The obverse refers to the cult of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium, the moneyer's place of origin. The reverse is likely a play on the moneyer's name, Taurus sounds like Thorius. Cicero described L. Thorius Balbus as a man who lived in such a manner that there was not a single pleasure, however refined or rare, that he did not enjoy. This is one of the most common republican denarii. -- Roman Silver Coins edited by David Sear and Robert Loosley
SH71945. Silver denarius, BMCRR I Rome 1634, Crawford 316/1, Sydenham 598, RSC IThoria 1, SRCV I 192, gF, nice style, centered, toned, weight 3.716 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 105 B.C.; obverse head of Juno Sospita right, wearing horned goat skin headdress, I·S·M·R (Iuno SospitaMaterRegina) downward behind; reverse bull charging right, N (control letter) above, L·THORIVS below, BALBVS in exergue; from the Andrew McCabe collection, ex Roma Numismatics, e-auction 10, lot 569; $225.00 (€195.75)
Roman Republic, C. Servilius M.f., c. 136 B.C.
The Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux, most frequently appear on coins of the Roman Republic as horsemen galloping, with couched lances, and stars above their pilei. Their mother was Leda, the queen of Sparta. Castor was the mortal son of Tyndareus, her husband, the king of Sparta. Pollux was the divine son of Zeus, who seduced Leda in the guise of a swan. When Castor was killed, Pollux asked Zeus to let him share his own immortality with his twin to keep them together, and they were transformed into the constellation Gemini. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors, to whom they appeared as St. Elmo's fire, and were also associated with horsemanship. In Rome, their festival was celebrated on the 28th of January.
RR71949. Silver denarius, Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC IServilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116, aVF, nice style, well centered, toned, a few marks, weight 3.659 g, maximum diameter 20.5 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, c. 136 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Roma right, wreath and X behind, ROMA below; reverse the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear, C•SERVEILI•M•F in exergue; from the Andrew McCabe collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 19, lot 551; $180.00 (€156.60)
Roman Republic, P. Servilius M.f. Rullus, 100 B.C.
The Victoryreverse refers to Marius' victories over the Teutones and Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae in 102 B.C. and the Cimbri at Vercellae in 101 B.C.
The P on the reverse indicates this coin was struck from silver withdrawn from the public treasury (EX ARGENTO PVBLICO).
RR73148. Silver denarius, SRCV I 207, Sydenham 601, Crawford 328/1, RSC IServilia 14, VF, nice style, toned, weight 3.905 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 100 B.C.; obversebust of Minerva left wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis, RVLLI upwards behind; reverseVictory in a biga right, horses rearing, reins in right, palm frond in left, P (abbreviates PVBLICO) below, P·SERVILI·M·F in exergue; $160.00 (€139.20)
Roman Republic, M. Servilius C.f., 100 B.C.
In 100 B.C., Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, a tribune, passed a law to redistribute land to military veterans. The law required all senators to swear to abide by it. Quintus Caecilus Metellus Numidicus refused and was exiled. In December, Saturninus ran for consul for the following year. After a rival candidate, Gaius Memmius, was murdered by his agents, the Senate declared Saturninus a public enemy. Marius, as consul, defeated his former ally in a battle in the Forum. Saturninus and his followers surrendered on condition that their lives would be spared, but they were stoned to death with roof tiles by renegade senators.
RR71944. Silver denarius, BMCRR Rome I 1660, Crawford 327/1, Sydenham 602, RSC IServilia 13, SRCV I 206, gF, weight 3.649 g, maximum diameter 22.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 100 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right, wearing winged helmet, ornamented with griffin's head, the visor in three pieces and peaked, wearing triple-drop earring and pearl necklace, ω (control letter) behind; reverse two dismounted horseman engaged in combat with swords and shields, their horses in background, M•SERVEILI•C•F over A (control letter) in exergue; from the Andrew McCabe collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 10, lot 571; $155.00 (€134.85)
Roman Republic, M. Baebius Q. f. Tampilus, 137 B.C.
An unusual coin because Roma’s head faces left instead of the usual right, it is the first appearance of Apollo on a denarius, and the positions of ROMA and the moneyer’s name are reversed. The moneyer’s purpose for departing from tradition is unknown. -- Roman Coins and Their Values by David R. Sear
RS71951. Silver denarius, Crawford 236/1, BMCRR I Rome 935, Sydenham 489, RSC IBaebia 12, SRCV I 113, gVF, attractive rose toning, weight 3.955 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 137 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Roma left; X under chin, TAMPIL upward behind; reverseApollo in quadriga right, laurel branch in right hand, bow with arrow and reins in left, ROMA below, M.BAEBI.Q.F. in exergue; from the Andrew McCabe collection, ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 10, lot 549; scarce; $155.00 (€134.85)
Roman Republic, L. Furius Philus, c. 189 - 180 B.C.
