, , Hieron II, 275 - 215 B.C., Portrait of Queen Philistis
Hieron II placed his wife and son on coins during his long reign. Those of Queen Philistis are eagerly sought after by collectors.SH84601. Silver 5 litrae, 221 (D2/R2), 893, 1546, 827, 959, 2918, 1708, 1557 (R2) (all from the same dies), aEF/gVF, , light marks, 4.441 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 180o, mint, c. 218 - 215 B.C.; veiled and diademed of Queen Philistis left, frond behind; galloping left, holding reins with both , E• in front of horses' legs, BAΣIΛIΣΣAΣ above, ΦIΛIΣTI∆OΣ ; from the Woolslayer Collection; Numismatica Ars Classica auction 27 (12 May 2004), lot 129; ex A.D.M. Collection; ex Collection, 1929 sale, lot 213; ; $3000.00 (€2670.00)
, and , October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
The Roman numeral on the indicates Caesar's age (52) when this coin was minted, a unique occurrence in Roman numismatics.SH85105. Silver , 1400, 3955, 18, 452/2, 1009, 11, EF, light tone on luster, tiny edge cracks, 3.716 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 90o, traveling military mint, late spring-early summer 48 B.C.; female ( ?) right, wearing oak , necklace, jewel before ear, and cruciform earring, hair in jeweled knot behind with falling locks, LII (52 = Caesar's age) behind; CAE-SAR flanking the base of a draped of Gallic arms ( decorated with , horned helmet, and ), axe topped by wolf on right; $1350.00 (€1201.50)
, 18 January - 17 November 474 and August 476 - 11 April 491 A.D.
Gold never tarnishes, however, ancient gold coins were never pure gold. There is always a small amount of silver in the gold and for reasons that only a chemist could explain, the small amount of silver sometimes tones slightly red. This coin is attractive red gold.
SH85084. Gold , 929, 633, 108/1, 16, 21514, -, about Uncirculated, and struck, lustrous with red tone, 4.456 g, maximum 20.9 mm, 180o, 4th , Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 2nd reign, Aug 476 - 11 Apr 491, 5th issue; D N AVG, helmeted facing, pearl diademed, trefoil on front of crested helmet, , spear in right over shoulder, on left arm decorated with horseman riding down and spearing enemy; VICTORI-A ∆ ( of the three emperors, 4th ), standing left, long jeweled in right, right, in ; $1350.00 (€1201.50)
, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
A legatus pro praetore (literally: "envoy of the emperor - acting praetor") was the official title of the governor of some imperial provinces of the Roman Empire during the Principate era, normally the larger ones or those where legions were based. Provinces were denoted imperial if their governor was selected by the emperor, in contrast to senatorial provinces, whose governors (called proconsuls) were elected by the Roman Senate.SH84735. Silver , 7b, 405, 282, Spain 115, 1048, -, -, Nice gVF, attractive portrait, bold strike, light with luster in recesses, of corrosion on edge 3:00 - 6:00, 3.758 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 315o, Augusta (Merida, Spain) mint, P. Carisius, c. 25 - 23 B.C.; IMP , left; P CARISIVS (P. Carisius Legatus [ ] pro Praetore), Celtiberian helmet decorated with and crest, short dagger pointing downward on left, (double-headed ax) slanting upward on right; this is the only example of this ever handled by , from the Marcelo Leal Collection; ; $1300.00 (€1157.00)
, and , October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.
was the Roman goddess of love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and . claimed direct descent from the goddess through her son, , who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy. sacrificed to her and believed she would ensure he was victorious. The small at the base of Venus' is symbolic of her divinity. The on the was likely intended to advertise the beginning of a new age.SH84760. Silver , 480/5b, 1071, 41, I 4165, Imperators 106a, 1412, F, light , slightly off center on a tight oval , right side of unstruck, scratches, light , 3.603 g, maximum 18.3 mm, 270o, mint, moneyer P Sevullius , Jan - Feb 44 B.C.; IMP, wreathed of right, with eight rays around a central pellet behind; P SEPVLLIVS , standing left, in her right hand, long with a at base behind in her left hand, facing left, holding in both ; $1210.00 (€1076.90)
Pontic Kingdom, Mithradates VI, c. 120 - 63 B.C.,
Mithradates VI "the Great" expanded his Pontic Kingdom through conquest, which inevitably brought him into conflict with . He regarded himself as the champion of the Greeks against , however, after three years of war, he was defeated by . The design of this coin is taken from a coin of , bodyguard of Alexander the Great, and of , 323 - 281 B.C. The coin depicted Alexander the Great on the . The features of the portrait on this are those of Mithradates VI.SH85133. Gold , De p. 141 (D1/R1), 1090 ( ), VF, die wear, 8.395 g, maximum 19.2 mm, 0o, Inferior, Tomis (Constanta, Romania) mint, First Mithradatic War, 88 - 86 B.C.; diademed of Alexander the Great (with the features of Mithradates VI), wearing the horn of ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, enthroned left, wearing crested helmet, in right hand, resting left arm on round behind, and V above knee, TO on throne, trident in ; ex CNG e-auction 92 (23 Jun 2004), lot 27; $1200.00 (€1068.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG II
This may have been II , disbanded by . The well-known II Augusta, which took in the conquest of Britain and was later stationed in South Wales, was one of Octavian's legions, and so not likely to be the Second Legion referred to on this coin. Other Second Legions (Adiutrix, , Parthica and Traiana) were raised much later in imperial times.
