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Home>Catalog>GreekCoins>HellenisticMonarchies>JudeanKingdom

Judean Kingdom

Coins of Judaea and Palestine are also presented in our Judean and Biblical catalog section. Here coins of the Judaea Kingdom are grouped together and listed from highest price to lowest. In our Judean and Biblical catalog section coins are organized by types and rulers and are presented with additional historical information and biblical references.


Judaean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa II, 55 - 95 A.D., Struck for Vespasian

Click for a larger photo Julius Marcus Agrippa was a teenager studying in Rome when his father died. He was too young to rule and his father's kingdom was made a Roman province. About 6 years later, he was given the kingdom of his uncle Herod of Chalcis. Later more was added. It was before Herod Agrippa II that Saint Paul was tried. Agrippa sided with the Romans during the Jewish rebellion. Though he continued to rule until at least 95 A.D., the temple was destroyed and in the end his assigned territories were in Syria, not Judaea.SH90326. Bronze AE 30, RPC II 2283; Meshorer 166; Hendin 1288; AJC II 38, F, weight 15.554 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Panaeas mint, 75 - 76 A.D.; obverse laureate head of Vespasian right; reverse Tyche-Demeter standing left, kalathos on head, two grain ears in extended right, cornucopia in left, star upper left, ETOY − KZ BA / AΓPI−ΠΠA (year 27, King Agrippa) flanking in two lines across field; ex CNG auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 292 and auction 75 (23 May 2007), lot 863; $450.00 (€391.50)


Lot of 13 Prutot, Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.

Click for a larger photo  LT67252. Bronze Lot, Hendin 1244, lot of 13 prutot (singular: prutah), Jerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AΓPIΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella-like canopy with fringes; reverse three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L - ς (year 6); actual coins in the photograph, as is, no returns; $290.00 (€252.30)


Lot of 10 Prutot, Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.

Click for a larger photo  LT67261. Bronze Hendin 1244, lot of 10 prutot (singular: prutah), Jerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AΓPIΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella-like canopy with fringes; reverse three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L - ς (year 6); actual coins in the photograph; $270.00 (€234.90)


Lot of 8 Prutot, Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.

Click for a larger photo Agrippa was son of Aristobulus and Bernice, a grandson of Herod the Great. He spent his boyhood at the imperial court in Rome. His friend Caligula bestowed former territories of Philip and Herod Antipas. Claudius bestowed Judaea. He had James, the brother of John, executed (Acts 12:1-2) and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:3-5).LT67264. Bronze lot, Hendin 1244, lot of 8 prutot (singular: prutah), Jerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AΓPIΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella-like canopy with fringes; reverse three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L - ς (year 6); actual coins in the photograph; $225.00 (€195.75)


Judaean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa II, 55 - 95 A.D., In the Name of Nero

