The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rûm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe’s pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land.
Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112
This type was struck while Bohemond I was in captivity. It was the first type struck by Tancred. The order in which his types were struck has been firmly established by frequent overstrikes of later issues on earlier coins.
St. Peter is the patron saint of Antioch.
CR67857. Bronze follis, Malloy Crusaders 3a, Metcalf Crusaders 49 - 53, Fair, weight 3.490 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1101 - 1103; obverse O PE-TPOC, bust of St. Peter facing, cross in left hand; reverse + / KE BOI / ΘHTO ∆V / ΛOCOV T/ANKPI / + (O Lord, help your servant Tancred); $45.00 (€33.75)
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