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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Twelve Caesars ▸ VespasianView Options:  |  |  |     

Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

After a successful campaign in Judaea (which he left to his son Titus to finish), Flavius Vespasianus was declared emperor by his troops at Alexandria in 69 A.D. Upon the defeat of Vitellius by the Danubian legions, Vespasian went to Rome and consolidated his power. He built the Colosseum and other important public works. Vespasian was popular, being both down to earth and possessed of great wit. He was responsible for the economic and military recovery of Rome, and is justly regarded as one of the greatest Roman emperors.


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This type may refer to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea.
RB68879. Copper as, RIC II, part 1, 335; BMCRE II 617; Cohen I 632; SRCV I -, F, well centered, nice green patina, small areas of corrosion on obv, weight 12.620 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left, S C in exergue; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $310.00 (€269.70)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta

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On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
SH90414. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 2; Hendin 1479; BMCRE II 35; RSC II 226; SRCV I 2296, F, toned, weight 2.312 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 69 - 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA, Jewess seated right, mourning, veiled, supporting chin with left hand, trophy of captured arms behind her; $180.00 (€156.60)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Commemorative Issued by Titus

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One 23 June 79 A.D. Vespasian died from fever and diarrhea. Known for his humor, his last words on his deathbed were, "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeded his father as Roman emperor and issued this coin to commemorate his father's consecration.
RS70155. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Titus 357; RSC II 497; BMCRE II 129; BnF III 101; SRCV I 2569, aVF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.230 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse two Capricorns supporting shield inscribed S C, globe below; $170.00 (€147.90)


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The yoke of oxen symbolize colonization. The ceremonial founding of a colony included plowing a furrow, the pomerium, a sacred boundary, around the site of the new city. Although no legions were disbanded after the Jewish revolt, there were many retiring veterans that needed to be settled. Vespasian founded a colony at Caesarea Maritima, the first in the province.
RS70159. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 951 (R); RSC II 67; BMCRE II 225; BnF III 201; SRCV I 2440, gF, toned, weight 3.330 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse yoke of two oxen left, COS VI in exergue; scarce; $160.00 (€139.20)


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The capricorn is copied from the coinage of Augustus.
RS70405. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 1058; BMCRE II 251; RSC II 554; BnF III 219; SRCV I 2310, gF, centered on a tight flan, toned, weight 3.288 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan - 24 Jun 79 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR POT X COS VIIII, capricorn left, globe below; $150.00 (€130.50)


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70415. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 27 (C); RSC II 94g; BMCRE II 23; BnF III 17; SRCV I -, F, excellent portrait, toned, scratch on obverse, weight 3.357 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax standing half left, branch extended in right hand, caduceus in left; RIC says common but this is the first example handled by Forum and market evidence indicates this type with Pax standing is scarce; $140.00 (€121.80)


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70186. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 29; RSC II 94h; BMCRE II 26; BnF III 17; SRCV I 2285, aVF/F, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.332 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left on chair without back, branch in right hand, caduceus in left; $140.00 (€121.80)


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This type is very rare and missing from the British Museum, Bibliothèque nationale de France, and Hunter collections. BMCRE notes doubt that the Cohen specimen is from the Rome mint. This coin's brass flan is more cause for doubt. A provincial mint at Ephesus struck other brass coins with Latin legends. Perhaps this coin was struck at Rome, or perhaps at a provincial mint yet to be identified. None of the references mention that it is struck on a brass or orichalcum flan. The style appears to be official, but it could be a counterfeit struck at unoffical mint.
RB72116. Brass as, RIC II, part 1, 399 (R2); Cohen 18; BMCRE II - (notes Cohen); BnF III -; Hunter I -, F, nice portrait, very unusual brass flan, rough Tiber patina, weight 10.622 g, maximum diameter 26.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome (or provincial or unofficial?) mint, 72 - 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P P COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse AEQVITAS AVGVSTI, Aequitas standing left, scales in right hand, long scepter vertical behind, S - C flanking low in fields; very rare; $140.00 (€121.80)


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Vespasian is depicted on the reverse in his role as Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Rome, the president of the college of pontiffs, and responsible for overseeing the religion and sacred ceremonies of the Romans. On 17 December 384, after the Christian emperor Gratian refused the title, Pope Siricius took the title Pontifex Maximus.
RS70426. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, aVF, toned, well centered, weight 3.372 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $135.00 (€117.45)


