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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ MilitaryView Options:  |  |  |   

Military, Combat & Arms on Ancient Coins

Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus, 323 - 317 B.C.

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Philip III Arrhidaeus, the bastard son of Philip II and a dancer, Philinna of Larissa, was Alexander the Great's half-brother. Alexander's mother, Olympias, allegedly poisoned him as a child, leaving him mentally disabled, eliminating him as a rival to Alexander. Incapable of actual rule, he was made king upon Alexander's death only to serve as a pawn for those who wished to grab power for themselves. Olympias had him imprisoned and then ordered his execution in 317 B.C.
SH72613. Gold stater, Price P90, ADM I 228 - 230, Müller Alexander -, SNG Cop -, EF, lovely Hellenistic style, mint luster, weight 8.579 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 323 - 317 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet ornamented with a coiled snake, wearing necklace and long drop earring; reverse ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Nike standing left, wreath in extended right hand, grounded stylis in left at her side, TI left, rose left under wing; ex Roma Numismatics auction 8, lot 470; $5220.00 (€4541.40)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.

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This is an extremely rare heroic bust variety of a scarce type. There is only one auction record on Coin Archives for this variety: NAC Auction 59 (4 Apr 2011), lot 968 (a beautiful near EF example). It sold for $48,717 including fees.
SH73454. Orichalcum sestertius, Woytek 203q+2 (same obv die), RIC II 535 (S, no belt), BMCRE III 838 var (no belt), BnF IV 565 var (no belt), VF, well centered, high relief bust, Tiber patina, porous, areas of corrosion, weight 25.631 g, maximum diameter 34.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 104 - 107 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust left, full chest exposed, with drapery on left shoulder, military belt (balteus) across chest; reverse S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan in military dress on horseback right, thrusting spear at Dacian warrior trampled and falling under fore-hooves, S C in exergue; extremely rare variety; $5000.00 (€4350.00)


Roman Civil Wars, Revolt of Galba, Governor of Spain, April - June 68 A.D.

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Galba lived in Tarraco for eight years. This coin was issued by Galba as governor of Spain in revolt against Nero. The obverse is copied from Republican denarii struck in 62 B.C. by the moneyer L. Scribonius Libo.
SH63560. Silver denarius, RIC I 9, RSC II 396, BMCRE I 9, SRCV I 2072, F, toned, weight 3.515 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 225o, Tarraco(?) mint, Apr - Jun 68 A.D.; obverse BON EVENT, young female head (Bonus Eventus) right, fillet around forehead; reverse ROM RENASC, Roma standing right in military garb, Victory on globe in right hand, eagle-tipped scepter over left shoulder in left; bargain priced for this interesting rarity implying the restoration of the Republic!; very rare (R4); $1300.00 (€1131.00)


Byzantion, Thrace, c. 210 - 195 B.C., Restoration of Lysimachos' Type

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In the years following his death Alexander the Great came to be the subject of cult worship throughout the Mediterranean basin. His corpse was appropriated by Ptolemy I who transported it to Egypt, initially interring it at Memphis, then to a mausoleum and center of worship in Alexandria. It survived until the 4th century AD when Theodosius banned paganism, only to disappear without trace.
SH71721. Silver tetradrachm, SNG Berry 411 (same dies), Müller 142 - 146 var (monogram), Thompson -, SNG Cop -, Meydancikkale -, Armenak -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, Black Sea Hoard -, aEF, a few weak areas, weight 16.731 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, die axis 0o, Byzantion (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 210 - 195 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, left arm on shield decorated with Gorgoneion, transverse spear against right side, Nike crowning name in right, monogram left, BY on throne; rare; $1200.00 (€1044.00)


Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.

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This Victory type was likely struck in anticipation of the upcoming war with Vitellius. One of Galba's latest reverse types is identical except for the legend: VICTORIA P R instead of VICTORIA OTHONIS. Several Otho coins struck with what appear to be re-cut Galba reverse dies are known.
SH72953. Silver denarius, RIC I 17, RSC II 24a, BMCRE I 25, BnF III -, SRCV I -, aVF, nice portrait, toned, light scrape on obverse, weight 3.282 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 15 Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; obverse IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right; reverse VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory standing left on globe, wreath extended in right, palm frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Angel Fernandez; 17/1000 coins of this type in Jyrki Muona' Otho die-study; very rare; $1000.00 (€870.00)


Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great

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Lampsacus was known as center for worship of Priapus, who was said to have been born there.