SH85060. Silver , 544/14, 1216, II East 190, 27, 349, EF, bold strike on a , light marks, small edge cracks, 3.875 g, maximum 17.0 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - II, ( ) between two legionary standards; ex & Mosch auction 244, lot 441; $900.00 (€801.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
Caesar's old Gallica was not disbanded and later became the Augusta; however, that legion was associated with rather than Antony.SH85063. Silver , 544/21, 1225, II East 199, 35, EF, off center, 3.830 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - , ( ) between two legionary standards; ex & Mosch auction 245, lot 1560; $875.00 (€778.75)
Seleukid Kingdom, Alexander I Balas, 152 - 145 B.C.
Alexander Balas, of humble origin, claimed to be Antiochus IV's son and heir to the Seleukid throne. and accepted his claims. He married Thea, daughter of Ptolemy of . With his father-in-law's , he defeated Demetrius and became the Seleukid . After he abandoned himself to debauchery, his father-in-law shifted his support to Demetrius II, the son of Demetrius . Balas was defeated and fled to where he was murdered.GS84619. Silver , II 1781.3a, 118, 875a, EF, excellent Hellenistic , lightly , slightly off center, some die wear, light marks, light deposits on , 16.950 g, maximum 28.9 mm, 45o, Antioch on the (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 152 - 146 B.C.; diademed right, ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY ΘEOΠATOPOΣ EYEPΓETOY, Zeus enthroned left, chest bare, around hips and legs and over left shoulder, offering him in his right hand, in his left hand, (control symbol) outer left, ΓΞP ( year 163) and (control symbol) in ; ex CNG e-auction 386 (9 Nov 2016), lot 328; $540.00 (€480.60)
, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
In late summer or fall of 161, Vologases IV of captured the Roman client Kingdom of , expelled its and installed his own; Pacorus, an Arsacid like himself. In 162, began the war to recover and exact vengence. recovered the Armenian capital Artaxata in 163. At the end of 163, took the title Armeniacus, despite having never personally seen combat. initially declined to accept the title, but accepted it in 164. Unfortunately the victorious army returned bringing a pandemic known as the Antonine Plague, which significantly depopulated and greatly weakened the Roman Empire.RB83578. , 1092; 890 ( & r.), 984 (same), 95, III 464, 5013, -, VF, on a , green , light scrape on high point, some corrosion, 23.68 g, maximum 31.6 mm, 0o, mint, Dec 164 - Aug 165 A.D.; M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M, laureate right; TR P XVIII , standing half right, transverse upward to right in both , mourning Armenian captive at feet on right, captive seated right with propped on right hand and left hand on ground, ( ) flanking low across ; $520.00 (€462.80)
Athens, , , c. 140 - 175 A.D.
