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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Twelve Caesars ▸ VespasianView Options:  |  |  |     

Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

After a successful campaign in Judaea (which he left to his son Titus to finish), Flavius Vespasianus was declared emperor by his troops at Alexandria in 69 A.D. Upon the defeat of Vitellius by the Danubian legions, Vespasian went to Rome and consolidated his power. He built the Colosseum and other important public works. Vespasian was popular, being both down to earth and possessed of great wit. He was responsible for the economic and military recovery of Rome, and is justly regarded as one of the greatest Roman emperors.


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This type may commemorate a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea.
RB68879. Copper as, RIC II, part 1, 335; BMCRE II 617; Cohen I 632; Hunter I 119 var. (S - C, low across field); SRCV I -, F, well centered, nice green patina, small areas of corrosion on obv, weight 12.620 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left, S C in exergue; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $250.00 (€220.00)
 


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This coin is M62 in The Metallurgy of Roman Silver Coinage: From the Reform of Nero to the Reform of Trajan by Kevin Butcher and Matthew Pointing. Testing established this coin was minted at 50% silver. There is a very tiny hole drilled in the edge where the sample was taken. The result is unexpected since most Flavian coins from Ephesos were struck at 80% silver.
SH73000. Silver denarius, Butcher-Pointing M62 (this coin); RIC II part 1, 1408; RPC II 817 (10 spec.); BnF III 336; BMCRE I 439, cf. SRCV I 2265 (COS III, etc.), gVF, excellent portrait, well centered, toned, cut on neck, tiny sample hole on the edge, weight 2.885 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 225o, Ephesus mint, c. 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, laureate head right; reverse AVG, small horizontal Φ (obscure, mintmark) above wreath ties, all within oak wreath (corona civica); from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Imperial Coins; $225.00 (€198.00)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Commemorative Issued by Titus

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One 23 June 79 A.D. Vespasian died from fever and diarrhea. Known for his humor, his last words on his deathbed were, "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeded his father as Roman emperor and issued this coin to commemorate his father's consecration.
RS70155. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Titus 357; RSC II 497; BMCRE II 129; BnF III 101; SRCV I 2569, aVF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.230 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse two Capricorns supporting shield inscribed S C, globe below; $170.00 (€149.60)
 


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The yoke of oxen symbolize colonization. The ceremonial founding of a colony included plowing a furrow, the pomerium, a sacred boundary, around the site of the new city. Although no legions were disbanded after the Jewish revolt, there were many retiring veterans that needed to be settled. Vespasian founded a colony at Caesarea Maritima, the first in the province.
RS70159. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 951 (R); RSC II 67; BMCRE II 225; BnF III 201; SRCV I 2440, gF, toned, weight 3.330 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse yoke of two oxen left, COS VI in exergue; scarce; $140.00 (€123.20)
 


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70186. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 29; RSC II 94h; BMCRE II 26; BnF III 17; Hunter I 14; SRCV I 2285, aVF/F, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.332 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left on chair without back, branch in right hand, caduceus in left; $140.00 (€123.20)
 


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Vespasian is depicted on the reverse in his role as Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Rome, the president of the college of pontiffs, and responsible for overseeing the religion and sacred ceremonies of the Romans. On 17 December 384, after the Christian emperor Gratian refused the title, Pope Siricius took the title Pontifex Maximus.
RS70426. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, aVF, toned, well centered, weight 3.372 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right on seat without back, feet on footstool, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $135.00 (€118.80)
 


