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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Twelve Caesars ▸ VespasianView Options:  |  |  |     

Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

After a successful campaign in Judaea (which he left to his son Titus to finish), Flavius Vespasianus was declared emperor by his troops at Alexandria in 69 A.D. Upon the defeat of Vitellius by the Danubian legions, Vespasian went to Rome and consolidated his power. He built the Colosseum and other important public works. Vespasian was popular, being both down to earth and possessed of great wit. He was responsible for the economic and military recovery of Rome, and is justly regarded as one of the greatest Roman emperors.


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Ephesus peaked during the 1st and 2nd century A.D. when it was second in importance and size only to Rome, with a population estimated at 400,000 to 500,000 in 100 A.D. The city was famous for the Temple of Artemis, the Library of Celsus, and its theater, seating 25,000 spectators. Ephesus also had several large bath complexes and one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world. Water powered numerous mills, one of which has been identified as a sawmill for marble. The city and temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263 A.D., marking the decline of the city's splendor.
RS77202. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 1457; BMCRE II 475; RSC II 277; RPC II 853, gVF, excellent portrait, toned, some luster in recesses, tight flan, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.275 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, Ephesus mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P, laureate head right; reverse PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory advancing right, filleted wreath raised in extended right hand, palm frond in left hand over left shoulder; star lower right, annulet below; very rare; $1000.00 (€890.00)
 


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RIC II identifies this type as common but this is the first example ever handled by Forum. Examples as attractive as this one are certainly scarce.

Ephesus peaked during the 1st and 2nd century A.D. when it was second in importance and size only to Rome, with a population estimated at 400,000 to 500,000 in 100 A.D. The city was famous for the Temple of Artemis, the Library of Celsus, and its theater, seating 25,000 spectators. Ephesus also had several large bath complexes and one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world. Water powered numerous mills, one of which has been identified as a sawmill for marble. The city and temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263 A.D., marking the decline of the city's splendor.
SL90459. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 1433 (C); RPC II 835; RSC II 293; BMCRE II 459; BnF III 356, NGC Choice VF, strike 3/5, surface 4/5, fine style (2410826-005); fantastic rainbow toning, weight 3.25 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 45o, Ephesus mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right; reverse PACI ORB TERR AVG, turreted and draped female bust right; EPHE (PHE ligate) below; ex Heritage Auction 3032, lot 30506; $340.00 (€302.60)
 


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The reverse type is copied from an Octavian denarius which commemorated the rostral column erected to honor Octavian for his victory at Actium. The column was on the Palatine in the piazza before the temple of Apollo.
RS79255. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 1065 (R), RSC II 559, BMCRE II 254, BnF III 222, SRCV I 2311, Hunter I -, aVF/F, fantastic portrait, light toning, weight 3.128 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan - 24 Jun 79 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR POT X COS VIIII, radiate male statue standing acing nude atop rostral column adorned with an anchor and galley rams, figure holds spear in right hand, parazonium in left hand; rare; $270.00 (€240.30)
 


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This variety with the PON MAX in reverse legend, repeating the P M from obverse legend, is very rare. There was only one specimen in Reka Devnia hoard. In the later, common variant of the same type, PON MAX was replaced by TRI POT.
RS79806. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 42 (R); RSC II 42; BMCRE II 48; BnF III 35; SRCV I 2281; Hunter I -, aVF, well centered on a tight flan, high-points, weight 3.384 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jul - Dec 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right; reverse implements of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinkler), ewer (jug) and lituus (augural wand), AVGVR above, PON MAX below; very rare; $250.00 (€222.50)
 


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Ephesus, Ionia is the church that had forsaken its first love (Revelation 2:1-7).
RS76092. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 1412 (R); RSC II 278a; RPC II 820, VF, fantastic portrait, dark toning, well centered on a tight flan, tiny flan cracks, weight 3.099 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 0o, Ephesus mint, 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, laureate head right; reverse PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory walking left, wreath in extended right, palm frond in left, Φ lower left (unstruck); rare; $225.00 (€200.25)
 


