obv leg); Emmett 1374, F, weight 12.362 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 140 - 28 Aug 141 A.D.; obverse AYT K T AIΛ A∆P ANTWNINOC, laureate head right; reverse bust of Demeter right, wearing kalathos ornamented with a crescent, veil, necklace, earrings and chiton, torch over right shoulder, L ∆ (year 4) in right field; $50.00 (€37.50)

Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Nicomedia, Bithynia
Click for a larger photo Nicomedia was the Roman metropolis of Bithynia. Diocletian made it the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324. Constantine resided mainly in Nicomedia as his interim capital for the next six years, until in 330 when he declared the nearby Byzantium (renamed Constantinople) the new capital. Constantine died in his royal villa in the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Due to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.
RP63209. Bronze assarion, RPC online 5588; Rec Gén II p. 523, 50; BMC Pontus p. 181, 12; SNG Cop 553 var (laur head, legends); SNGvA 744 var (same), F, weight 3.308 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, Nikomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, obverse ANTON KAI-CAP CEB (from upper right), bare-headed draped bust right, from behind; reverse ∆HMHT - NEIKO, Demeter standing half left, wearing veil, chiton and peplos, two stalks of grain downward in right, long flaming torch vertical behind in left; from the old stock of a retiring Ohio dealer acquired by Forum in 2012; $50.00 (€37.50)

Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
Click for a larger photo AVGG indicates there were two Augusti, Philip I, the Arab, and his son and joint ruler, Philip II.
RS45594. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8923, RIC IV 29, RSC IV 32, Choice gVF, weight 3.438 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left, stalks of grain in right hand over prow, cornucopia in left; full circles centering; $45.00 (€33.75)

Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C.
Click for a larger photo Lysimachus, one of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguards, was appointed strategos (general) in Thrace and the Chersonesos after Alexander's death. He became one of the diadochi (successors of Alexander) who were initially generals and governors, but who continuously allied and warred with each other and eventually divided the empire. In 309, he founded his capital Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonesos with the mainland. In 306, he followed the example of Antigonus in taking the title of king, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia. In 281, he was killed in battle against Seleucus, another successor of Alexander.
GB69763. Bronze AE 14, Müller pl. XLII, 14; SNG Cop 1168, SGCV II 6822, VF, weight 2.336 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 180o, Kallatis(?) mint, c. 297 - 281 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right clad in lion's scalp headdress; reverse BAΣI/ΛYΣI within a wreath of grain; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $45.00 (€33.75)

Amphipolis, Macedonia, c. 187 - 31 B.C.
Click for a larger photo In 168 BC, the Romans invaded Macedonia and overthrew the king, Perseus, in the First Battle of Pydna. In 149 B.C., Andriskos, at that time ruler of Adramyttium only, and claiming to be Perseus' son, announced his intention to retake Macedonia from the Romans. As his first attempt, Andriskos travelled to Syria to request military help from Demetrius Soter of Syria. Demetrius instead handed him over to the Romans. Andriskos escaped from Roman captivity, and raised a Thracian army. With this army, he invaded Macedonia and defeated the Roman praetor Publius Juventius in 149 B.C. Andriskos then declared himself King Philip VI of Macedonia. In 148 B.C., Andriskos conquered Thessaly and made an alliance with Carthage, thus bringing the Roman wrath on him. In 148 B.C., in what the Romans called the Fourth Macedonian War, he was defeated by the Roman praetor Q. Caecilius Metellus at the Second Battle of Pydna, and fled to Thrace, whose prince gave him up to Rome, thus marking the final end to Andriskos' reign of Macedonia. Andriscus's brief reign over Macedonia was marked by cruelty and extortion. After this Macedonia was formally reduced to a Roman province.
GB90129. Bronze AE 15, SNG ANS 107; SNG Cop 59; BMC Macedonia p. 49, 52, aVF, weight 4.281 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 45o, Amphipolis mint, c. 187 - 31 B.C.; obverse head of Apollo right, wearing taenia; reverse AMΦIΠO/ΛITΩN, stalk of grain; $45.00 (€33.75)

Side, Pamphylia, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo Side was founded by Greeks from Cyme, Aeolis, most likely in the 7th century B.C. The settlers started using the local language and over time forgot their native Greek. Excavations have revealed inscriptions written in this language, still undeciphered, dating from as late as the 2nd century B.C. The name Side is from this indigenous Anatolian language and means pomegranate.
GB59669. Bronze AE 17, SNG BnF 759 ff.; BMC Lycia p. 172, 51; SNG Cop 381 ff., VF, weight 3.543 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 270o, Side mint, 2nd - 1st Cent B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse pomegranate; $40.00 (€30.00)

Side, Pamphylia, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
Click for a larger photo Found in Israel.
GB42682. Bronze AE 17, SNG BnF 759 ff., BMC Lycia p. 172, 51, F, weight 3.217 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 90o, Side mint, 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse pomegranate; ex Amphora Coins (David Hendin); $36.00 (€27.00)



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