Minos demanded that, every ninth year, Athens send seven boys and seven girls to to be devoured by the , a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth. , son of Aigeus, the of Athens, volunteered to take the place of one of the youths and slay the monster to stop this horror. Upon his arrival to , , Minos' daughter, fell in love with him and gave him a ball of to him find his way out of the Labyrinth. promised that if he escaped he would take her with him. Using the string to mark his path, he made his way to the heart of the Labyrinth, slew the , followed the string out, and then rescued the Athenian boys and girls. told to leave and Phaedra behind on the beach. Distressed by his broken heart, forgot to put up the white sails that were to signal his success. Upon seeing black sails, his father committed suicide, throwing himself off a cliff into the sea, causing this body of water to be named the Aegean.GB77873. Bronze , p. 105, 764; 341; , pl. 96, 1; 276, aF, corrosion, 7.132 g, maximum 23.7 mm, 180o, Athens mint, pseudo-autonomous under , c. 140 - 175 A.D.; helmeted of right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; AΘHNAIΩN, right, preparing to slay the , nude, planting knee on the back of , raising club in his right hand, a horn of the in his left hand, the falling right on left knee; from the Butte College Foundation, ex (Antioch Associates); very ; $450.00 (€400.50)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been a legion raised by Antony and disbanded by . The XI , an old legion of Caesar's, fought for (and won the title Actiaca at the battle of ).SL79267. Silver , 544/25, 1229, II East 203, 39, NGC F, strike 3/5, surface 2/5, banker's marks (2400602-008), , 3.48 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XI, ( ) between two legionary standards; NGC certified (slabbed); $450.00 (€400.50)
, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.
Issued to commemorate in Britain. Between 208 and 210 A.D., and his son campaigned into Scotland (then Caledonia) and also Hadrian's Wall. The victories in the pacified the island for the remainder of the century, but the aged Septimius died at Eburacum (York) in 211 A.D.
SH83529. Silver , 332 (S); 727; p. 366, 51; 108; 6382, gVF, some luster, perfect centering, nice portrait, light , small edge cracks, 3.369 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 180o, mint, 210 - 211 A.D.; SEVERVS AVG , laureate right; (victories over the British), advancing right, raising in extended right hand, frond in left hand over left shoulder; ; $450.00 (€400.50)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by . There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.RS79795. Silver , 544/18, 1221, II East 196, 32, 354, 1479, VF, slightly off-center, banker's mark on , 3.714 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 180o, mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - V, legionary between two standards; $320.00 (€284.80)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Adventus types commemorate the emperor's arrival at , either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76334. , , 2, 904 (S); 69; , p. 43; 311 var. (1st ); cf. 11195 ( mint, etc.), gVF, green with some remaining, 4.393 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 2nd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 2nd emission, end 276 - beginning 277 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), , helmeted, and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval decorated with charging horseman on left arm; PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor ), on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, B in ; ; $280.00 (€249.20)
, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
This is apparently unpublished and this is the only example of the known to . This was used for very (both R5) issues of and . CNG e-auction 368, lot 496, is with this same , also 5th , but with on the left holding a on globe and .RL76392. , apparently unpublished, cf. 116 - 117 (for ) and 138 - 139 (for , issues of the Licinii), EF, excellent portrait, both sides slightly off-center, left side of weak, some , a few light marks, 2.773 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 180o, 5th , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, as , 320 A.D.; CONSTANTINVS IVN , laureate and left; (courage of the army), inscribed VOT / XX in two lines, two seated barbarian captives back-to-back flanking base, (Chi-Rho ) left, in ; ex Scott Collection; extremely ; $270.00 (€240.30)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of and .RA76279. , , p. 63; RIC, 2, V 376 (S) var. ( ); 283 var. (same); 131 var. (same, and ); 11984 (same), aEF, some mint luster, most remains, fantastic heroic , light corrosion, 3.341 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 0o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for over right shoulder and rectangular with square corner in on left shoulder; HERCVLI PACIF (to the pacifier), standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and skin in left, in ; very ; $260.00 (€231.40)
Seleukid Kingdom, , 93 - 83 B.C.
was the fourth son of Antiochus Grypus. He took the diadem in 95 BC together with his older brother (probably twin) Antiochus XI , after the eldest son Seleucus VI was killed by their cousin Antiochus X Eusebes. He established himself in after 92 B.C. and survived attacks from younger brother Demetrius III . His rule ended in 83 B.C. when Tigranes conquered , or earlier. He disappears from history at that point, but coins bearing his portrait were issued later by local and Roman authorities.GS85162. Silver , II 2463(1), 436, VF, , rose , bumps and marks, die damage at neck on , low indicates likely issue, 14.766 g, maximum 27.0 mm, 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, probably , c. 69 - 57 B.C.; diademed right, ; BAΣIΛEΩΣ / ΦIΛIΠΠOY EΠIΦANOYΣ / ΦIΛA∆EΛΦOY, Zeus enthroned left, in right hand, long in left hand, offering Zeus a , N/A outer left, laurel ; $250.00 (€222.50)
Lokris Opuntia, Lokris, , c. 340 - 330 B.C.