Thompson notes that Lampsacus was Lysimachos' largest mint in Asia Minor, with approximately 150 known obverse dies. Output from Lampsacus declined when Amphipolis began its extensive coinage c. 288 B.C.
SH72207. Silver tetradrachm, Thompson 49, SNG BnF 2548 - 2549, SNG Delepierre 843, SNG Cop 1097 (Pergamum), Müller 399 (Sigeum), gVF, toned, some marks and porosity, weight 16.495 g, maximum diameter 13.4 mm, die axis 45o, Lampsakos (Lapseki, Turkey) mint, 297 - 281 B.C.; obverse diademed head of deified Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena enthroned left, Nike crowning name in extended right hand, left arm rests on grounded round shield decorated with Gorgoneion, transverse spear against right side, ∆/Ξ monogram inner left field, crescent horns left in exergue; ex Roma Numismatics auction 11, lot 34; $990.00 (€861.30)


Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.

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This Victory type was likely struck in anticipation of the upcoming war with Vitellius.
SH72952. Silver denarius, RIC I 16, RSC II 24, BMCRE I 24, BnF III 21, SRCV I 2165, F, nice style portrait and reverse, attractive toning, porous, weight 3.038 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 15 Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; obverse IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right; reverse VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory walking left, wreath extended in right, palm frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, 23/1000 coins of this type in Jyrki Muona' Otho die-study; very rare (RIC R3); $900.00 (€783.00)


Diadumenian, Mid May - 8 June 218 A.D.

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Macrinus was the first emperor who was not of Senatorial rank, his birth was obscure, and he had never distinguished himself in any matter of public service. Rumors soon spread that he was born a slave, was trained as gladiator, and was complicit in Caracalla's murder. Doomed from the moment his father took the purple, Diadumenian paid with his life for his father's hubris.
SL70860. Silver denarius, RIC IV 102a, BMCRE V 87, RSC III 3, SRCV II 7449, NGC Ch XF, strike 5/5, surface 4/5 (4161195-005), weight 2.79 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, as caesar, 11 Apr 217 - mid May 218 A.D.; obverse M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing slightly left, head right, in military dress, standard in right, short scepter in left, two grounded standards behind on right; from the Dr. Sam Mansourati Collection; scarce; $800.00 (€696.00)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG V

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Struck by Antony and Cleopatra at Patrae while preparing for the struggle with Octavian. Twenty-three different legions are named on coins of this issue. This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by Augustus. There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after Actium (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its eagle to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.
SH75375. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/18, Sydenham 1221, BMCRR II East 196, RSC I 32, Sear CRI 354, gVF, toned, banker's mark, tight flan, weight 3.485 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Patrae mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - V, legionary aquila between two standards; $550.00 (€478.50)


Amisos, Pontos, 85 - 65 B.C.

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Amisos, the mythical home of the Amazons, was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire until it was captured by the Seljuks in 1200, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.
SH73961. Bronze AE 21, SNG Cop 165; SNGvA 66; SNG BM Black Sea 1218; SNG Stancomb 704; Rec Gén p. 56, 38; HGC 7 244; Laffaille -, VF, green patina, earthen encrustations, weight 7.574 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 0o, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, Mithridatic War issue, 85 - 65 B.C.; obverse head of Amazon right, wearing wolf scalp headdress; reverse Nike walking right, extending wreath in right, palm frond over shoulder in left, AMI−ΣOY horizontal divided across field; scarce; $450.00 (€391.50)


Thebes, Boiotia, Greece, 405 - 395 B.C.

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The largest city in Boeotia, leader of the Boeotian confederacy, and rival of Athens, Thebes sided with Persia during Xerxes' invasion in 480 B.C. Thebes ended Sparta's power of at the Battle of Leuctra in 371. The Sacred Band of Thebes famously fell to Philip II at Chaeronea in 338. After a revolt in 335, Alexander the Great destroyed the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.
GS74435. Silver tetartemorion, BCD Boiotia 466; BMC Central p. 77, 87; SNG Cop 294; Bérend Fractions 35; Head Boeotia 37, Choice VF, toned, weight 0.163 g, maximum diameter 6.4 mm, Thebes mint, 405 - 395 B.C.; obverse Boiotian shield; reverse bunch of grapes on stem, Θ−E flanking above; ex BCD Collection; $450.00 (€391.50)


Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C.

