, , Second Democracy, 466 - 405 B.C.
Following Heron's death, democracy was in 466 B.C. Similar to at Athens, the polis was governed by a council and popular assembly with an executive consisting of elected generals or strategoi. fought against Athens 427 - 424 B.C. and again 415 - 413 B.C.; ultimately was victorious. With further reforms by Diocles, the democratic nature of Syracuse's political structure was further strengthened.
GI74051. Silver , , group 4, series XIII, p. 192 and pl. 17, 462 - 466; 130; 636; 1000-1003; 1375, F, on a broad , short open edge crack, 0.527 g, maximum 12.8 mm, 180o, mint, c. 466 - 460 B.C.; ΣVRA (R reversed?), of Arethusa right, wearing peal diadem; octopus; $110.00 (€96.80)
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Collection
is a reference for the archaic silver fractional coins of and Karia and a overall for pre-Roman from those areas ( and Miletos in particular). The book largely covers the private collection of the author and this particular volume consists solely of Greek coinage (i.e. Roman Provincials are not present). While there is some coverage of areas such as , , Boiotia, Attika, , , , Aiolis, , , Lykia, , , Isauria, Kilikia, , , , Incerti, it is and Karia that get most attention.BK65561. Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Collection, Istanbul, 2002, quatro, 41 pages of plates with corresponding pages of descriptions (1,076 coins); $100.00 (€88.00)
Leontini, , c. 476 - 455 B.C.
Leontini was founded by from Naxos in 729 B.C. Six miles inland, it is the only Greek settlement in not located on the coast, Originally held by the Sicels, the site was seized by the Greeks to gain control of the fertile plain to the .
GS67480. Silver hemilitra, 548; B; cf. 688 (R2, ); 216 ( , finer ); p. 88, 22 (same); 342 (same), VF, 0.282 g, maximum 10.3 mm, 225o, Leontini (or unofficial?) mint, c. 476 - 466 B.C.; crude facing scalp, dot ; LE/ON (retrograde), barley grain, within shallow round ; very ; $100.00 (€88.00)
Kyme, Aiolis, c. 480 - 450 B.C.
Cyme, one of the oldest and noblest of the Aeolian cities, was probably a colony of Cyme in , though according to tradition it was founded by the Amazon Kyme. Its inhabitants were mainly agricultural and averse to seafaring.GA71981. Silver , cf. 84 ff., 31 ff.; 1623; p. 105, 10 ff.; 333; 538; 4174, VF, , porous, 0.461 g, maximum 8.1 mm, Kyme mint, c. 480 - 450 B.C.; left, K[Y] downward on left (Y off , possibly below neck); mill-sail pattern, pebble pattern within impressions; $100.00 (€88.00)
Pisidian Tribes (Pisidic, Galatian, or ?), Imitative of Selge, , c. 350 - 190 B.C.
This coin is a barbaric tribal imitative of a similar struck by Selge. Selge was a fortress-like Greek colony on the southern slope of Mount in , a wild frontier inhabited by warlike tribes, pirates, and bandits. Herodotus called the indigenous Pisidic people "Lakuna" but this was just one of many Pisidic tribes. The Hellenistic kings were never able to govern these indigenous people or the invading Galatian and new arrivals. In 39 B.C. Marc Antony entrusted to the Galatian client Amyntas and charged him with putting down the bandit Homonadesians, who threatened the roads connecting to . After Amyntas was killed in the struggle in 25 B.C., Rome made of the new province of . The Homonadesians were finally wiped out in 3 B.C.GS73027. Silver , cf. II 1586, pl. CXLIV, 15 (similarly crude, left); for Selge prototype see: 1930; 246; p. 259, 23, gVF, , 0.732 g, maximum 9.3 mm, 180o, Pisidian tribal mint, c. 350 - 190 B.C.; crude facing with short radiating hair, pellet eyes, thin nose, high cheeks, and closed mouth; crude of right in a crested helmet, behind; very ; $100.00 (€88.00)
Himera, , 472 - 413 B.C.
In 409 B.C., attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from , but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.
GS74049. Silver , 312; 355; p. 81, 46; 477 (R1) var. (rev ); -, aVF, pitting, crystallization, edge chips, 0.582 g, maximum 10.7 mm, 135o, Himera mint, 472 - 413 B.C.; bearded male (Kronos?) right; HIMERA (counterclockwise from below), plain Corinthian helmet right, no crest, within round ; ; $100.00 (€88.00)
Taras, , Italy, c. 380 - 325 B.C.
The first of Herakles' twelve labors, set by Eurystheus (his cousin), was to slay the and bring back its skin. It could not be killed with mortal weapons because its golden fur was impervious to attack. Its claws were sharper than swords and could cut through any armor. stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the bit off one of his fingers. After slaying the , he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. Wise , noticing the hero's plight, told him to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt. This was struck with dozens of different pose variations on the . In some scenes it even appears might lose. There are so many variations that it may be possible to take the photographs of the reverses and arrange them in a flip book to animate the fight.GS67287. Silver , 1254 ff., 914, 351, aVF, grainy, small , off center, 0.749 g, maximum 11.0 mm, 180o, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 380 - 325 B.C.; of right, wearing crested attic helmet decorated with a ; TAPANTINΩN(?), young Heracles standing right strangling the , nude, club behind, K between legs; $95.00 (€83.60)
Selge, , c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Selge, on the southern slope of Mount where the river Eurymedon (Köprücay) forces its way through the mountains, was once the most powerful and populous city of . Protected by precipices, torrents, and an army of 20,000 regarded as worthy kinsmen of the Spartans, Selge was never subject to a foreign power until Rome. In the 5th century A.D. Zosimus calls it a little town, but it was strong enough to repel a body of Goths.GS68737. Silver , 5266 ff.; 1930; 1061; p. 257, 7; cf. 246 ff. (no tongue); 5478, VF, , edge chip, 0.768 g, maximum 10.4 mm, 45o, Selge mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; facing with protruding tongue; helmeted of right, behind; $95.00 (€83.60)
Kelenderis, , c. 425 - 400 B.C.
The land around Kelenderis was inadequate for farming but, apparently from the coins, suitable for raising goats. On the plateau behind the hills there were vineyards and olive trees, rich sources of minerals, especially iron and woods, mainly pine and cedar, which were essential for ship building. The town was connected to the Central Anatolian Plateau with suitable passages in the valleys, but it was mainly a , connected with and other countries lying on the Mediterranean coasts.GS90735. Silver , 80; 27; p. 56, 30; 5635; 88; 7523 (S RCV 5536), VF, , , 0.765 g, maximum 9.6 mm, 90o, Kelenderis mint, c. 425 - 400 B.C.; forepart of Pegasos right with curved wing; KE−Λ, goat kneeling right, turned back left; $90.00 (€79.20)
Kyme, Aiolis, c. 480 - 450 B.C.
Cyme, one of the oldest Aeolian cities, was probably a colony of Cyme in , though according to tradition it was founded by the Amazon Kyme. Its large capable was a valuable asset to the Persian Empire, contributing ships to Dareios in 512 B.C. and to Xerxes in 480 B.C. After the Battle of Salamis, the remnants of Xerxes' fleet wintered at Cyme. After , was held successively by the Macedonians, Seleucids, Pergamenes, Romans, , and Ottomans.GA71547. Silver , cf. 84 ff., 31 ff.; 1623; p. 105, 10 ff.; 333; 538; 4174, VF, dark , 0.397 g, maximum 7.8 mm, Kyme mint, c. 480 - 450 B.C.; left, KY or no ; mill-sail pattern; $90.00 (€79.20)
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