Lokrian (the Lesser) was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the of . Locrians are mentioned by Homer in the Iliad as following , the son of Oïleus, to the Trojan War in forty ships, and as inhabiting the towns of Kynos, Opus, Calliarus, Besa, Scarphe, Augeiae, Tarphe, and Thronium. Lokrian was called the "lesser" or "Lokrian" , to distinguish him from the Great, son of Telamon. He is also mentioned in the Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid.
GS83462. Silver , 98; p. 2, 9; 50; 1700; 1958; 1339; 2330; 997, aVF, attractive , , etched surfaces, 2.385 g, maximum 15.3 mm, 0o, Lokris Opuntia mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; of right, wearing of grain, single-pendant earring, and pearl necklace; OΠONTIΩN, son of Oileus, advancing right in fighting attitude, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, short sword in right hand, on left arm ornamented inside with coiled snake (control symbol), (control symbol) below; ; $240.00 (€213.60)
Thebes, , , c. 480 - 456 B.C.
The largest city in , leader of the Boeotian confederacy, and rival of Athens, Thebes sided with during Xerxes' invasion in 480 B.C. Thebes ended Sparta's power at the Battle of Leuctra in 371. The Sacred Band of Thebes famously fell to at Chaeronea in 338. After a revolt in 335, Alexander the Great destroyed the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet .GS85055. Silver , 261, p. 69, 19, aVF, , 5.598 g, maximum 17.3 mm, Thebes mint, 379 - 338 B.C.; Boiotian ; within square; ex 2012; ; $225.00 (€200.25)
, 7 March 161 - February 169 A.D.
In 166, appointed his sons as caesars, while he and traveled to Germany.RB83531. Bronze as, MA1448 (S), 282, 1307, 18 129, 5416, VF, , nice green , marks and scratches, some light corrosion, 8.821 g, maximum 25.8 mm, 180o, mint, Dec 165 - summer 166 A.D.; L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate right; VI IMP IIII , standing facing, left, crowning a of arms with right hand, frond in left hand, ( ) flanking low across ; ; $225.00 (€200.25)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XII
This old Caesarean legion was known at different times as , Antiquae, Paterna and finally XII Fulminata ('the thunderers'). Its veterans settled (among other places) in Patras in . After fighting without great distinction in the First Jewish Revolt, the legion was transferred to Melitene in , where it remained for several hundred years.RR85202. Silver , 544/26, 1230, II East 204, 41, 365, F, , off center, scratches, 3.216 g, maximum 17.8 mm, 225o, (?) mint, autumn 32 - spring 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XII, ( ) between two legionary standards; $220.00 (€195.80)
, Augusta c. 164 - 182 A.D., Wife of
in a dream first saw with the weapons of as and made her his personal patroness. In the night before the battle of 48 B.C. Pompey dreamed of - seemingly a lucky sign. sacrificed to , but issued as watchword 'Venus Victrix', and defeated Pompey!RS85213. Silver , 786, 89, 353, 18, 5492, EF, and struck, edge cracks, 3.282 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 0o, mint, 166 - 169 A.D.; LVCILLA , draped right; (victorious ), standing half left, right breast bare, in right hand, left hand on grounded ; $220.00 (€195.80)
, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D., Issued by
In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign, you will be the ." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.RL90446. heavy maiorina, 286 (S), II 1173, 51, 18203, VF, , slightly rough green , coppery high-points, 4.749 g, maximum 22.5 mm, 180o, 1st , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issued by , 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; D N CONSTANTIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right, A behind, before; HOC SIGNO ERIS, Constantius standing facing left, holding ( ) and spear, right crowning him, A left, •ASIS• in (A's often appear as H in this period); ; $215.00 (€191.35)
Pharsalos, , 3rd Century B.C.
Pharsalos, built on a hillside of the Narthacius Mountains, was one of the main cities in . In the Persian Wars, Pharsalos sided with the Athenians. In the early 4th century B.C., the city was a of the Thessalian League. Later, it joined the under . The became a theater of war where the Aetolians and the Thessalians clashed with the Macedonians, especially during the Second and the Third Macedonian Wars. After the defeat of the , Pharsalos and the whole became a of the Roman Republic. Pharsalos is famous for being the scene of the final battle between and Pompey.
GB73546. Bronze , 326 (V170/R234), cf. 1299, 674.6, 649 (S), 505 (none with full ), gF, green , strike a little weak in centers, 7.518 g, maximum 21.1 mm, 0o, Pharsalos (Farsala, ) mint, 3rd Century B.C.; of Parthenos turned slightly to the left, wearing triple-crested Corinthian helmet, over her left shoulder, spear over her right shoulder; dot within Π left, dot ; armored Thessalian horseman riding right, wielding flail overhead in right hand, reins in left hand; on far side at rear of horse, attendant walking right with spare flail in right hand over right shoulder, ΦAP-[ΣA?] above left, AΛN (sic) below; ; $215.00 (€191.35)
Termessos Major, , c. 238 - 268 A.D.