In 188 B.C., through the Treaty of Apamea, the Seleucid king, Antiochus III, surrendered all his Greek and Anatolian possessions as far east as the Taurus Mountains. Rome had become master of the eastern Mediterranean. Continuing quarrels among the Greek cities and leagues increases the conviction in Rome that there will be no peace in Greece until Rome takes full control.
RR65633. Bronze as, RBW Collection 641 (same obverse die), Crawford 144/1, Sydenham 300, BabelonFuria 1, BMCRR I Rome 540, SRCV I 677, aF, weight 23.822 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, die axis 45o, uncertain mint, c. 169 - 80 B.C.; obverse laureate head of bearded Janus, I (mark of value) above; reverse prow right, Victory flying right holding wreath and LFP monogram (obscured) above, I (mark of value) before, ROMA below; rare; $150.00 (€130.50)
Roman Republic, L. Antestius Gragulus, 136 B.C.
This was the first type to use the X value mark (ligate XVI = 16 asses).
RR90434. Silver denarius, SRCV I 115, Crawford 238/1, Sydenham 451, RSC IAntestia 9, VF, weight 3.902 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 136 B.C.; obverse GRAG, helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin; reverse Jupiter in quadriga right, thunderbolt in right, long lotus topped scepter and reins in left, L•AES below, ROMAin ex; $150.00 (€130.50)
Roman Republic, L. Valerius Flaccus, 108 - 107 B.C.
Mars and the apex recall that the moneyer's father held the office of Flamen Martialis. Crawford concludes the office of moneyer may have been consider a career substitute for aedileship and the grain on the reverse advertises the moneyer would have distributed grain had he been elected Aedile. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
RR90734. Silver denarius, SRCV I 183, Sydenham 565, Crawford 306/1, RSC I Valeria 11, VF, centered, toned, weak centers, weight 3.834 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 108 - 107 B.C.; obverse winged and draped bust of Victory right, X below chin; reverse LVALERI / FLACCI (downward on left), Mars walking left, spear in right hand, trophy in left over shoulder, apex left, head of grain behind; $150.00 (€130.50)
Roman Republic, Mn. Aemilius Lepidus, 114 - 113 B.C.
The triple-arch probably represents the Aqua Marcia, an aqueduct begun by M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior as Censors in 179 B.C.
RR73166. Silver denarius, SRCV I 168, Crawford 291/1, Sydenham 554, RSC IAemilia 7, BMC Italy 590, VF, scratches, porous, weight 3.468 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 114 - 113 B.C.; obverse laureate and draped bust of Roma right, ROMA (MA ligate) before, X (XVI ligature) behind; reverse MN·AEMILIO (MN ligate), horseman holding vertical spear (equestrian statue) right, on triple-arch containing L-E-P; $150.00 (€130.50)
Roman Republic, L. Marcius Philippus, 113 - 112 B.C.
The moneyer, L. Marcius Philippus, became consul in 91 B.C. In that year, Marcus Livius Drusus, a tribune of the plebs, with senate support, proposed laws for the distribution of grain, assignment of public land, and founding colonies in Italy and Sicily. Philippus, in conflict with the senate, vigorously opposed the tribune. Philippus declared in the senate that he could no longer carry on the government with such a body, and that there was need of a new senate. L. Licinius Crassus responded that that man could not be his consul who refused to recognize him as senator. Violence spilled out into the forum. After Philippus was bloodied, dragged away by the throat and imprisoned, Drusus successfully passed his laws in the assemblies. Philippus later reconciled with the senate and, as an augur, convinced the senate to declare the laws of Drusus null and void because they were carried against the auspices. Nothing else is recorded of his consulship, except that he recommended the senate to lay claim to Egypt, in consequence of its having been left to them by the will of Alexander.
RR71972. Bronze quadrans, Crawford 293/2, Sydenham 552, BMCRR II Italy 535, BabelonMarcia 13, RBW Collection 1133, SRCV I 1185, gF, corrosion, weight 6.918 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 113 - 112 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress, three pellets (mark of value) behind, L PHILIPPVS upwards before; reverse galley prow right, cock standing right on deck above, three pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 8, lot 523; ex ArtCoins Roma auction 4, lot 824; rare; $145.00 (€126.15)
Banti, A. and L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Firenze, 1972-1979). Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l’Empire Romain. (Paris, 1880). Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974). Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910). Rutter, N.K. ed. Historia Numorum. Italy. (London, 2001). Seaby, Sear, and Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Volume I, The Republic to Augustus. (London, 1989). Sear, D. R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000). Sydenham, E. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. (London, 1952).
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