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Heraclea Pontica, on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus, was founded by Megara c. 560 - 558 B.C. It was named after Herakles who was said to have entered the underworld through a cave on the adjoining Archerusian promontory (Cape Baba). The colonists soon subjugated the native Mariandynians but agreed to terms that none would be sold into slavery outside their homeland. Prospering from the rich, fertile adjacent lands and the sea-fisheries of its natural harbor, Heraclea soon extended its control along the coast as far east as Cytorus (Gideros, near Cide), eventually establishing colonies of its own (Cytorus, Callatis and Chersonesus). The prosperity of the city was destroyed in the Mithridatic Wars.Heraclea-Pontica

GS74866. Silver tetradrachm, Thompson 178, Müller 365, SNG Cop -, aVF, rough, bumps and scratches, some corrosion, flan defect on obverse top near edge, weight 15.601 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 0o, Herakleia Pontika (Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey) mint, c. 288 - 281 BC; obverse diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon; reverse Athena Nikephoros seated left, Nike in her right hand crowning king's name with wreath, left arm resting on grounded round shield behind, transverse spear against far side, HP monogram on throne, club left in exergue; $450.00 (€391.50)


The Sileraioi, Sicily, c. 357 - 330 B.C.

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Sileraioi was not a city. The Sileraians were Campanian mercenaries who took their name from their proximity to the river Silaros. These rare coins have been found at the site of their settlement, Cozzo Mususino, a natural strong-hold in north central Sicily. The coins are often overstruck on coins from Syracuse minted c. 375 - 345 B.C.
SH68704. Bronze Calciati p. 301, 2; HGC 2 1243 (R1); SNG Cop -; SNG ANS -; SNG München -; SNG Morcom -, VF/F, reverse rough, weight 7.521 g, maximum diameter 20.6 mm, die axis 90o, Sileraian mint, c. 340 - 330 B.C.; obverse ΣI−ΛEPAIΩ−N (retrograde counterclockwise from 3:00), man-faced bull forepart charging right; reverse SIL (retrograde, upward behind), warrior advancing right, spear in right hand, shield in left; rare; $400.00 (€348.00)


Roman Republic, Second Triumvirate, Mark Antony and Octavian, Spring - Early Summer 41 B.C.

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AVG in the obverse legend, abbreviates Antony's official position as Augur (not Augustus, a title which did not yet exist). The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"

Octavian's "equivalent" position as Pontifex, a priest, is abbreviated PONT in the reverse legend.

The moneyer M. Barbatius was a friend of Julius Caesar. In 41 B.C. he was a quaestor pro praetore to Antony in the East.
RR73605. Silver denarius, RSC I Mark Antony and Augustus 8, BMCRR 103, Sydenham 1181, Crawford 517/2, SRCV I 1504, F, well centered, toned, grainy surfaces, weight 3.156 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus(?) mint, spring - early summer 41 B.C.; obverse M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony right; reverse CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, bare head of Octavian right; scarce; $400.00 (€348.00)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG III

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This legion was probably Caesar's old III Gallica, which fought for Antony. Another possibility is III Cyrenaica, which was perhaps taken over from Lepidus. The III Augusta was probably an Octavian legion.
RS73643. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/15, Sydenham 1217, BMCRR II East 193, RSC I 28, aVF, weight 3.378 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis ,180o, Patrae(?) mint, fall 32 - spring 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - III, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards, border of dots; $350.00 (€304.50)


Roman Republic, M. Porcius Cato, 89 B.C.

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The seated figure on the reverse is presumably Victoria Virgo, whose shrine was built by Cato Censorious. This type was copied by Cato Uticensis in 47 - 46 B.C. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
RR74536. Silver denarius, SRCV I 247, Sydenham 596a, Crawford 343/1b, RSC I Porcia 5, Nice VF, attractive style and toning, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 89 B.C.; obverse diademed female bust right, ROMA (MA ligate) behind, M·CATO (AT ligate) below; reverse Victory seated right holding patera, VICTRIX (TR ligate) in exergue; $350.00 (€304.50)


Roman Republic, Q. Minucius M.f. Thermus, 103 B.C.

