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In historical times, Tarsos was first ruled by the Hittites, followed by Assyria, and then the Persian Empire. Tarsus, as the principal town of Cilicia, was the seat of a Persian satrapy from 400 B.C. onward. Indeed, Xenophon records that in 401 B.C., when Cyrus the Younger marched against Babylon, the city was governed by King Syennesis in the name of the Persian monarch. Alexander the Great passed through with his armies in 333 B.C. and nearly met his death here after a bath in the Cydnus. By this time Tarsus was already largely influenced by Greek language and culture, and as part of the Seleucid Empire it became more and more Hellenized. Strabo praises the cultural level of Tarsus in this period with its philosophers, poets and linguists. The schools of Tarsus rivaled those of Athens and Alexandria.GS58069. Silver obol, SNG BnF 310 - 311, SNG Levante 217 - 218, F, weight 0.458 g, maximum diameter 10.0 mm, Tarsos (Tarsus, Mersin, Turkey) mint, obverse uncertain female head facing slightly left; reversebust of Aphrodite right, wearing tainia; $45.00 (Ä38.25)
Kingdom of Persis, Napad (Kapat), 1st Century A.D.
GS65714. Silver hemidrachm, cf. Sunrise 637 (no crescent); Tyler Smith 190; BMC Arabia p. 233, 13; Alram IP 616 (rev.bust right), F, well centered, toned, reverse center weak, tiny encrustations, tiny edge cracks, weight 1.271 g, maximum diameter 12.6 mm, die axis 90o, Persepolis (Fars Province, Iran) mint, 1st century A.D.; obverse bearded bust left, wearing diadem and Parthian-style tiara ornamented with three rows of pellets over pellet in crescent (or pellet only?), no legend or border; reverse bearded bust left wearing diadem, blundered Aramaic legend around; $45.00 (Ä38.25)
Kingdom of Persis, Pakor II, 1st Century A.D.
Persis was located in what is now southern Iran. "Persians" settled the area as early as the 8th century B.C. From the time after its conquest by Alexander the Great, Persis was most often quasi-independent, under the hegemony of a Seleukid or Parthian king. Immediately following Alexander's death, Persis was subject to the Seleucid Kingdom. About 290 B.C., Persis regained independence. The coins produced during this period were Greek-inspired, but inscriptions were Aramaic, symbolic of Persis' rejection of the Greek ruling class. Sometime between c. 250 and 223 B.C., the Seleucids regained control. Mithradates II later incorporated Persis as a sub-kingdom of Parthia. Under Parthian domination, the coins and appearance of the kings depicted on them assumed the Parthian style. The last King of Persis, Artaxerxes, defeated the Parthians and founded the Sassanian Empire.GS66526. Silver obol, Sunrise 621; Alram IP 594 (Pakor I); Tyler-Smith 155 ff. (Pakor I); BMC Arabia 230, 10-11; SGICV 5946, VF, toned, reverse double struck, ragged flan, weight 0.343 g, maximum diameter 11.6 mm, die axis 90o, Persepolis (Fars Province, Iran) mint, 1st Century A.D.; obverse bearded bust left, wearing diadem with two ties, torque and robe, thick wavy hair behind; reverse bearded bust left, wearing diadem with two ties, torque and robe, thick wavy hair behind, pellet border; $45.00 (Ä38.25)