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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ Types ▸ Happy DaysView Options:  |  |  | 

FELicium TEMPorum REPARATIO

The reverse legend FEL TEMP REPARATIO was used on coins from the time of Constans and Constantius II to that of Gratian (337 to 375). Although the intended reading of this legend is not completely certain, it most likely reads, FELicium TEMPorum REPARATIO, meaning "re-establishment of the happy times." We prefer to loosely translate it to the more current and lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!" From the coins below, it seems the Romans had a very different concept of what made for happy times.


Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.

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According to Zosimus, Julian gave Procopius an imperial robe, informing him of his intent to make him his successor. But Julian did not tell anyone of this intent and Jovian was acclaimed emperor. Procopius gave Jovian the robe. He told Jovian of Julian's intention but asked the new Emperor to allow him to retire to private life. Jovian accepted and Procopius and his family retired to Caesarea Mazaca.
RL79986. Bronze centenionalis, LRBC II 2081, RIC IX 17a, Cohen VIII 8, SRCV V 19883, gVF, excellent portrait, nice green patina, edge chip, weight 2.661 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - Apr 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP (happy times restored), Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, object on ground to left, Christogram above right, CONSΓ in exergue; rare; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

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Constantius II, unlike his father, allowed Christians to persecute pagans and Jews. Christian clergy inspired angry crowds, which attacked and destroyed synagogues and temples. On 7 May 351, a Jewish revolt broke out in Palestine. The rebels destroyed the Roman garrison in a surprise night attack and acquired the garrison's weapons. The rebels destroyed Diopolis and Tiberias and killed the people of different ethnicities, including Greeks and Samaritans. In 352, Constantius Gallus sent his general (magister equitum) Ursicinus to put down the revolt. Diocesarea, the epicenter of the revolt, was razed to the ground. Ursicinus ordered the execution of thousands of Jews, even children. After the revolt, a permanent garrison was stationed in Galilee.
RL90420. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 82, LRBC II 2026, Voetter 28, SRCV V 18148, Cohen VII 44 var., gVF, excellent centering and bold strike, edge split, weight 6.037 g, maximum diameter 23.9 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 348 - 351 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier advancing left, in military garb, shield on his left arm, spearing a fallen enemy horseman, who is turned toward the soldier and raising his left hand, horseman's shield on the ground to right, Γ left, CONSA* in exergue; $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00


Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.

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Procopius' bronze was typically struck on undersized flans. Perfectly centered coins on large flans occur very rarely and if uncirculated and with good detail such as on this specimen they retail for at least $600 (2003).
RB71806. Bronze centenionalis, LRBC II 2082, RIC IX Constantinopolis 17(a)6, Cohen VIII 8, SRCV V 19883, VF, double struck, well centered on a somewhat ragged flan, weight 2.509 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - Apr 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP (happy times restored), Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, uncertain object at feet, Chi-Rho in upper right field, CONS∆ē in exergue; rare (R2); $140.00 SALE PRICE $126.00


Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

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The Roman historian Eutropius says Constans "indulged in great vices," in reference to his homosexuality, and Aurelius Victor stated that Constans had a reputation for scandalous behavior with "handsome barbarian hostages." Nevertheless, Constans did sponsor a decree alongside Constantius II that ruled that marriage based on "unnatural" sex should be punished meticulously. However, the decree may have only outlawed homosexual marriage. It may also be that Constans was not expressing his own feeling when promulgating the legislation but was rather trying to placate public outrage at his own perceived indecencies.
RL77064. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 122, LRBC II 1649, SRCV V 18675, Cohen VII 13, Hunter V 56 var. (3rd officina), VF, traces of silvering, well centered, some die wear, some light corrosion, weight 5.017 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), Constans standing left on galley, Victory on globe in right hand, labarum (chi rho Christogram standard) in left, Victory seated in stern steering ship, A in left field, TSA in exergue; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00


Constantius Gallus, Caesar, 28 September 351 - Winter 354 A.D.

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The reverse legend can be translated, "Happy Times Restored" but we prefer to loosely translate it to the more lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!" To a Roman, spearing a barbarian was happy time!
RB71440. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Alexandria 74, LRBC II 2838, Voetter 1, SRCV V 18997, Cohen VIII 17, aEF, some silvering, tight flan, weight 5.005 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 315o, 1st officina, Alexandria mint, 28 Sep 351 - 353 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier advancing left, spearing bare-headed bearded fallen horseman who extends arm toward soldier, shield on ground at feet, Γ upper left, ALEA in exergue; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

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The reverse legend can be translated, "Happy Times Restored" but we prefer to loosely translate it to the more current and lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!"
RL74561. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 123, LRBC II 50, SRCV V 18136, Cohen VII 46, Hunter V -, Choice VF, well centered and struck, some silvering, porous, weight 4.428 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, from the front, A behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left, with right hand spearing horseman whose mount has fallen, shield on his left arm, shield on the ground right, A left, TS∆ in exergue; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

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Nicomedia was the Roman metropolis of Bithynia. Diocletian made it the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324. Constantine resided mainly in Nicomedia as his interim capital for the next six years, until in 330 when he declared the nearby Byzantium (renamed Constantinople) the new capital. Constantine died in his royal villa in the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Due to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.
RL74562. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Nicomedia 84, LRBC II 2300, Voetter 25, SRCV V 18159, Cohen VII 46, aEF, porous, reverse slightly soft, small edge crack, weight 6.714 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 351 - 352 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, Γ left, SMN∆ in exergue; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

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The reverse legend can be translated, "Happy Times Restored" but we prefer to loosely translate it to the more current and lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!"
RL77063. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 123, LRBC II 50, SRCV V 18136, Cohen VII 46, Hunter V -, Choice VF, excellent centering, weight 5.907 g, maximum diameter 23.6 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, from the front, A behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left, with right hand spearing horseman whose mount has fallen, shield on his left arm, shield on the ground right, A left, TS∆ in exergue; $90.00 SALE PRICE $81.00