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The reverse refers to the moneyer's ancestor, Q. Minucius Q. f. L. n. Thermus, consul in 193 B.C., who distinguished himself by his bravery against the Ligurians.
RR75242. Silver denarius, SRCV I 197, Sydenham 592, Crawford 319/1, RSC I Minucia 19, BMCRR Italy 653, Choice VF, attractive style, nice toning, well centered, weight 3.928 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 15o, Rome mint, 103 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Mars left; reverse Roman soldier fighting a barbarian, fallen soldier in center below, each holding a sword and shield, Q•TERM•MF in exergue; $350.00 (€304.50)


Lokri Opuntii, Lokris, Greece, 340 - 333 B.C.

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Locrian Ajax (the Lesser) was a Greek mythological hero, son of Oileus, the king of Locris. He was the leader of the Lokrian contingent during the Trojan War. He was called the "lesser" or "Locrian" Ajax, to distinguish him from Ajax the Great, son of Telamon. He is a significant figure in Homer's Iliad and is also mentioned in the Odyssey and Virgil's Aeneid.
GS73966. Silver triobol, BCD Lokris 99; SNG Cop 50; SNG Lockett 1700; de Luynes 1958; Pozzi 1339; BMC Central -, Choice VF, weight 2.762 g, maximum diameter 17.0 mm, die axis 0o, Lokri Opuntii mint, 340 - 333 B.C.; obverse head of Demeter right, wreathed in grain, wearing drop pendant earring and pearl necklace; reverse OΠONTIΩN, Ajax son of Oileus, advancing right in fighting attitude, nude but for crested Corinthian helmet, short sword in right, shield in left ornamented inside with coiled snake (control symbol); kantharos (control symbol) below; $330.00 (€287.10)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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This type may refer to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea.
RB68879. Copper as, RIC II, part 1, 335; BMCRE II 617; Cohen I 632; SRCV I -, F, well centered, nice green patina, small areas of corrosion on obv, weight 12.620 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left, S C in exergue; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $310.00 (€269.70)


Roman Republic, L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, 62 B.C.

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At the end of the Third Macedonian War (171 - 168 B.C.), King Perseus of Macedonia was decisively defeated by Rome at the Battle of Pydna. He surrendered to general Lucius Aemilius Paullus and was imprisoned in Rome with his half-brother Philippus and his son Alexander. The Antigonid kingdom was replaced with four republics, which were later dissolved and became the Roman province of Macedonia.
SH74531. Silver denarius, SRCV I 366, RSC I Aemilia 10, Crawford 415/1, Nice gVF, attractive coin, nice toning, some minor scratches and marks, small edge test cut, weight 3.901 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 150o, Rome mint, 62 B.C.; obverse PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, veiled and diademed head of Concordia right; reverse TER PAVLLVS, Paullus on right, standing left, togate, touching trophy in center; on the left, three standing bound captives: King Perseus of Macedonia, his half-brother, and his son; $300.00 (€261.00)


Roman Republic, Ti. Claudius Ti. f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 B.C.

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The S C on the obverse stands for Senatus Consulto. This issue was authorized by Senate decree, most likely to pay for the extensive military operations during the dictator ship of Sulla. The obverse refers to the Sabine origin of the Claudius Gens. The control numbers run all the way to CLXX.
RR75237. Silver denarius serratus, SRCV I 310, Crawford 383/1, Sydenham 770a, RSC I Claudia 6, EF, light toning, a couple dark spots, scratch on cheek, reverse strike flat on highest points, weight 3.924 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 90o, Rome mint, 79 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Diana, bow and quiver over shoulder, S·C before; reverse Victory in a biga right, raising wreath in right, palm and reins in left, A·II (control number) below, TI·CLAVD·TI·F / AP N (VD and AP in monogram) in two lines in exergue; $290.00 (€252.30)


Macedonian Kingdom, Antigonus II Gonatas, 277 - 239 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great

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Most people expect the crests on ancient helmets to strictly run from front to back. Officer's helmets, however, frequently had a crest running from ear to ear, as on the helmet used as a control symbol on the reverse of this coin. The two ear flaps dangle below the bowl and visor of the helmet.
SH75314. Silver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 618 (same obv. die); Mathisen, Administrative VI.1, obv. die A1; Price 629; Müller Alexander 233; SNG Cop -, SNG Alpha Bank -, VF, centered, golden toning, test cut, light scratches and marks, lamination defect on reverse, weight 16.793 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 90o, Pella (or Amphipolis?) mint, c. 275 - 270 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, eagle in right, long scepter vertical behind in left, crested Macedonian officer's helmet facing on left, ΠAP monogram under seat strut, KE monogram in exergue; ex CNG auction 349, lot 35; $280.00 (€243.60)


Roman Republic, C. Coelius Caldus, 104 B.C.