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In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in Rome to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus. According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455, and taken to their capital, Carthage. According to Procopius, the Byzantine General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the Vandals in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. Procopius adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.
RS70417. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 772; RSC II 366; BMCRE II 161; BnF III 139; SRCV I 2301, F, toned, weight 3.444 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, extending olive-branch in right hand, left hand at side; $125.00 (€108.75)


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In the spring 73 A.D., the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels. The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. Under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir, 960 Zealots committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
RS70418. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, gF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.227 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $125.00 (€108.75)


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70421. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356; RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, aVF, bold relief, nice portrait, toned, small flan, weight 3.299 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $125.00 (€108.75)


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The modius was a Roman measure, of wheat for instance, or for any dry or solid commodity. It contained the third part of an amphora, and four of these measures of grain per month was the ordinary allowance given to slaves. On Roman coins the modius with stalks of grain and sometimes poppy, hanging or rising from it, indicates the fertility of the empire and the Imperial liberality and providence in procuring, and in bestowing grain to the people.
RS70424. Silver denarius, RIC II 110, RSC II 215, BMCRE II 217, SRCV I 2293, aVF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.154 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse modius filled with stalks of grain, IMP - XIX flanking across field; $125.00 (€108.75)


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During the Jewish wars, Titus had begun a love affair with Berenice, sister of the Jewish king Agrippa II. The Herodians had collaborated with the Romans during the rebellion, and Berenice herself had supported Vespasian in his campaign to become emperor. In 75, she returned to Titus and openly lived with him in the palace as his promised wife. The Romans were wary of the eastern queen and disapproved of their relationship. When the pair was publicly denounced by Cynics in the theater, Titus caved in to the pressure and sent her away.
RS70427. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 777; RSC II 368; BMCRE II 166; BnF III 102; SRCV I 2303, Nice F, attractive portrait, well centered, light toning, weight 3.326 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS VI, Victory standing left on prow, raising wreath in right, palm frond over shoulder in left; $125.00 (€108.75)


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The caduceus, the traditional symbol of Hermes featuring two snakes around an often winged staff, is often mistakenly used as a symbol of medicine, instead of the Rod of Asclepius. The caduceus appeared on the chevrons of U.S. Army hospital stewards as early as 1856 and was formally adopted by the Medical Department of the United States Army in 1902 and added to the uniforms of medical officers. Even the American Medical Association used the symbol for a time. In 1912, after considerable discussion, the caduceus was abandoned by the AMA and the rod of Asclepius was adopted instead. The U.S. military medical corps all now also use the more appropriate rod of Asclepius.
RS70156. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 703; RSC II 362; BMCRE II 138; BnF III 113; SRCV I 2299, F, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.078 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse TR P COS V PON MAX, winged caduceus; $125.00 (€108.75)


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In 78 AD, Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain. Before the end of the year he conquered the Silures and the Ordovices, in Wales. It's unclear whether the Silures were militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." According to Tacitus, Gnaeus Julius Agricola exterminated the whole Ordovices tribe. Although the tribe completely disappeared from the historical record, in view of the mountainous terrain of the area, it is unlikely Agricola could have wiped out the entire population.Pre-Roman Wales
RS70160. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 980; BMCRE II 216; RSC II 216; BnF III 190; SRCV I 2293, F, toned, weight 3.269 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jul 77 - Dec 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse modius filled with stalks of grain and two poppies, IMP - XIX flanking across field; $125.00 (€108.75)


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After a successful campaign in Judaea Vespasian was declared emperor by his troops at Alexandria. Upon the defeat of Vitellius he went to Rome and consolidated his power. Vespasian was popular, down to earth and witty. Responsible for an economic and military recovery of Rome, he was one of the greatest Roman emperors.
RS70161. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 41 (C2); BMCRE II 61; RSC II 566; BnF III 46; SRCV I 2313, weight 3.250 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right; reverse TRI POT II COS III P P, Pax seated left, olive-branch in right hand, caduceus in left; $125.00 (€108.75)


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70202. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 27 (C); RSC II 94g; BMCRE II 23; BnF III 17; SRCV I -, aVF/F, nice portrait, centered on a crowded flan, toned, weight 3.360 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 1 Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax standing half left, branch extended in right hand, caduceus in left; RIC says common but market evidence indicates this type with Pax standing is scarce; $125.00 (€108.75)