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In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in Rome to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus. According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455, and taken to their capital, Carthage. According to Procopius, the Byzantine General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the Vandals in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. Procopius adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.
RS77205. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 776 (R); RSC II 369; BMCRE II 169; BnF III 144; Hunter I 53; SRCV I -, VF, centered on a tight flan, toned, weight 3.115 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS VI, Victory standing left on cista between two snakes, raising wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left hand; $220.00 (€195.80)
 


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This type may commemorate a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea.
RB68879. Copper as, RIC II, part 1, 335; BMCRE II 617; Cohen I 632; Hunter I 119 var. (S - C, low across field); SRCV I -, F, well centered, nice green patina, small areas of corrosion on obv, weight 12.620 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left, S C in exergue; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $200.00 (€178.00)
 


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The caduceus, the traditional symbol of Hermes featuring two snakes around an often winged staff, is often mistakenly used as a symbol of medicine, instead of the Rod of Asclepius. The caduceus appeared on the chevrons of U.S. Army hospital stewards as early as 1856 and was formally adopted by the Medical Department of the United States Army in 1902 and added to the uniforms of medical officers. Even the American Medical Association used the symbol for a time. In 1912, after considerable discussion, the caduceus was abandoned by the AMA and the rod of Asclepius was adopted instead. The U.S. military medical corps all now also use the more appropriate rod of Asclepius.
RS79801. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 686 (R); BnF III 120; BMCRE II 146; RSC II 390; SRCV I 2306, Choice aVF, nice portrait, well centered, toned, weight 3.151 g, maximum diameter 19.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESP AVG, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, winged caduceus; scarce; $180.00 (€160.20)
 


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One 23 June 79 A.D. Vespasian died from fever and diarrhea. Known for his humor, his last words on his deathbed were, "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeded his father as Roman emperor and issued this coin to commemorate his father's consecration.
RS79254. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Titus 357; RSC II 497; BMCRE II 129; BnF III 101; SRCV I 2569, gF, reverse off center, die wear, minor lamination defects, weight 2.888 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS•, laureate head right; reverse two Capricorns, each facing outward, both supporting shield inscribed S C, celestial globe below; $175.00 (€155.75)
 


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This type likely refers to the victory in Judaea but does not specifically identify that victory.
RS79266. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 362; RSC II 618; BMCRE II 74; BnF III 60; Hendin 771; SRCV I 2317, VF, toned, tight flan, weak center high-points, weight 3.358 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing right, with right placing wreath on legionary standard standing before her, palm frond in left over shoulder; ex Forum (2015); $160.00 (€142.40)
 


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One 23 June 79 A.D. Vespasian died from fever and diarrhea. Known for his humor, his last words on his deathbed were, "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeded his father as Roman emperor and issued this coin to commemorate his father's consecration.
RS79802. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, T357; RSC II 497; BMCRE II T129; BnF III 101; SRCV I 2569, VF, well centered, toned, weight 3.269 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, struck under Titus, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse two Capricorns supporting shield inscribed S C, globe below; $155.00 (€137.95)
 


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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Romans used the poppy both for cooking and medicinal purposes. For cooking, it was used mainly as a garnish or sprinkled on bread, perhaps also in desserts. Pliny sites the medicinal purpose, "..allow the poppy sap to thicken, roll it into pastilles and allow these to dry in the shade. It is a tranquilizer, but if you take too much, you will die in your sleep." (N.H. XX-lxxvi)
RS79258. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 520 (C); BMCRE II 86; BnF III 75; RSC II 164; Hunter I 38; SRCV I 2291, F, well centered, corrosion, polished, flan cracks, weight 3.056 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN, laureate head right; reverse FIDES PVBL, clasped hands holding winged caduceus, flanked on each side by a poppy and stalk of grain; $150.00 (€133.50)
 


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Vesta was originally a household spirit. Later she was personified as the goddess of the hearth and given the stature of her Greek equivalent, Hestia. In the temple of Vesta her flame was kept alive by Vestal Virgins.
RS70246. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 50; RSC II 574; BMCRE II 71; BnF III 55; SRCV I 2316, VF, excellent portrait, toned, tight flan, coppery areas, weight 3.411 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse Vesta standing left, simpulum in right, long scepter vertical behind in left, VES-TA across field; $125.00 (€111.25)
 