Alexander the Great likened Termessos, high in the Mountains, to an eagle's nest after he surrounded it but failed to conquer it in 333 B.C. An ally of , Termessos was granted independent status by the Roman Senate in 71 B.C. Independence was maintained continuously for a long time, the only exception being an with Amyntas of (reigned 36-25 BC). This independence is documented also by the coins of Termessos, which bear the title "Autonomous." Termessos was abandoned after its aqueduct was destroyed by an earthquake (date unknown).
GB83542. Bronze AE 38, 5364; p. 273, 41; -; -; -; -, aVF, green , rough, pitting, corrosion, , edge chip, , 28.152 g, maximum 37.8 mm, 0o, Termessos Major mint, pseudo-autonomous, c. 238 - 268 A.D.; TEPMHCCEΩN AVTONOMΩN, laureate and bearded of Zeus right; TΩN MEIZONΩN, standing slightly left, left, wearing helmet, long , and , holding offering in right hand, spear in left hand, at feet on far side of right leg, of captured arms behind, Θ left; about twice the of the similar smaller and less coin with the same types ( 2189, AE33, 14.06g); very ; $215.00 (€191.35)
, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.
When this coin was struck in 282, was the Prince of Youth, full of promise. Later he would be remembered as one of the worst . This infamy is, however, likely fiction, supported by himself. For example, the (unreliable) Augusta has marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, , by whom he had a son, Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as . His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.RS71588. , IV 390 (LV 4227); , 2, 182; 97; 71; , p. 28; 12302, EF, most remains, and struck, nice portrait, some , 4.627 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 0o, 4th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 2nd issue as , 282 - 283 A.D.; CARINVS , , draped, and right; (to the Prince of Youth), standing left, globe in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, bound captive seated left at feet on left, QXXI in ; $200.00 (€178.00)
Amisos, Pontos, c. 85 - 65 B.C.
Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of . The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the after the fall of . In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the coast of Turkey.GB76954. Bronze AE 20, p. 20, 72; 1187 var. (different right); 688 ff. var. (different ); 167 ff. var. (same), VF, on usual , nice green , minor adjustment marks, 8.426 g, maximum 19.8 mm, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, c. 85 - 65 B.C.; with facing of ( ) in center; AMI−ΣOY, advancing right, holding frond across shoulders behind, A∆T lower left, AMTE lower right; $200.00 (€178.00)
Aitna, , The Kampanoi Mercenaries, c. 354 - 344 B.C.
In 475 B.C. Hieron moved ten thousand settlers from and to Katane and renamed it Aetna. In 461, after Hieron's death, the new settlers were expelled. They moved to the southern slope of the and founded a new Aetna. In 403 B.C., Dionysius the Elder made himself master of Aetna, where he settled his discharged Campanian mercenaries, the Kampanoi. The Kampanoi retained possession of Aitna until 339 B.C., when Timoleon took the city and put them to the sword. Under , Aitna became a municipal town of considerable importance; its territory being one of the most fertile of all . The site of the city and time of its destruction are unknown today. GI76936. Bronze AE 14, III, p. 327, 2; 1608 (R1, Tauromenion); 877 (340 - 330 B.C.); p. 237, 4; -; -; -, VF, green , , 2.744 g, maximum 14.4 mm, 60o, Aitna (or Tauromenion?) mint, c. 354 - 344 B.C.; Phrygian helmet with cheek guards, ornamented with a , linear ; KAM (Kampanoi) in olive ; $195.00 (€173.55)
, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
was a female deity who personified the city of and more broadly, the Roman state. The earliest certain cult to dea was established at Smyrna in 195 B.C., probably to mark the successful against Antiochus III. In 30/29 B.C., the of and requested permission to as a living god. "Republican" despised the worship of a living man, but an outright refusal might offend their loyal allies. A cautious formula was drawn up, non-Romans could only establish a cult for jointly with dea . In the city of itself, the earliest known state cult to dea was combined with at the Hadrianic Temple of and . This was the largest temple in the city, probably dedicated to inaugurate the reformed festival of Parilia, which was known thereafter as the Romaea after the Eastern festival in Roma's . The temple contained the seated, Hellenised image of dea with a in her right hand to symbolize Rome's eternity.SL84528. , 1037, 1420, 169, 284, 233, 4977, VF30 (4625585), mint, Dec 171 - Dec 172 A.D.; M ANTONINVS - XXVI, laureate right; IMP VI ( 6 times, consul 3 times), seated left on , helmeted and draped, transverse spear on far side in right hand, resting her left forearm on round stacked upon an oval and a hexagonal , S C ( ) flanking across fields; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection, certified (slabbed) by ; $195.00 (€173.55)
, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of I
was a fervent supporter of the Nicene Creed. Sozomen reports her preventing a conference between and Eunomius of Cyzicus who served as figurehead of Anomoeanism, a sect of Arians. Ambrose and Gregory of Nyssa praise her Christian virtue and comment on her role as "a leader of justice" and "pillar of the ." She is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox ; her feast day is 14 September.RL70543. Bronze half , 35.2 (R2), II 1566, 20623, 5, VF, excellent centering, 0.926 g, maximum 13.3 mm, 0o, 2nd , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Aug 383 - autumn 384 A.D.; AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped right; (health of the Republic), seated right inscribing on set on , BSIS• in ; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Kingdom of , Rhoemetalkes I, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.