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In the spring 73 A.D., the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels. The Roman army (Legio X Fretensis) surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. Under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir, 960 Zealots committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
RS70203. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, gF, excellent portrait, toned, weight 3.361 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $125.00 (€108.75)


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The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"
RS70413. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 356 (C3); RSC II 45; BMCRE II 64; BnF III 49; Hunter I 27; SRCV I 2282, VF, toned, weak center high-points, weight 3.092 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 - early 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus (emblems of the augurate and pontificate), AVGVR above, TRI POT below; $120.00 (€104.40)


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Although Ares was viewed by the Greeks primarily as destructive and destabilizing, worthy of contempt and revulsion, for the Romans, Mars represented military power as a way to secure peace, and was a father (pater) of the Roman people. The stalk of grain may refer to Mars' roll as an agricultural guardian.
RS90448. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 939 (R); RSC II 129; BnF III 179; BMCRE II 203, SRCV I -, VF, luster, well centered, weight 3.354 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS VIII, Mars standing left, nude but for helmet and chlamys, spear in right hand, trophy in left, grain ear on right; ex Heritage CICF World and Ancients Signature Auction 3032, part of lot 30530; rare; $120.00 (€104.40)


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Spes was the Roman personification of Hope. In art Spes is normally depicted carrying flowers or a cornucopia, but on coins she is almost invariably depicted holding a flower in her extended right, while the left is raising a fold of her dress. She was also named "ultima dea" - for Hope is the last resort of men.
RB72113. Copper as, RIC II 894, BMCRE II 725, BnF III 757, Cohen I 457, VF, nice glossy green patina, weight 10.266 g, maximum diameter 27.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 76 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESP AVG COS VII, laureate head right; reverse Spes standing left, flower in right, raising skirt with left, S - C flanking at sides; ex Classical Numismatic Group; $120.00 (€104.40)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Commemorative Issued by Titus

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One 23 June 79 A.D. Vespasian died from fever and diarrhea. Known for his humor, his last words on his deathbed were, "I think I'm turning into a god." Titus succeeded his father as Roman emperor and issued this coin to commemorate his father's consecration.
RS70315. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Titus 357; RSC II 497; BMCRE II 129; BnF III 101; SRCV I 2569, F, toned, weight 3.269 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse two Capricorns supporting shield inscribed S C, globe below; $110.00 (€95.70)


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS70406. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 702; RSC II 364; BMCRE II 136; BnF III 110, F, nice portrait, toned, weak reverse, weight 3.239 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, long scepter near vertical behind in right hand, olive branch in left hand; $110.00 (€95.70)


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In 76 A.D., Governor of Britannia Sextus Julius Frontinus subdued the Silures and other hostile tribes of Wales, established a fortress at Caerleon or Isca Augusta for Legio II Augusta and made a network of smaller forts for his auxiliary forces.
RS70408. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 847; BMCRE II 180; RSC II 121; BnF III 156; SRCV I 2287, aVF, rose toning, weak centers, weight 3.430 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 76 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS VII, eagle standing facing, head left, on low garlanded cippus; $110.00 (€95.70)


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The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
RS70431. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 702; RSC II 364; BMCRE II 136; BnF III 110, aVF, toned, weight 3.275 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 74 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS V, Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, long scepter near vertical behind in right hand, olive branch in left hand; $110.00 (€95.70)


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This coin may have been struck to appeal to Pax to deliver peace at the time the First Jewish Revolt was coming to its end. On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
RS70432. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 29; RSC II 94h; BMCRE II 26; BnF III 17; SRCV I 2285, F, toned, weight 3.247 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Jan - Jun(?) 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse COS ITER TR POT, Pax seated left on chair without back, branch in right hand, caduceus in left; $110.00 (€95.70)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta

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This type likely refers to the victory in Judaea but does not specifically identify that victory.
RS70433. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 362; RSC II 618; BMCRE II 74; BnF III 60; Hendin 771; SRCV I 2317, F, dark toning, weight 3.321 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 72 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing right, with right placing wreath on legionary standard standing before her, palm frond in left over shoulder; $110.00 (€95.70)