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In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in Rome to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus. According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455, and taken to their capital, Carthage. According to Procopius, the Byzantine General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the Vandals in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. Procopius adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.
RS70417. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 772; RSC II 366; BMCRE II 161; BnF III 139; Hunter I 51; SRCV I 2301, F, toned, weight 3.444 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, extending olive-branch in right hand, left hand at side; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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In the spring 73 A.D., the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels. The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. Under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir, 960 Zealots committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
RS70418. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, gF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.227 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right on seat without back, feet on footstool, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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The modius was a Roman measure, of wheat for instance, or for any dry or solid commodity. It contained the third part of an amphora, and four of these measures of grain per month was the ordinary allowance given to slaves. On Roman coins the modius with stalks of grain and sometimes poppy, hanging or rising from it, indicates the fertility of the empire and the Imperial liberality and providence in procuring, and in bestowing grain to the people.
RS70424. Silver denarius, RIC II 110, RSC II 215, BMCRE II 217, SRCV I 2293, aVF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.154 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse modius filled with stalks of grain, IMP - XIX flanking across field; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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The caduceus, the traditional symbol of Hermes featuring two snakes around an often winged staff, is often mistakenly used as a symbol of medicine, instead of the Rod of Asclepius. The caduceus appeared on the chevrons of U.S. Army hospital stewards as early as 1856 and was formally adopted by the Medical Department of the United States Army in 1902 and added to the uniforms of medical officers. Even the American Medical Association used the symbol for a time. In 1912, after considerable discussion, the caduceus was abandoned by the AMA and the rod of Asclepius was adopted instead. The U.S. military medical corps all now also use the more appropriate rod of Asclepius.
RS70156. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 703; RSC II 362; BMCRE II 138; BnF III 113; SRCV I 2299, F, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.078 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR P COS V PON MAX, winged caduceus; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70202. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 27 (C); RSC II 94g; BMCRE II 23; BnF III 17; SRCV I -, aVF/F, nice portrait, centered on a crowded flan, toned, weight 3.360 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax standing half left, branch extended in right hand, caduceus in left; RIC says common but market evidence indicates this type with Pax standing is scarce; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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In the spring 73 A.D., the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels. The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. Under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir, 960 Zealots committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
RS70203. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, gF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.361 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right on seat without back, feet on footstool, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70252. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 43 (C2); RSC II 43; BMCRE II 50; BnF III 36; Hunter I 21; SRCV I -, aVF, nice portrait, toned, weight 3.376 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jul - Dec 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70267. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 43 (C2); RSC II 43; BMCRE II 50; BnF III 36; Hunter I 21; SRCV I -, aVF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.372 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jul - Dec 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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RS70274. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; SRCV I 2282; BMCRE II 64; RSC II 45, aVF, nice portrait, toned, high-points flatly struck, weight 3.362 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 72 - 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS72980. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 683 (R); BMCRE II 135; BnF III 109; RSC II 363; SRCV I 2300; Hunter I 47 var. (...VESPASIAN AVG), F, excellent portrait, toned, centered on a tight flan, scratches and marks, flan crack, weight 2.894 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESP AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, long scepter near vertical behind in right hand, olive branch in extended left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; rare; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RB73893. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II, part 1, 715; BMCRE II 696; BnF III 712; Cohen I 152; Hunter I 130; SRCV I 2346 var. (radiate head left), aVF, well centered, green patina, cleaning scratches, weight 12.579 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M T P COS V CENS, radiate head right; reverse FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas standing slightly left, head left, caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C flanking across field; $125.00 (€110.00)
 


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70279. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, VF, nice portrait, toned, well centered on a tight flan, high points flatly struck, weight 3.338 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $120.00 (€105.60)
 


Click for a larger photo
The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70413. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356 (C3); RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, VF, toned, weak center high-points, weight 3.092 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $120.00 (€105.60)
 


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The caduceus, the traditional symbol of Hermes featuring two snakes around an often winged staff, is often mistakenly used as a symbol of medicine, instead of the Rod of Asclepius. The caduceus appeared on the chevrons of U.S. Army hospital stewards as early as 1856 and was formally adopted by the Medical Department of the United States Army in 1902 and added to the uniforms of medical officers. Even the American Medical Association used the symbol for a time. In 1912, after considerable discussion, the caduceus was abandoned by the AMA and the rod of Asclepius was adopted instead. The U.S. military medical corps all now also use the more appropriate rod of Asclepius.
RS70217. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 703; RSC II 362; BMCRE II 138; BnF III 113; SRCV I 2299, aVF, nice portrait, toned, weight 3.391 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR P COS V PON MAX, winged caduceus; $120.00 (€105.60)
 


Click for a larger photo
The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70218. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, VF, nice portrait, toned, well centered on a tight flan, high points flatly struck, weight 3.249 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $120.00 (€105.60)
 


Click for a larger photo
The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70260. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, aVF, nice portrait, light toning, a few scratches, weight 3.270 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $120.00 (€105.60)
 


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Commemorative Issued by Titus

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One 23 June 79 A.D. Vespasian died from fever and diarrhea. Known for his humor, his last words on his deathbed were, "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeded his father as Roman emperor and issued this coin to commemorate his father's consecration.
RS70315. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Titus 357; RSC II 497; BMCRE II 129; BnF III 101; SRCV I 2569, F, toned, weight 3.269 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse two Capricorns supporting shield inscribed S C, globe below; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS70406. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 702; RSC II 364; BMCRE II 136; BnF III 110, F, nice portrait, toned, weak reverse, weight 3.239 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, long scepter near vertical behind in right hand, olive branch in left hand; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