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In 76 A.D., Governor of Britannia Sextus Julius Frontinus subdued the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, established a fortress at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for Legio II Augusta and made a network of smaller forts for his auxiliary forces.
RS77330. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 847; BMCRE II 180; BnF III 156; RSC II 121; Hunter I 57; SRCV I 2287, F, well centered, toned, light marks and porosity, weight 3.227 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 76 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS VII, eagle standing facing on low garlanded cippus, head left, wings open but not spread; $125.00 (€111.25)
 


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This type likely refers to the victory in Judaea but does not specifically identify that victory.
RS70240. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 362; RSC II 618; BMCRE II 74; BnF III 60; Hendin 771; SRCV I 2317, VF/F, nice portrait, high-points flatly struck, light toning, tight flan, weight 3.316 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing right, with right placing wreath on legionary standard standing before her, palm frond in left over shoulder; $120.00 (€106.80)
 


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In the spring 73 A.D., the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels. The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. Under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir, 960 Zealots committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
RS70418. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, gF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.227 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right on seat without back, feet on footstool, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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This type likely refers to the victory in Judaea but does not specifically identify that victory.
RS70225. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 362; RSC II 618; BMCRE II 74; BnF III 60; Hendin 771; SRCV I 2317, VF, attractive portrait, light toning, tight flan, weight 3.315 g, maximum diameter 17.82 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing right, with right placing wreath on legionary standard standing before her, palm frond in left over shoulder; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RB73893. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II, part 1, 715; BMCRE II 696; BnF III 712; Cohen I 152; Hunter I 130; SRCV I 2346 var. (radiate head left), aVF, well centered, green patina, cleaning scratches, weight 12.579 g, maximum diameter 26.7 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M T P COS V CENS, radiate head right; reverse FELICITAS PVBLICA, Felicitas standing slightly left, head left, caduceus in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C flanking across field; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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Fortuna Redux, one of the many aspects of Fortuna, was in charge of bringing people home safely, primarily from wars - redux means "coming back" or "returning." This coin was struck to ask Fortuna to ensure Vespasian returned safely to Roma from the war in Judaea. The portrait resembles Vitellius because the mint had not yet received a Vespasian portrait and the die engraver modified Vitellius' portrait based on a verbal description.
RS77279. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 19; RSC II 84; BMCRE II 7; BnF III 7; Cohen I 84 (2f.); SRCV I -, F, toned, damaged area on top of obverse and bottom of reverse, weight 2.622 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. Jan - Jun 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head (resembling Vitellius) right; reverse COS ITER FORT RED, Fortuna standing left, resting right hand on prow, cornucopia in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; scarce; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in Rome to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus. According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455, and taken to their capital, Carthage. According to Procopius, the Byzantine General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the Vandals in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. Procopius adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.
RS77325. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 772; RSC II 366; BMCRE II 161; BnF III 139; Hunter I 51; SRCV I 2301, F, nice portrait, well centered, toned, light porosity, light marks, weight 2.806 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, extending olive-branch in right hand, left hand at side; $110.00 (€97.90)
 


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70279. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, VF, nice portrait, toned, well centered on a tight flan, high points flatly struck, weight 3.338 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse implements of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinkler), ewer (jug) and lituus (augural wand), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $105.00 (€93.45)
 


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70288. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 29; RSC II 94h; BMCRE II 26; BnF III 17; Hunter I 14; SRCV I 2285, aVF/F, weight 3.394 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left on chair without back, olive branch in right hand, caduceus in left hand; $100.00 (€89.00)
 


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70289. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, F, small flan as typical for the type, weight 3.120 g, maximum diameter 17.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse implements of the augurate and pontificate: simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinkler), ewer (jug) and lituus (augural wand), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $100.00 (€89.00)
 