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In 104 B.C., the Republic was in a state of emergency. The Cimbri had just dealt Rome its most severe defeat since Cannae; two armies were destroyed. Italy was nearly defenseless. The consul Gaius Marius asked King Nicomedes III of Bithynia to provide troops. Nicomedes III turned down the request declaring, "All those eligible for military service in my kingdom have been robbed by the Roman tax-farmers and sold into slavery." In response, about 800 Italian slaves in Sicily were freed. Non-Italians slaves incorrectly believed they had also been freed. When ordered back to servitude, these slaves amassed an army 2,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. The revolt, the Second Servile War, lasted until 100 B.C., caused famine in Rome, and was defeated only after great effort. It was the second of a series of three slave revolts in the Roman Republic.
RR75244. Silver denarius, RSC I Coelia 3, Crawford 318/1b, Sydenham 582a, SRCV I 196 var (noted), Choice VF, fantastic style, excellent centering, nice old cabinet toning, a few scratches, weight 3.948 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 104 B.C.; obverse head of Roma left in winged helmet; reverse Victory in a biga left holding reins in both hands, CALD below, Q and three pellets (control mark) in exergue; $280.00 (€243.60)


Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.

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This type celebrated Elagabalus' victory over Macrinus. Especially in the first year of his reign, Elagabalus was dependent upon the support of the troops to maintain his rule. This reverse type was likely intended not just to increase his own prestige but also to recognize the army for supporting him and congratulate them for their victory too.
RB72368. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 377 (S), BMCRE V 362, Cohen IV 297, Hunter III 96, SRCV II 7582, aF, well centered, nice portrait, lower half of reverse weakly struck, flan crack, corrosion, weight 21.835 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, c. 218 - 219 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ANTONINI AVG, Victory advancing right, raising wreath in right hand, palm frond in left hand over left shoulder, S C across field below center; ex Robert T. Golan (Warrenton, NC); very scarce; $270.00 (€234.90)


Himera, Sicily, 420 - 409 B.C.

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In 409 B.C., Carthage attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from Syracuse, but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of Syracuse itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.
GB70582. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati I p. 41, 27; SNG Cop 318, SNG München 365; SNG ANS 184 var (grasshopper control), VF, well centered, nice patina, weight 5.272 g, maximum diameter 20.8 mm, die axis 90o, Himera mint, 420 - 409 B.C.; obverse Pan on a goat prancing right, nude but for chlamys fluttering in the wind behind, preparing to blow on conch in right, thyrsus in left over shoulder, Corinthian helmet (control symbol) below; reverse HIMEPAION, Nike flying left, apluster with dangling fillets in extended right, fold of long chiton in left, six pellets (mark of value) left below arm; $260.00 (€226.20)


Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.

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On 3 July 324, at Adrianople, Constantine defeated Licinius forcing him to retreat to Byzantium. Crispus destroyed Licinius' fleet at the Battle of Hellespont in the Dardanelles, allowing his father to cross over the Bosporus and besiege Licinius. On 18 September, Constantine I decisively defeated Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis and became sole emperor.
RL90695. Silvered centenionalis, RIC VII London 279, Cohen VII 27, SRCV IV 16726, Choice EF, centered, interesting decoration on shield, traces of silvering, weight 3.008 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, die axis 135o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, 323 - 324 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; reverse BEAT TRA-NQLITAS, globe on altar inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, three stars above, PLON in exergue; scarce; $250.00 (€217.50)


Kingdom of Thrace, Rhoemetalkes I, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.

