The crusades were military expeditions undertaken by the Christians of Europe in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. The origin of the word may be traced to the cross made of cloth and worn as a badge on the outer garment of those who took part in these enterprises. The Crusader states were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. Politics were complicated, including a Christian alliance with the Islamic Sultanate of Rûm during the Fifth Crusade. The Crusaders ravaged the countries they marched through, killed 8,000 Jews in the Rhineland in the first of Europe’s pogroms, devastated the Mediterranean ports, fought amongst themselves as much as the "Infidel" and fleeced their subjects to fill their coffers. Murder and massacre in the service of the Gospel was commonplace. Seventy thousand civilians were butchered in the sack of Jerusalem. The end came in 1291 with the fall of Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Holy Land.
Bedoukian, P.Z. Coinage of the Artaxiads of Armenia. RNS Special Publication Number 10. (London, 1978). Bedoukian. Coinage of Cilician Armenia. ANSNNM 147. (1962). Bellinger, A.R. Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection, Alexius I to Michael VIII, 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1966). Biaggi, E. Monete e Zecche medievali Italiane dal Sec. VIII al Sec. XV. (Torino, 1992). Boudeau, E. Monnaies Françaises Provinciales. (Maastricht, 1970). Boutin, S. Monnaies des Empires de Byzance - Collection of N.K. Volumes 1-2. (Maastricht, 1983). Grierson, P. and L. Travaini. Medieval European Coinage, Volume 14: Italy III: South Italy, Sicily, Sardinia. (Cambridge, 1998). Hendy, M. Coinage and Money in the Byzantine Empire 1081-1261. (Washington D.C., 1969). Malloy, A.G., I.F. Preston, & A.J Seltman. Coins of the Crusader States, 2nd Edition. (New York, 2004). Metcalf, D.M. Coinage of the Crusaders and the Latin East in the Ashmolean Museum Oxford. (London, 1995). Metcalf, D.M. "Coinage of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem in the name of Baudouin" in NC 1978. Nercessian, Y. T. Armenian Coins and Their Values. Armenian Numismatic Society, Special Publication No. 8. (Los Angeles, 1995). Phillips, M. "The 'Roupen' Hoard of Helmet Pennies of Antioch" in NC 2005. Porteous, J. "Crusader Coinage with Greek or Latin Inscriptions" in A History of the Crusades, vol. IV. (Madison, 1989). Sabine, C.J. "The billon and copper coinage of the crusader country of Tripoli, c. 1102-1268" in NC 1980. Sear, D.R. Byzantine Coins and Their Values. (London, 1987). Schlumberger, G. Numismatique de l'Orient latin. (1878; Supplement 1882; reprinted: Graz, 1954). Sotheby's. The John J. Slocum Collection of Coins of the Crusades. Catalog of public auction, 6 March 1997. London. Travaini, L. "Hohenstaufen and Angevin denari of Sicily and Southern Italy: their mint attributions" in NC 1993.
Catalog current as of Tuesday, March 31, 2015. Page created in 3.104 seconds