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The modius was a Roman measure, of wheat for instance, or for any dry or solid commodity. It contained the third part of an amphora, and four of these measures of grain per month was the ordinary allowance given to slaves. On Roman coins the modius with stalks of grain and sometimes poppy, hanging or rising from it, indicates the fertility of the empire and the Imperial liberality and providence in procuring, and in bestowing grain to the people.
RS70424. Silver denarius, RIC II 110, RSC II 215, BMCRE II 217, SRCV I 2293, aVF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.154 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse modius filled with stalks of grain, IMP - XIX flanking across field; $95.00 (€84.55)
 


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In 77 or 78 A.D., Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain, a post he occupied until 84. In his first year, Agricola subdued the Ordovices in Wales and pursued the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids. According to Tacitus, he exterminated the whole tribe. The Ordovices do completely disappear from the historical record, but considering the mountainous terrain, it is unlikely killed the entire population. Another tribe, the Silures, was either also militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explored the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.Pre-Roman Wales
RS83903. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 981; BMCRE II 218; RSC II 216; BnF III 192; SRCV I 2293, F, toned, edge cracks, weight 3.259 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head left; reverse modius filled with stalks of grain, IMP - XIX flanking across field; scarce; $95.00 (€84.55)
 


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After a successful campaign in Judaea Vespasian was declared emperor by his troops at Alexandria. Upon the defeat of Vitellius he went to Rome and consolidated his power. Vespasian was popular, down to earth and witty. Responsible for an economic and military recovery of Rome, he was one of the greatest Roman emperors.
RS70161. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 41 (C2); BMCRE II 61; RSC II 566; BnF III 46; SRCV I 2313, F, nice portrait, toned, small edge cracks, weight 3.250 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right; reverse TRI POT II COS III P P, Pax seated left, olive-branch in right hand, caduceus in left; $90.00 (€80.10)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Apamea, Phrygia

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Apamea is believed to be the Biblical city Shepham (Num. xxxiv. 11). After the Mithridatic Wars it became a great center for trade, largely carried on by resident Italians and Jews. Apamea is mentioned in the Talmud (Ber. 62a, Niddah, 30b and Yeb. 115b). By order of Flaccus, nearly 45 kilograms of gold, intended by Jews for the Temple in Jerusalem was confiscated in Apamea in 62 B.C. On the outbreak of the Jewish War, the inhabitants of Apamea spared the Jews who lived in their midst, and would not suffer them to be murdered or led into captivity (Josephus, Bell. Jud. ii. 18, § 5).

This type, the only issue by Apamea in the Flavian Period, may have been issued to finance recovery from an earthquake and fire mentioned by Suetonius (Vesp. 17).
Great Colonnade at Apamea
RP77369. Bronze AE 25, RPC II 1389; SNG Cop 210; SNGvA 3491; SNG München 152; BMC Phrygia p. 95, 150, Fair, nice portrait for grade, nice green patina, weight 9.728 g, maximum diameter 25.9 mm, die axis 0o, Apamea of Syria mint, struck under Plancius Varus, Praetorian Legate; obverse AYTOKPATΩP KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ OYEΣΠAΣIANOΣ, laureate head right; reverse EΠI ΠΛANKIOY OYAPOY KOINON ΦPYΓIAΣ AΠAMEIΣ, bundle of five stalks of grain; $85.00 (€75.65)
 


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Spes was the Roman personification of Hope. In art Spes is normally depicted carrying flowers or a cornucopia, but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right hand, and raising a fold of her dress with her left hand. She was also named "ultima dea" - for Hope is the last resort of men.
RB73623. Copper as, RIC II, part 1, 894; BMCRE II 725, BnF III 757, Cohen I 457, Hunter I C3852, SRCV I -, F, centered, dark green patina, cleaning scratches, light corrosion and encrustations, weight 9.599 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 76 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS VII, laureate head right; reverse Spes standing left, flower in right, raising skirt with left, S - C flanking at sides; $80.00 (€71.20)
 