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When the Cotys VII, King of Thrace, died about 48 B.C. Rhoemetalces I became the guardian of his nephew Rhescuporis I, his brother's young son and heir. In 13 B.C., Rhescuporis I was defeated and slain in battle by Vologases, chief of the Thracian Bessi, who was leading a revolt against Rome. As Rhescuporis I had left no heir, Rhoemetalces became king. An ally of Augustus, the Roman Historian Tacitus described Rhoemetalces as attractive and civilized. After his death, Augustus divided his realm, half for his son Cotys VIII and the other half for Rhoemetalces' brother Rhescuporis II. Tacitus states that Cotys received the cultivated parts, most towns and most Greek cities of Thrace, while Rhescuporis received the wild and savage portion with enemies on its frontier.
RP72883. Bronze AE 15, Youroukova 159, RPC I 1707, BMC Thrace -, SNG Cop -, SNG Stancomb -, VF, weight 1.999 g, maximum diameter 14.6 mm, die axis 225o, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.; obverse K ΣEBAΣTOY, capricorn right, globe upper right between legs; reverse POIMH, Nike advancing right, raising wreath in extended right, grounded palm frond before her in left; rare; $250.00 (€217.50)


Carinus, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.

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When this coin was struck in 282, Carinus was still the Prince of Youth, full of promise. Later he would be remembered as one of the worst Roman emperors. This infamy is, however, likely part fiction, supported by Diocletian himself. For example, the (unreliable) Historia Augusta has Carinus marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, Magnia Urbica, by whom he had a son, Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as Damnatio Memoriae. His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.
RS71588. Silvered antoninianus, Venèra Hoard IV 390 (LV 4227); RIC V, part 2, 182; Cohen VI 97; Hunter III 71; Pink VI-2, p. 28; SRCV III 12302, Choice EF, most silvering remains, well centered and struck, nice portrait, some porosity, weight 4.627 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 2nd issue as caesar, 282 - 283 A.D.; obverse M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Carinus standing left, globe in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, bound captive seated left at feet on left, QXXI in exergue; $250.00 (€217.50)


Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Judaea

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Judaea Capta issue minted at Caesarea, Judaea. After Herod's death, Caesarea was the seat of the Roman procurator and capital of Roman Palestine for about 500 years. A riot in 66 A.D. between Syrians and Jews in the city led to the First Jewish Revolt. Paul was delivered to Caesarea when his life was threatened in Jerusalem (Acts 9:30). From Caesarea, Paul departed to Tarsus, his birthplace. Paul met the church in Caesarea (Acts 18:22; 21:8,16). Finally, Paul was taken prisoner (Acts 23:23,33) and returned to Caesarea where he was tried before Festus and King Agrippa (Acts 25:1-4; 24:6-13)
JD75361. Bronze AE 26, Hendin 1454, Meshorer TJC 391, RPC II 2304, F, red earthen encrustation, some corrosion, weight 10.803 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Maritima mint, c. 83 A.D.; obverse IMP DOMITIANVS CAES AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head left; reverse Minerva standing right on galley with owl on prow, shield in left, spear downward in right, trophy behind, palm frond right, no legend; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection (a surface find from an agricultural field near Caesarea Paneas in 1972); $250.00 (€217.50)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XIII

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The XIII Gemina probably fought for Octavian, and so is not likely to be the Thirteenth Legion referred to on this coin.
SH75371. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/20, Sydenham 1224, BMCRR II East 198, RSC 34, F, dark toning, bankers' marks, some scratches and marks under tone, traces of deposits, shallow edge test, reverse a little off center, weight 3.305 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 180o, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III•VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - XIII, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards, border of dots; ex CNG e-auction 353, lot 419; $250.00 (€217.50)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C.

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RR75378. Silver denarius, cf. Crawford 544/14, Sydenham 1216, BMCRR II East 190, RSC I 27 ff., VF, nice galley, rough, reverse off center, weight 3.311 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - [...], aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards, border of dots; $250.00 (€217.50)


Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I

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Aelia Flaccilla was a fervent supporter of the Nicene Creed. Sozomen reports her preventing a conference between Theodosius and Eunomius of Cyzicus who served as figurehead of Anomoeanism, a sect of Arians. Ambrose and Gregory of Nyssa praise her Christian virtue and comment on her role as "a leader of justice" and "pillar of the Church." She is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church; her feast day is 14 September.
RL70543. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX Siscia 35, VF, excellent centering, weight 0.926 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 0o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, BSIS• in exergue; scarce (R2); $225.00 (€195.75)


Aigai, Aiolis, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.

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Aegae (or Aigai) means place of goats and was the name of many cities of antiquity. Aegae, Aeolis was located at the mid-point between the modern cities of Ýzmir, Manisa, Bergama and Aliaða.
GB90401. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 12 var (different monograms); SNGvA 1598 var (same); SNG München 368 var (same); BMC Troas p. 96, 14 (no monograms); SGCV II 4169, gVF, weight 4.601 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 0o, Aigai mint, 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse AIΓAEΩN, Nike standing left, wreath in righ, palm in left, monogram left, monogram right; $220.00 (€191.40)


Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.

