Halikarnassos(?), , c. 400 - 340 B.C.
In Kadmos 37 (1998), K. identifies Halikarnassos as a possible reading of the Carian . The ram may be a symbol of as the god of flocks and herds.GA72261. Silver , 873 (uncertain mint), 996, 496, 3316, -, -, VF, 0.507 g, maximum 8.6 mm, 270o, Carian mint, c. 400 - 340 B.C; of ram right; young male right, retrograde (resembles reversed S-A) across lower fields; $110.00 (€97.90)
Kebren, , c. 480 - 450 B.C.
Cebren was named for the river-god, whose river was located near Troy. He was the son of Oceanus and Tethys and father of Asterope, , and Oenone. Around 310 B.C., moved the residents of Cebren to , his new city.GA71662. Silver , cf. 254; 1544; 1078; p. 43, 7, VF, , nice , , 0.951 g, maximum 9.4 mm, Kebren mint, c. 480 - 450 B.C.; ram right, KEBP below; square with an irregular quadripartite/cruciform pattern; ; $105.00 (€93.45)
Persian Achaeminid Empire, Carian Satrapy, Hecatomnids, c. 392 - 353 B.C.
The Hecatomnid dynasty or Hecatomnids were the rulers of and surrounding areas from about 392 - 334 B.C. They were nominally satraps (governors) under the Persian Achaeminid Empire, but ruled with considerable autonomy, and established a hereditary dynasty. The dynasty was founded by and originally had its seat in Mylasa; moved it to Halicarnassus. Hecatomnus' five children succeeded him in succession. The dynasty engaged in sibling marriage to presumably preserve royal power within the family. The dynasty ended with the conquests of Alexander the Great. Ada adopted him as her son, so that he would succeed to the rule of . The best-known monument of the dynasty is the Mausoleum that Artemisia II built in of her husband and brother .
• , ruled c. 392–377 B.C.
• , son of , ruled c. 377–353 B.C.
• Artemisia II, daughter of , wife of , ruled c. 353–351 B.C.
• Idrieus, son of , ruled c. 351–344 B.C.
• Ada, daughter of , wife of Idrieus, ruled c. 344–340 B.C. and c. 334–326 B.C. (under Alexander the Great)
• Pixodarus, son of , ruled c. 340–335 B.C.GS70805. Silver tetartemorion, 4, 862, 503, cf. 990 (no ), -, -, F, , 0.430 g, maximum 8.2 mm, 180o, (Mylasia? or Halicarnassus?) mint, early to mid 4th century B.C.; and neck of a left, turned slightly facing; and neck of a bull left, turned facing, Karian (resembles MV-H-Φ, clockwise from above), all within a round ; ; $100.00 (€89.00)
Persian Empire, , , Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.
, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving , Paul's ship put in at , before finally sailing for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).GS70324. Silver 1/16 , 851 ff.; Hoover 10 240; 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); p 146, 36 (same); 197 ff. (same), VF, , , lightly etched surfaces, 0.841 g, maximum 9.45 mm, 0o, (Saida, Lebanon) mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above; of (to left) standing right, slaying erect to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them; $100.00 (€89.00)
Ziz (Panormos), Punic , c. 405 - 380 B.C.
Some authorities have identified the male on the as . Indeed, on some examples the does resemble other depictions of the youthful sun god, but on other examples the god is horned. On this coin the seems to better resemble traditional depictions of Herakles or . The usually has the Punic above the bull. Sometimes it is below. Most likely it should be above on this coin but is merely unstruck.GS66771. Silver , cf. (SNR 50) 14; p. 249, 27; 551; 889 (all w/ Punic "sys" above bull), aVF, 0.547 g, maximum 9.14 mm, 45o, Ziz (Palermo, , Italy) mint, c. 405 - 380 B.C.; male left; advancing left, turned facing; $95.00 (€84.55)
Leontini, , c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Leontini was founded by from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the .GS67480. Silver hemilitra, 548; B; cf. 688 (R2, ); 216 ( , finer ); p. 88, 22 (same); 342 (same), VF, 0.282 g, maximum 10.3 mm, 225o, Leontini (or unofficial?) mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; crude facing scalp, dot ; LE/ON (retrograde), barley grain, within shallow round ; very ; $90.00 (€80.10)
(?), c. 450 - 350 B.C.
This is apparently unpublished and we were unable to find another example. This rosette is known, paired with a variety of punch reverses for this . Those coins may be earlier issues from the same uncertain mint in .GS75854. Silver tetartemorion, Apparently unpublished, VF, rough, 0.116 g, maximum 4.8 mm, uncertain (?) mint, c. 450 - 350 B.C.; rosette; of bull left; ex Failla Numismatics (2013); $90.00 (€80.10)
Taras, , Italy, c. 380 - 325 B.C.
The first of Herakles' twelve labors, set by Eurystheus (his cousin), was to slay the and bring back its skin. It could not be killed with mortal weapons because its golden fur was impervious to attack. Its claws were sharper than swords and could cut through any armor. Herakles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the bit off one of his fingers. After slaying the , he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. Wise , noticing the hero's plight, told him to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt. This was struck with dozens of different pose variations on the . In some scenes it even appears Herakles might lose. There are so many variations that it may be possible to take the photographs of the reverses and arrange them in a flip book to animate the fight.GS67287. Silver , 1254 ff., 914, 351, aVF, grainy, small , off center, 0.749 g, maximum 11.0 mm, 180o, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 380 - 325 B.C.; of right, wearing crested attic helmet decorated with a ; TAPANTINΩN(?), young Heracles standing right strangling the , nude, club behind, K between Herakles legs; $85.00 (€75.65)
Selge, , c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Selge, on the southern slope of Mount where the river Eurymedon (Köprücay) forces its way through the mountains, was once the most powerful and populous city of . Protected by precipices, torrents, and an army of 20,000 regarded as worthy kinsmen of the Spartans, Selge was never subject to a foreign power until Rome. In the 5th century A.D. Zosimus calls it a little town, but it was strong enough to repel a body of Goths.GS68737. Silver , 5266 ff.; 1930; 1061; p. 257, 7; cf. 246 ff. (no tongue); 5478, VF, , edge chip, 0.768 g, maximum 10.4 mm, 45o, Selge mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; facing of ( ) with protruding tongue; helmeted of right, behind; $85.00 (€75.65)
Halikarnassos(?), , c. 400 - 340 B.C.
In Kadmos 37 (1998), K. identifies Halikarnassos as a possible reading of the Carian . The ram's may be a symbol of as the god of flocks and herds.GS73023. Silver , 996; 873; noted in , 0.490 g, maximum 7.6 mm, 0o, Carian mint, c. 400 - 340 B.C; of ram right; young male right, across lower fields; $80.00 (€71.20)
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