Click for a larger photo Hendin notes this type was struck in three different denominations to commemorate Agrippa's refounding of Caesarea Panias as Neronias. RPC notes, however, the "Neronias" types are very different from contemporary coins from the Caesarea Panias mint and does not agree that the mint city was Caesarea. The city that issued this type, temporarily called Neronias, remains uncertain.JD72126. Bronze quarter denomination, RPC I 4990; Soefar Collection 180; Meshorer TJC 131a; Hendin 1275; BMC Palestine p. 239, 3 (Caesarea Philippi), F, rough, weight 2.691 g, maximum diameter 14.1 mm, die axis 0o, Neronias (Caesarea Paneas?) mint, 63 - 68 A.D. (known from hairstyle); obverse NEPΩN KAIΣAP ΣEBΣTOΣ (of Nero Caesar Augustus), laureate head of Nero right, crescent horns left in lower right field; reverse EΠI / BAΣIΛE / AΓPIΠΠ / NEPΩ/NIE (in the time of King Agrippa, Neronias), inscription in four lines within wreath and circle of dots; ex MPO (IJsselstein, The Netherlands); scarce; $185.00 (€160.95)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Herod the Great, a Roman client king of Judea, has been described as a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis, as prepared to commit any crime in order to gratify his unbounded ambition, and as the greatest builder in Jewish history. He is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (Herod's Temple), the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century Roman–Jewish historian Josephus.JD73440. Bronze 2 prutot, Hendin 1178a, Meshorer TJC 49, Sofaer Collection 19, RPC I 4905 var (closed diadem), VF, edge split, rough, porous, weight 2.809 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (of King Herod), cross surrounded by open diadem; reverse plate on tripod table, flanked by erect palm branches; $145.00 (€126.15)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Herod was granted the title of "King of Judea" by the Roman Senate, as such he was a vassal of the Roman Empire, expected to support the interests of his Roman patrons. Not long after he assumed control of Judea, after he had supported Augustus’ opponent Mark Antony, Herod needed to show his worthiness as king of Judea to the new emperor, Augustus (Octavian). Herod was able to win the support of Augustus and continue to rule his people as he saw fit. Despite the freedom afforded to Herod in his reign over Judea, restrictions were placed upon him in his dealings with other kingdoms.SH72632. Bronze 2 prutot, Meshorer TJC 46, Hendin 1171, VF/F, weight 3.014 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 40 - 37 B.C.; obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, winged caduceus, date LΓ on left and monogram P on right; reverse poppy pod on stem with leaves, fillet left and right; rare; $125.00 (€108.75)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Herod the Great, a Roman client king of Judea, has been described as a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis, prepared to commit any crime in order to gratify his unbounded ambition, and as the greatest builder in Jewish history. He is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem, the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium. Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century Roman-Jewish historian Josephus.SH73438. Bronze four prutot, Hendin 1170, Meshorer TJC 45, Sofaer Collection 8, F, weight 3.738 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 225o, Samaria mint, 40 B.C.; obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (of King Herod), crested helmet with cheek pieces, LΓ - P (year 3 of the tetrarchy) across fields; reverse decorated round shield with ornate edge; $125.00 (€108.75)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Two prutot was equal to a Roman quadrans. -- Talmud Jerus., Kedushin 58d, written c. 200 A.D.JD73434. Bronze 2 prutot, Hendin 1178a, Meshorer TJC 49, F, weight 3.124 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (of King Herod), cross surrounded by open diadem; reverse dish on a tripod table, flanked by curved palm branches; $100.00 (€87.00)


Judaea, Pontius Pilate, Roman Prefect under Tiberius, 26 - 36 A.D.

Click for a larger photo Pontius Pilate is chiefly known for the part he played in the trial and crucifixion of Jesus. To give notice of the legal charge against Jesus, Pilate ordered a sign posted on the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, The King of the Jews." The chief priests protested that it should read that Jesus "claimed" to be King of the Jews. Pilate refused to change the sign, perhaps to emphasize Rome's supremacy in crucifying a Jewish king. More likely, Pilate was just annoyed by the Jewish leaders using him to sentence Jesus to death contrary to his own will.JD72760. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1342 - 1343, SGICV 5623 - 5624, F, weight 2.485 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 180o, Caesarea mint, 29 - 31 A.D.; obverse TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC, lituus (pagan religious implement); reverse uncertain year in wreath; $90.00 (€78.30)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Matthew (2:1-23) describes the Massacre of the Innocents. Wise men from the East visited Herod to inquire the whereabouts of "the one having been born king of the Jews," because they had seen his star. Herod, as King of the Jews, was alarmed. The chief priests, citing Micah 5:2, told Herod the anointed one would be born in Bethlehem. Herod sent the "wise men" to Bethlehem, instructing them to "report to me, so that I too may go and worship him." However, the Magi were warned in a dream not to report back to Herod. Joseph was warned in a dream that Herod intended to kill Jesus, so he and his family fled to Egypt. When Herod realized he had been outwitted, he gave orders to kill all boys of the age of two and under in Bethlehem and its vicinity. Joseph and his family stayed in Egypt until Herod's death, then moved to Nazareth. Herod was guilty of many brutal acts, including killing his wife and two sons, but no other source from the period refers to the massacre. Bethlehem was a small village, the number of male children under the age of two might not have exceed 20, and this may be the reason for the lack of other sources for this history.JD72631. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1174, F, weight 1.214 g, maximum diameter 15.7 mm, die axis 90o, obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, blundered legend with missing and retrograde letters within concentric circles; reverse anchor within circle decorated with stylized lily flowers; $80.00 (€69.60)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Some of Herod's achievements include the development of water supplies for Jerusalem, building fortresses such as Masada and Herodium, and founding new cities such as Caesarea Maritima and the enclosures of Cave of the Patriarchs and Mamre in Hebron. He and Cleopatra owned a monopoly over the extraction of asphalt from the Dead Sea, which was used in shipbuilding. He leased copper mines on Cyprus from the Roman emperor.SH72634. Bronze prutah, Meshorer TJC 47, Hendin 1172, HGC 10 655, Cohen DCA 807, F, weight 1.868 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, Samaria mint, 40 - 39 B.C.; obverse HPΩ∆OY − BAΣIΛEΩ−Σ (of King Herod), aphlaston, LΓ left, P right (date and monogram); reverse palm frond, uncertain objects (leaves?) on both sides; very rare; $75.00 (€65.25)


Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

Click for a larger photo This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in "The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types," Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint.JD55299. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1149, Meshorer TJC type T, gVF, bold, overstruck, weight 2.006 g, maximum diameter 16.3 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Paleo-Hebrew inscription within wreath: Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; $70.00 (€60.90)


Judean Kingdom, Judah Aristobulus I (Yehudah), 104 - 103 B.C.

Click for a larger photo JD71257. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1143, F, weight 1.871 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehudah the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; $70.00 (€60.90)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

Click for a larger photo Josephus wrote that Herod's final illness (sometimes called "Herod's Evil") was excruciating. Based on Josephus' descriptions, one medical expert has diagnosed Herod's cause of death as chronic kidney disease complicated by Fournier's gangrene. Similar symptoms attended the death of his grandson Agrippa I in 44 A.D. Modern scholars agree he suffered throughout his lifetime from depression and paranoia. Josephus stated that Herod was so concerned that no one would mourn his death, that he commanded a large group of distinguished men to come to Jericho, and he gave an order that they should be killed at the time of his death so that the displays of grief that he craved would take place. Fortunately for them, Herod's son Archelaus and sister Salome did not carry out this wish.JD71259. Bronze lepton, Hendin 1174, aF, weight 0.956 g, maximum diameter 13.0 mm, die axis 45o, obverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, blundered legend with missing and retrograde letters within concentric circles; reverse anchor within circle decorated with stylized lily flowers; $60.00 (€52.20)


Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

Click for a larger photo This type is recognized for its "cursive style" script.JD55293. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1146, SNG ANS 116, Meshorer TJC R, aVF, off center, weight 1.836 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, in cursive style script, within wreath: Yehonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; ex Amphora Coins (David Hendin); $40.00 (€34.80)


Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.

Click for a larger photo The lily was regarded as the choicest among the flowers. It graced the capitals of the two main pillars which stood at the entrance to the sanctuary.JD36280. Bronze prutah, Hendin 1148, SGCV II 6086, F, weight 1.475 g, maximum diameter 13.5 mm, die axis 0o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yehonatan the King, around lily; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (of King Alexander in Greek), upside-down anchor, within a linear circle; ex Amphora Coins (David Hendin); scarce; $32.00 (€27.84)


Judean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C.

Click for a larger photo John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee, hero of the Hanukkah story. Soon after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. Antiochus VII and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king. John Hyrcanus was the first Jewish ruler to issue coins in his own name.JD72199. Bronze prutah, cf. Hendin 1132 - 1133, Fair, off center, weight 1.405 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 180o, Jerusalem mint, obverse Paleo-Hebrew inscription surrounded by wreath; reverse double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns; $25.00 (€21.75)



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REFERENCES

Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
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Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Hill, G.F. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Phoenicia. (London, 1910).
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Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001).
Mildenberg, L. The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War. Typos VI. (Aarau, 1984).
Prieur, M. & K. Prieur. The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and their fractions from 57 BC to AD 258. (Lancaster, PA, 2000).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2, Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
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Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Sunday, April 19, 2015.
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Coins of the Judean Kingdom