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On 3 July 324, at Adrianople, Constantine defeated Licinius forcing him to retreat to Byzantium. Crispus destroyed Licinius' fleet at the Battle of Hellespont in the Dardanelles, allowing his father to cross over the Bosporus and besiege Licinius. On 18 September, Constantine I decisively defeated Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis and became sole emperor.
RL90682. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII London 281, Cohen VII 28, SRCV IV 16726, Choice EF, green patina, perfect centering, small die break on reverse at 8:00, weight 4.026 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, 323 - 324 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOBIL C, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; reverse BEAT TRANQLITAS, globe on altar inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, three stars above, PLON in exergue; scarce; $220.00 (€191.40)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Amphipolis, Macedonia

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Amphipolis was home to an imperial cult, worshiping the living emperor, and to a cult dedicated to Artemis Tauropolos. The obverse depicts Trajan as a military victor and probably copies an imperial statue. The reverse may depict a local statue of Artemis Tauropolos.
GB90707. Bronze AE 20, Lindgren II 978 (same dies), Varbanov 7179 (R7), AMNG III 79, Hunterian I 37, Moushmov 6068, SNG ANS -, SNG Cop -, SNG Tüb, BMC Macedonia -, F, weight 6.620 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8/9 Aug 117 A.D.; obverse KAICAP TPAIANOC, emperor on horseback galloping right, brandishing spear to strike a prostrate foe below; reverse AMΦIΠOΛEITWN, Artemis Tauropolos standing left, kalathos on head, long torch before her in right hand, small branch in left hand downward at side, grounded shield behind; rare; $220.00 (€191.40)


Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

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Constantine II was about eight years old when this coin was minted. Here he is draped and cuirassed as a powerful child Caesar with the world in his hands!
SH63721. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 382 (R3) corr. (no cuirass), SRCV IV 17155, Cohen VII 23, gVF, well centered on a tight flan, nice green patina, weight 2.868 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, Victory on globe offering wreath in right hand, mappa in left, head of Medusa on cuirass; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX, surmounted by globe, three stars above, •STR• in exergue; rare; $215.00 (€187.05)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

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The eight prutot was Herod's largest denomination.
JD64052. Copper eight prutot, Hendin 1169, Meshorer TJC 44, Meshorer AJC II 1, RPC I 4901, F, weight 7.360 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 40 B.C.; obverse military helmet facing, with cheek pieces and straps, wreathed with acanthus leaves, star above, flanked by two palm-branches; reverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (of King Herod), tripod, ceremonial bowl (lebes) above, LΓ - P (year 3 of the tetrarchy) across fields; $200.00 (€174.00)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Amphipolis, Macedonia

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Amphipolis was home to an imperial cult, worshiping the living emperor, and to a cult dedicated to Artemis Tauropolos. The obverse depicts Trajan as a military victor and probably copies an imperial statue. The reverse may depict a local statue of Artemis Tauropolos.
GB90406. Bronze AE 20, Lindgren II 978 (same dies), Varbanov 7179 (R7), AMNG III 79, Hunterian I 37, Moushmov 6068, SNG ANS -, SNG Cop -, SNG Tüb, BMC Macedonia -, gF, centered, some porosity, weight 5.099 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8/9 Aug 117 A.D.; obverse KAICAP TPAIANOC, emperor on horseback galloping right, brandishing spear to strike a prostrate foe below; reverse AMΦIΠOΛEITWN, Artemis Tauropolos standing left, kalathos on head, long torch before her in right hand, small branch in left hand downward at side, grounded shield behind; rare; $200.00 (€174.00)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.

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They look similar, but there is a significant physical difference between angels and Victory. Angels are all male. Victory (Nike) is female.
SL73455. Silver denarius, RIC II 60, Cohen II 242, BMCRE III 121, SRCV II 3147, NGC Ch XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5, deposits (2410838-004), weight 3.31 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 101 - 102 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse P·M·TR·P·COS·IIII·P·P, Victory walking left, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left; $200.00 (€174.00)


Persian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes I - Darius II, c. 455 - 420 B.C.