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In 76 A.D., Governor of Britannia Sextus Julius Frontinus subdued the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, established a fortress at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for Legio II Augusta and made a network of smaller forts for his auxiliary forces.
RS70408. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 847; BMCRE II 180; RSC II 121; BnF III 156; SRCV I 2287, aVF, rose toning, weak centers, weight 3.430 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 76 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS VII, eagle standing facing, head left, on low garlanded cippus; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS70431. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 702; RSC II 364; BMCRE II 136; BnF III 110, aVF, toned, weight 3.275 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, long scepter near vertical behind in right hand, olive branch in left hand; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70432. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 29; RSC II 94h; BMCRE II 26; BnF III 17; Hunter I 14; SRCV I 2285, F, toned, weight 3.247 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left on chair without back, branch in right hand, caduceus in left; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta

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This type likely refers to the victory in Judaea but does not specifically identify that victory.
RS70433. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 362; RSC II 618; BMCRE II 74; BnF III 60; Hendin 771; SRCV I 2317, F, dark toning, weight 3.321 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing right, with right placing wreath on legionary standard standing before her, palm frond in left over shoulder; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS70145. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 545: RSC II 387a: BnF III 97: BMCRE II 98 var (CENS, noted variety); SRCV I 2305 var (CENS), F, dark toning, weight 3.246 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, scepter vertical behind in right, branch in left; $110.00 (€96.80)
 


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In 78 AD, Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain. Before the end of the year he conquered the Silures and the Ordovices, in Wales. It's unclear whether the Silures were militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." According to Tacitus, Gnaeus Julius Agricola exterminated the whole Ordovices tribe. Although the tribe completely disappeared from the historical record, in view of the mountainous terrain of the area, it is unlikely Agricola could have wiped out the entire population.Pre-Roman Wales
RS70160. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 980; BMCRE II 216; RSC II 216; BnF III 190; SRCV I 2293, F, toned, weight 3.269 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jul 77 - Dec 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse modius filled with stalks of grain and two poppies, IMP - XIX flanking across field; $110.00 (€96.80)
 




    



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

CAESARVESPASIANVSAVG
DIVVSAVGVSTVSVESPASIANVS
DIVOAVGVESPSPQR
DIVOVESPASIANO
IMPCAESARAVGVESPASIANVS
IMPCAESARVESPASAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSII
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSIIITRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVGCOSIIITRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSVTRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASIAN
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVS
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSTRP
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVGCOSIII
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVGCOSIIII
IMPCAESARVESPAVG
IMPCAESARVESPAVGCOSVCENS
IMPCAESARVESPAVGVST
IMPCAESVESPASAVG
IMPCAESVESPASAVGPMTRPPPCSIII
IMPCAESVESPASAVGTRPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSIIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSVIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSVIIIPP
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGPMTRPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGPMTRPPPCOSVCENS
IMPCAESARVESPASCOSIIICENS
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVGPMTPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGCEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGCENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSIIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSVCENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSIIIICEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSVCEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTPCOSIIIICENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTRPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTRPIIIIPPCOSIIII
IMPVESPASAVGPMTRIPPPCOSIIII
IMPVESPASIANAVG
IMPVESPAVG
IMPVESPCAESAVGPONTMAXTRIBPOTCOSIIPP
IMPVESPCAESAVGPONTMAXTRIBPOTCOSIIIIPP
TCAESVESPASIANIMPPTRPCOSII


REFERENCES

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Burnett, A. & M. Amandry. Roman Provincial Coinage II: From Vespasian to Domitian (AD 69-96). (London, 1999).
Butcher, Kevin. Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC - AD 253. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 34. (London, 2004).
Calicó, E. Xavier. The Roman Avrei, Vol. I: From the Republic to Pertinax, 196 BC - 193 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Carradice, I.A. & T.V. Buttrey. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. II, Part 1: From AD 69 to 96. (London, 2007).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Giard, J-B. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, De Claude Ier à Vespasien (41-78 après J.-C.), et au temps de Clodius Albinus (196-197 après J.-C.). (Wetteren, 2000).
Giard, Jean-Baptiste. Monnaies de l'Empire romain, III Du soulèvement de 68 après J.-C. a Nerva. Catalogue Bibliothèque nationale de France. (Paris, 1998).
Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Mattingly, H. & R.A.G. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol. 2: Vespasian to Domitian. (London, 1930).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. I. Augustus to Nerva. (Oxford, 1962).
Seaby, H.A. & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. II: Tiberius to Commodus. (London, 1979).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Tuesday, February 09, 2016.
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Roman Coins of Vespasian