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In 75 A.D., the Temple of Peace was built in Rome to celebrate the conquest of Jerusalem in 70 and house the Menorah and other sacred objects from Herod's Temple. A representation of the menorah is depicted in a frieze on the Arch of Titus. According to the Torah, the menorah was hammered from pure gold following the design God revealed to Moses. The menorah was looted by the Vandals in the sacking of Rome in 455, and taken to their capital, Carthage. According to Procopius, the Byzantine General Belisarius recovered it when he defeated the Vandals in 533 and it was carried through the streets of Constantinople during his triumph. Procopius adds that it was later sent back to Jerusalem, after which there is no further record of it. The menorah might have been destroyed when the Persians pillaged Jerusalem in 614.
RS70127. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 772; RSC II 366; BMCRE II 161; BnF III 139; SRCV I 2301, gF, toned, weight 3.387 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 75 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, extending olive-branch in right hand, left hand at side; $110.00 (€95.70)


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Vespasian is depicted on the reverse in his role as Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Rome, the president of the college of pontiffs, and responsible for overseeing the religion and sacred ceremonies of the Romans. On 17 December 384, after the Christian emperor Gratian refused the title, Pope Siricius took the title Pontifex Maximus.
RS70133. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 546; RSC II 387; BMCRE II 98; BnF III 86; SRCV I 2305, F, weight 3.284 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Vespasian seated right, long scepter vertical behind in right, olive branch in left; $110.00 (€95.70)




    



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

CAESARVESPASIANVSAVG
DIVVSAVGVSTVSVESPASIANVS
DIVOAVGVESPSPQR
DIVOVESPASIANO
IMPCAESARAVGVESPASIANVS
IMPCAESARVESPASAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSII
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSIIITRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVGCOSIIITRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASAVGCOSVTRPPP
IMPCAESARVESPASIAN
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVS
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSTRP
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVGCOSIII
IMPCAESARVESPASIANAVGCOSIIII
IMPCAESARVESPAVG
IMPCAESARVESPAVGCOSVCENS
IMPCAESARVESPAVGVST
IMPCAESVESPASAVG
IMPCAESVESPASAVGPMTRPPPCSIII
IMPCAESVESPASAVGTRPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSIIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSVIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGCOSVIIIPP
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGPMTRPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPASIANAVGPMTRPPPCOSVCENS
IMPCAESARVESPASCOSIIICENS
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVG
IMPCAESARVESPASIANVSAVGPMTPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGCEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGCENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSIIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSVCENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSIIIICEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMCOSVCEN
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTPCOSIIIICENS
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTRPPPCOSIII
IMPCAESVESPAVGPMTRPIIIIPPCOSIIII
IMPVESPASAVGPMTRIPPPCOSIIII
IMPVESPASIANAVG
IMPVESPAVG
IMPVESPCAESAVGPONTMAXTRIBPOTCOSIIPP
IMPVESPCAESAVGPONTMAXTRIBPOTCOSIIIIPP
TCAESVESPASIANIMPPTRPCOSII


REFERENCES

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Burnett, A. & M. Amandry. Roman Provincial Coinage II: From Vespasian to Domitian (AD 69-96). (London, 1999).
Butcher, Kevin. Coinage in Roman Syria: Northern Syria, 64 BC - AD 253. Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication 34. (London, 2004).
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Carradice, I.A. & T.V. Buttrey. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. II, Part 1: From AD 69 to 96. (London, 2007).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 1: Pompey to Domitian. (Paris, 1880).
Giard, J-B. Le monnayage de l'atelier de Lyon, De Claude Ier à Vespasien (41-78 après J.-C.), et au temps de Clodius Albinus (196-197 après J.-C.). (Wetteren, 2000).
Giard, Jean-Baptiste. Monnaies de l'Empire romain, III Du soulèvement de 68 après J.-C. a Nerva. Catalogue Bibliothèque nationale de France. (Paris, 1998).
Hendin, D. Guide to Biblical Coins, 5th Edition. (Amphora, 2010).
Mattingly, H. & R.A.G. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol. 2: Vespasian to Domitian. (London, 1930).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. I. Augustus to Nerva. (Oxford, 1962).
Seaby, H.A. & R. Loosley. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. II: Tiberius to Commodus. (London, 1979).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, The Millennium Edition, Volume One, The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC - AD 86. (London, 2000).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Saturday, August 01, 2015.
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Roman Coins of Vespasian