When the Cotys VII, of , died about 48 B.C. Rhoemetalces I became the guardian of his nephew Rhescuporis I, his brother's young son and heir. In 13 B.C., Rhescuporis I was defeated and slain in battle by Vologases, chief of the Thracian Bessi, who was leading a revolt against . As Rhescuporis I had left no heir, Rhoemetalces became . An ally of , the Roman Historian described Rhoemetalces as attractive and civilized. After his death, divided his realm, half for his son Cotys and the other half for Rhoemetalces' brother Rhescuporis II. states that Cotys received the cultivated parts, most towns and most Greek cities of , while Rhescuporis received the wild and savage portion with enemies on its frontier.
RP72883. Bronze AE 15, 159, 1707, -, -, -, VF, 1.999 g, maximum 14.6 mm, 225o, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.; K ΣEBAΣTOY, capricorn right, globe upper right between legs; POIMH, advancing right, raising in extended right, grounded frond before her in left; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.
In 274, greeted as Restitutor ("Restorer of the World") and accorded him a magnificent triumph ( procession), which was graced by his captives I and his son . Aurelian's conquests of the Palmyran Empire and reunited the Roman Empire.
RA83500. , 1854, 73, 1503, 260, 257, VF, excellent centering, , 2.756 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 0o, 2nd , mint, 11th issue, early - Sep 275 A.D.; IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, laureate and right; (the of the Emperor), walking left, extended in right, frond in left, bound captive in Parthian garb seated left on left at Victory's feet, turned back looking at , B in ; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
was the younger brother of , and he was declared in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians. In 376 A.D., allowed tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. was defeated by the Goths at the catastrophic battle of Hadrianople, where he lost his life and two-thirds of the Roman army was killed.RS84407. Silver , Trier 27(e)1, 109a, 7, 19675, VF, , , , bumps and marks, light corrosion, 1.963 g, maximum 18.5 mm, 0o, (Trier, Germany) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; D N VALEN-S , pearl-diademed, draped, and right, from the front; (City of ), seated left on throne, on globe in Roma's right hand, or spear without point vertical in her left hand, extends in right hand and holds frond over left shoulder in left hand, TRPS• in ; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
Himera, , c. 470 - 450 B.C.
In 409 B.C., attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from , but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.
GS84998. Silver , 312; 355; 1028; p. 81, 47; 447 (R1); -; -; I -, F/VF, and struck, etched surfaces, 0.650 g, maximum 10.6 mm, 270o, Himera (Termini, , Italy) mint, c. 470 - 450 B.C.; bearded male (Kronos?) right, wearing (hair band); HIMEPA (clockwise starting below, retrograde), Corinthian helmet right, no crest, within shallow ; ; $180.00 (€160.20)
, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
was about eight years old when this coin was minted. Here he is draped and as a powerful child with the world in his !SH63721. , Trier 382 (R3) (no ), 17155, 23, gVF, on a , nice green , 2.868 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 180o, 2nd , (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; CONSTANTINVS IVN , laureate, draped, and left, on globe offering in right hand, in left, of on ; (blessed tranquility), inscribed VO/TIS / XX, surmounted by globe, three stars above, •STR• in ; ; $170.00 (€151.30)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D., Series II of Ticinum, Q, SXXI
Ticinum mint series II - click to read the article, Coins of with Coded Markings of Embedded in the mint mark. The letter Q in the is the second letter of the . The letter S in the indicates this coin was struck by the second (mint workshop). The letters of the word are coded in the of coins from all the of the mint, with the specific letters of the assigned to each in order corresponding with their numbers. This probably refers to cavalry. It may be truncated because there were only six in operation.RA77126. , 488 (also with helmet); , 2, 492 (R); , p. 67/9; -, -, gVF, and struck, much , unusual , 3.366 g, maximum 22.9 mm, 180o, 2nd , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, emission 9, 281 A.D.; PROBI AVG, , helmeted and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, on left arm; (the foresight of the Emperor), standing left holding globe in right hand, long transverse in left hand, Q in left , SXXI in ; ; $170.00 (€151.30)
, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.