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

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Constantius II, unlike his father, allowed Christians to persecute pagans and Jews. Christian clergy inspired angry crowds, which attacked and destroyed synagogues and temples. On 7 May 351, a Jewish revolt broke out in Palestine. The rebels destroyed the Roman garrison in a surprise night attack and acquired the garrison's weapons. The rebels destroyed Diopolis and Tiberias and killed the people of different ethnicities, including Greeks and Samaritans. In 352, Constantius Gallus sent his general (magister equitum) Ursicinus to put down the revolt. Diocesarea, the epicenter of the revolt, was razed to the ground. Ursicinus ordered the execution of thousands of Jews, even children. After the revolt, a permanent garrison was stationed in Galilee.
RL75920. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 81, LRBC II 2026, SRCV V 18148, Cohen VII 44 var., VF, nice green patina, well centered, edge split, some porosity, weight 5.705 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 348 - 351 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier advancing left, in military garb, shield on his left arm, spearing a fallen beardless enemy horseman, who is wearing a cap and falling forward on his horse's neck, horseman's shield on the ground to right, Γ left, CONSB* in exergue; $65.00 SALE PRICE $58.50


Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.

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The variant with a branch in the left field is considerably scarcer than the usual "indeteminate object" or blank field.
RL59961. Bronze centenionalis, LRBC II 2084, RIC IX 17b, Cohen VIII 9, SRCV V 19882, aF, weight 1.771 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - Apr 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP (happy times restored), Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, palm frond lower left, Christogram above right, CONS[?] in exergue; very rare; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00


Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

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Constans, Constantine's youngest son, inherited part of the Western Empire. In 340, Constantine II, his brother, invaded his territory but was killed leaving Constans in total control of the West. In 350, however, his general Magnentius rebelled. Constans tried to escape but overtaken and killed.
RL64020. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 116, LRBC II 1647, Voetter 13, SRCV V 18683, Hunter V -, VF, weight 4.081 g, maximum diameter 23.5 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, globe in right hand; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left, spearing horseman who has fallen to his hands and knees and is wearing a pointed (Parthian) cap, TSΓ* in exergue; $50.00 SALE PRICE $45.00


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

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On 15 March 351, Constantius II elevated his 25-year-old cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar at Sirmium in Pannonia. He arranged a marriage with his sister Constantina and put Constantius Gallus in charge of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantius II marched West with a large army (60,000 men) to fight against Magnus Magnentius.
RL70711. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Constantinople 82, LRBC II 2026, SRCV V 18148, gVF, weight 5.426 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, 7th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 348 - 15 Mar 351 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), soldier standing left, shield on left arm, spear in right hand, spearing bearded fallen horseman who is raising his arm, shield on ground right, Γ upper left, CONSZ* in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $30.00 SALE PRICE $27.00


Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.

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The reverse legend can be translated, "Happy Times Restored" but we prefer to loosely translate it to the more current and lyrical expression, "Happy Days are Here Again!"
BB75792. Bronze reduced maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 209 (R, same divided obverse legend), LRBC II 1686, Voetter 1, SRCV V 19072, Cohen VIII 19, Hunter V -, F, nice green patina, weight 2.762 g, maximum diameter 16.7 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, as caesar, 6 Nov 355 - Feb 360 A.D.; obverse D N IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES, bare-headed cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), helmeted horseman advancing left, shield on left arm, spearing fallen horseman who is beardless, wearing a pointed cap and turned toward the soldier and raising his left arm, M upper left, SMTSE in exergue; rare; $28.00 SALE PRICE $25.20


Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

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Regarding religion, Constans was tolerant of Judaism and promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices in 341. He suppressed Donatism in Africa and supported Nicene orthodoxy against Arianism, which was championed by his brother Constantius. Although Constans called the Council of Sardica in 343 to settle the conflict, it was a complete failure, and by 346 the two emperors were on the point of open warfare over the dispute. The conflict was only resolved by an interim agreement which allowed each emperor to support their preferred clergy within their own spheres of influence.
RL83817. Billon quarter maiorina, RIC VIII Thessalonica 120, LRBC II 1642, SRCV 18732, Cohen VII 10, aVF, green patina with coppery high-points, reverse slightly off center, areas of light corrosion, weight 2.904 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 348 - 349 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), Constans standing left on galley, Phoenix on globe in right hand, labarum in left hand, Victory seated in stern steering ship, TESA in exergue; $24.00 SALE PRICE $21.60


Constantius Gallus, Caesar, 28 September 351 - Winter 354 A.D.

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In 351, in India, a new process was invented for the extraction of sugar from sugarcane.
BB75622. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 345, LRBC II 1215, Voetter 6, SRCV V 18972, Cohen VII 13, aVF, green patina, centered on a tight flan, weight 4.485 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Sep 351 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), helmeted soldier with shield on his left arm spearing a fallen horseman, II left, ēBSISē in exergue; $19.00 SALE PRICE $17.10


Constantius Gallus, Caesar, 28 September 351 - Winter 354 A.D.

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On 15 March 351 Constantius elevated his 25-year-old cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar at Sirmium in Pannonia. He arranged a marriage with his sister Constantia and put him in charge of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantius marched West with a large army (60,000 men) to fight against Magnus Magnentius.
BB76594. Bronze reduced maiorina, RIC VIII Cyzicus 106, LRBC II 2497, SRCV V 19020, Cohen VIII 12, F, green patina, weight 2.603 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, c. 353 - winter 354 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), helmeted soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, SMKE in exergue; $12.00 SALE PRICE $10.80







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