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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In 77 or 78 A.D., Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain, a post he occupied until 84. In his first year, Agricola subdued the Ordovices in Wales and pursued the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids. According to Tacitus, he exterminated the whole tribe. The Ordovices do completely disappear from the historical record, but considering the mountainous terrain, it is unlikely killed the entire population. Another tribe, the Silures, was either also militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explored the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.Pre-Roman Wales
RB66470. Copper quadrans, RIC II, part 1, 1015 (R); Cohen I 348; BMCRE II 740; SRCV I -, aF, weight 2.685 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse IMP VESPASIAN AVG, rudder on globe; reverse P M TR P P P COS VIII S C, winged caduceus; rare; $65.00 (€57.85)
 


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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In 77 or 78 A.D., Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain, a post he occupied until 84. In his first year, Agricola subdued the Ordovices in Wales and pursued the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids. According to Tacitus, he exterminated the whole tribe. The Ordovices do completely disappear from the historical record, but considering the mountainous terrain, it is unlikely killed the entire population. Another tribe, the Silures, was either also militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explored the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.Pre-Roman Wales
RB67841. Copper quadrans, RIC II, part 1, 826 (R2); Cohen I 347; SRCV I -, F, weight 2.861 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP VESPASIAN AVG, rudder on globe; reverse P M TR P P P COS VIII S C, winged caduceus; rare; $40.00 (€35.60)
 




    



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

CAESARVESPASIANVSAVG
DIVVSAVGVSTVSVESPASIANVS
DIVOAVGVESPSPQR
DIVOVESPASIANO
IMPCAESARAVGVESPASIANVS
IMPCAESARVESPASAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSII
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSIIITRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVGCOSIIITRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSVTRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASIAN
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVS
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSTRP
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVGCOSIII
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVGCOSIIII
IMPCAESARVESPAVG
IMPCAESARVESPAVGCOSVCENS
IMPCAESARVESPAVGVST
IMPCAESVESPASAVG
IMPCAESVESPASAVGPMTRPPPCSIII
IMPCAESVESPASAVGTRPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSIIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSVIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSVIIIPP
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGPMTRPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGPMTRPPPCOSVCENS
IMPCAESARVESPASCOSIIICENS
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVGPMTPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGCEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGCENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSIIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSVCENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSIIIICEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSVCEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTPCOSIIIICENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTRPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTRPIIIIPPCOSIIII
IMPVESPASAVGPMTRIPPPCOSIIII
IMPVESPASIANAVG
IMPVESPAVG
IMPVESPCAESAVGPONTMAXTRIBPOTCOSIIPP
IMPVESPCAESAVGPONTMAXTRIBPOTCOSIIIIPP
TCAESVESPASIANIMPPTRPCOSII


REFERENCES

American Numismatic Society (ANS) Collections Database Online - http://numismatics.org/search/search
Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Burnett, A. & M. Amandry. Roman Provincial Coinage II: From Vespasian to Domitian (AD 69-96). (London, 1999).
Butcher, Kevin. Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC - AD 253. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 34. (London, 2004).
Calicó, E. Xavier. The Roman Avrei, Vol. I: From the Republic to Pertinax, 196 BC - 193 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Carradice, I.A. & T.V. Buttrey. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. II, Part 1: From AD 69 to 96. (London, 2007).
Cayón, J. Los Sestercios del Imperio Romano, Vol. I: De Pompeyo Magno a Matidia (Del 81 a.C. al 117 d.C.). (Madrid, 1984).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Giard, J-B. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, De Claude Ier à Vespasien (41-78 après J.-C.), et au temps de Clodius Albinus (196-197 après J.-C.). (Wetteren, 2000).
Giard, Jean-Baptiste. Monnaies de l'Empire romain, III Du soulèvement de 68 après J.-C. a Nerva. Catalogue Bibliothèque nationale de France. (Paris, 1998).
Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Mattingly, H. & R.A.G. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol. 2: Vespasian to Domitian. (London, 1930).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. I. Augustus to Nerva. (Oxford, 1962).
Seaby, H.A. & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. II: Tiberius to Commodus. (London, 1979).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Thursday, September 29, 2016.
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Roman Coins of Vespasian