The Battle of Antioch. After foolishly cut legionary pay, III Gallica hailed as emperor on 16 May 218. sent cavalry but they too joined . finally abandoned his pay cut and paid a bonus, but it was too late. Legion II Parthica defected. General Gannys, the commander of Elagabalus' forces, decisively defeated was just outside Antioch on 8 June 218. shaved off his hair and beard and fled, disguised as a member of the military police. He was recognized by a centurion at Chalcedon on the , taken back to Antioch and executed.
RS84623. Silver , 187, 275, 15, 111, 7505, VF, lustrous fields, excellent portrait, , , 2.093 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 16 May 218 - 219 A.D.; ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right, from behind; (harmony with the soldiers), two military standards between two legionary eagles; ex Numismatik Naumman ( ), auction 47, of lot 873; ; $165.00 (€146.85)
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
This may commemorate a on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of .RB68879. Copper as, , 1, 335; 617; 632; 119 var. ( , low across ); -, F, , nice green , small areas of corrosion on 12.620 g, maximum 27.6 mm, 180o, mint, 71 A.D.; AVG , right; (the naval ), standing right on a prow, in right hand, frond over should in left, S C ( ) in ; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $160.00 (€142.40)
, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.
The translates, "Happy Times ." Happy times would not last for . This coinage was among his last issues before his general rebelled and had him killed.
RL90437. heavy maiorina, 244, II 1136, 31, 18730, 10, gVF, light encrustations, 4.945 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 45o, 2nd , mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; D N CONSTA-NS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right; FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times ), standing left in Galley left, in left hand, on globe in right hand, steering at stern, AQS• in ; $160.00 (€142.40)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Adventus types commemorate the emperor's arrival at , either at the commencement of his reign or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76277. , , 2, 166 (S); 69; 6; , pp. 55; 11953 var. (obv leg), aEF, magnificent armed , most remaining, perfect centering, some corrosion, 4.183 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 180o, mint, emission 2, 277 A.D.; (the valor of Emperor ), , helmeted, and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval on left shoulder; PROBI AVG (the arrival of Emperor ), on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, R in ; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D., ,
or is seen with wings in most and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek had shed their wings by Classical times. is the goddess of strength, speed, and . was a very close acquaintance of and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of located in the Parthenon. or is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.RP84963. Bronze AE 27, RPC IV 8302, 38 ff., 4338 (R5) var. (crescent and right), -, -, -, -, VF, nice portrait, die wear, slight corrosion, tiny edge cracks, 12.628 g, maximum 26.7 mm, 0o, Thessalonika (Salonika, ) mint, 184 - 188 A.D.; AVTOK M AVP KOMM ANTΩNEINON (clockwise from upper right), laureate right; ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN (clockwise from upper right), advancing right, in extended right hand, frond in left hand over left shoulder, crescent right; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Tisna, , c. 350 - 300 B.C.
GB68074. Bronze AE 10, II 2074, pl. CLVII, 22; 345 var. ( right); -; -, -, -, -, VF, 1.214 g, maximum 10.3 mm, 225o, Tisna mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; youthful of river-god Tisnaios left; sword in scabbard with strap, TIΣNA/ON (in two lines, one above, one below); very ; $155.00 (€137.95)
, Aiolis, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
(or ) means place of goats and was the name of many cities of antiquity. , was located at the mid-point between the modern cities of Ýzmir, Manisa, Bergama and Aliaða.
GB90401. Bronze AE 17, 12 var. (different ); 1598 var. (same); 368 var. (same); p. 96, 14 (no ); 4169, gVF, 4.601 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 0o, mint, 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C.; helmeted of right; AIΓAEΩN, standing left, in right hand, in left, left, right; $155.00 (€137.95)
, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Amphipolis,
Amphipolis was to an imperial cult, worshiping the living emperor, and to a cult dedicated to . The depicts as a military and probably copies an imperial statue. The may depict a local statue of .GB90707. Bronze AE 20, 978 (same dies), 7179 (R7), 79, 37, 6068, -, -, , -, F, 6.620 g, maximum 20.2 mm, 180o, Amphipolis mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8/9 Aug 117 A.D.; TPAIANOC, emperor on horseback galloping right, brandishing spear to strike a prostrate foe below; AMΦIΠOΛEITWN, standing left, on , long torch before her in right hand, small branch in left hand downward at side, grounded behind; ; $155.00 (€137.95)
Himera, , c. 472-413 B.C.
In 409 B.C., attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from , but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.GA76588. Silver , cf. 312; 355; 1027; p. 81, 47; -; -, VF, off-center, weak, uneven , a little rough, 0.586 g, maximum 10.6 mm, Himera (Termini, , Italy) mint, c. 472-413 B.C.; bearded male (Kronos?) right, wearing (hair band); HIMEPA (or similar), Corinthian helmet right, no crest, within shallow ; ; $155.00 (€137.95)
Boiotia, , Boiotian League, c. 225 - 171 B.C.
After the destruction of Thebes by Alexander in 335 B.C., the Boeotians never again pursued independent policy, but followed protecting powers. Unable to defend its frontiers, the land became more than ever the "dancing-ground of Ares." was generally loyal to Macedon, and supported its kings against . Devastation during the First Mithridatic War was a death-blow to the country's prosperity. dissolved the league, but it was revived under and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod. -
SH79751. Silver , 127; Cop 387 var. (ΓAN ); p. 42, 99 var. (same); 3306 var. (different ), VF, nice , light , some die wear, light marks, tiny punch or flaw inner right on , 4.902 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 45o, Thebes(?) mint, c. 225 - 171 B.C.; laureate of Poseidon right; standing left, raising in right hand, trident vertical behind in left, BOIΩTΩN downward on left, AN inner left; variant; $155.00 (€137.95)
, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D., Issued by
In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign, you will be the ." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.RL73908. heavy maiorina, 286 (S), II 1173, 51, 18203, VF, and struck, nice green , spots of corrosion on the , small edge cracks, 4.277 g, maximum 21.4 mm, 0o, 3rd , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issued by , 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; D N CONSTANTIVS , pearl-diademed, draped, and right, A behind, before; HOC SIGNO ERIS, Constantius standing facing left, holding ( ) and spear, right crowning him, A left, •ΓSIS• in ; ; $150.00 (€133.50)
, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Antiocheia,
A temple of has been excavated at Antioch, . , the Greek moon goddess, was female, which seems natural because the female menstrual cycle follows the lunar month. But was a male moon-god, probably originally of the indigenous non-Greek Karian people. By Roman times, was worshiped across Anatolia and in . He was associated with fertility, healing, and punishment. is usually depicted with a crescent moon behind his shoulders, wearing a , and holding a lance or sword in one hand and a pine-cone or in the other. His other attributes include the and cock.RP79565. Bronze AE 24, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, -, VF, attractive unusual with , dark with coppery high points, 5.635 g, maximum 23.6 mm, 180o, Antioch in (Yalvac, Turkey) mint, 28 Jan 198 - 8 Apr 217 A.D.; ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and right, wearing ; ANTIOCH FORTVNA COE, standing facing, right, wearing , crescent with horns up rising behind shoulders, left foot on , leaning with left elbow on , long vertical in right hand, in left hand, cock standing left at feet on left; $150.00 (€133.50)
, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D.
or is seen with wings in most and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek had shed their wings by Classical times. is the goddess of strength, speed, and . was a very close acquaintance of and is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of located in the Parthenon. or is also one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek and Roman coins.RS79983. Silver , 23; 206; p. 200, 247; 14; 7205, EF, cute boy portrait, well struck, , surfaces a little frosty, light marks, edge cracks, 3.482 g, maximum 18.3 mm, 180o, mint, as , c. 200 - 202 A.D.; P SEPT , draped and right, from behind; , flying left, holding open in both over set on low base; ex (2006) ex CNG electronic auction 121 (Sep 2005), lot 242; $150.00 (€133.50)
CLICK HERE TO SEE MORE FROM THIS CATEGORY - FORVM's PRIOR SALES
Page created in 9.64 seconds