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This type was minted in Lydia in Anatolia, while under Persian control, prior to Alexander the Great's conquest. The Persian or Achaemenid Empire (c. 550 - 330 B.C.) was the largest empire in ancient history extending across Asia, Africa and Europe, including Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of Central Asia, Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia, much of the Black Sea coastal regions, Iraq, northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and much of ancient Egypt as far west as Libya.Persian Empire

SH75209. Silver siglos, Carradice Type IV (early) A; SNG Kayhan 1037 (also irregular flan); Carradice Price p. 71 and pl. 19, 146 ff.; Rosen 678; SGCV II 4683, F, fantastic face of the king!, banker's mark, toned, weight 5.073 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 455 - 420 B.C.; obverse Kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, dagger in right, bow in left, bearded, crowned, shapeless body completely lacking a waist; reverse irregular oblong punch; $200.00 (€174.00)


Vetranio, 1 March - 25 December 350 A.D.

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This reverse is much scarcer than Vetranio's usual HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS and CONCORDIA MILITVM types.
SH66576. Bronze AE 2, RIC VIII Siscia 296, VF, weight 1.684 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 350 A.D.; obverse D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM, emperor, standing right, holding spear and globe, at feet seated captive, ΓSIS in exergue; scarce; $195.00 (€169.65)


Tisna, Aeolis, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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GB68074. Bronze AE 10, Traité II 2074, pl. CLVII, 22; Klein 345 var (head right); SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, SNG München -, BMC Troas -, Lindgren -, VF, weight 1.214 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 225o, Tisna mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse youthful head of river-god Tisnaios left; reverse sword in scabbard with strap, TIΣNA/ON (in two lines, one above, one below); very rare; $195.00 (€169.65)


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus III the Great, 223 - 187 B.C.

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Antiochus' victory at the Battle of Panium in 198 B.C. transferred control of Judaea from Ptolemaic Egypt to the Seleukid Kingdom. When Antiochos conquered Asia Minor, however, the Romans responded. Antiochos' losses were so great that the whole of his empire was shattered and he was forced to content himself with the region that he had held in the beginning, Syria.
SL74043. Bronze AE 26, Houghton-Lorber 1256, Newell ESM 611, SNG Spaer 795, Hoover Syrian 482 (R2), NGC VG, strike 4/5, surface 3/5, (4161256-003), weight 13.00 g, maximum diameter 26.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ekbatana mint, c. 205 A.D.; obverse diademed head right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Nike walking left, wreath in extended right hand, long palm in left, ∆Ϙ monogram over horse head left in inner left field, TBΛ monogram inner right; ex Tom Cederlind; rare; $190.00 (€165.30)


Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

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This coin is dedicated to the goddess Fides for her good quality of preserving the public peace by keeping the army true to its allegiance.
RB90829. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 171a, Cohen V 51, gVF, Tiber patina, superb portrait, grainy, edge cracks, tight flan, edge clip at 12:00 (pre-strike to adjust flan weight?), weight 13.589 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 244 - 249 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FIDES EXERCITVS, four legionary standards, second from left signum militaria with hand on top, third an aquila, S C in exergue; $185.00 (€160.95)


Numerian, February or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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RX72854. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5611; Milne 4724 var (unbroken legend); Kampmann 114.9; BMC Alexandria p. 320, 2467 var (no star); Geissen 3195 var (same), Choice VF, highlighting patina, weight 8.197 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, as Augustus, c. Oct 283 - 28 Aug 284 A.D.; obverse A K M A NOVM-EPIANOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Nike advancing right wreath in right hand, palm frond in left, L - B (year 2 of Carus) divided across field, star in right field; rare; $185.00 (€160.95)


Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.

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In 68 A.D., Buddhism officially arrived in China with the building of the White Horse Temple.
RB73696. Copper as, RIC I 431, Cohen I 274, aF, weight 9.157 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, Dec 68 A.D.; obverse SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG PON MA TR P, laureate head right; reverse legionary aquila (eagle) on thunderbolt between two military standards, S - C across fields; ex Forum (2009); rare; $185.00 (€160.95)


Armenian Kingdom, Tigranes II the Great, 95 - 55 B.C.

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Tigranes was called "Tigranes the Great" by Plutarch. The "King of Kings" never appeared in public without having four kings attending him. At its height, Tigranes' empire extended from the Pontic Alps to Mesopotamia and from the Caspian to the Mediterranean. In 83 B.C., the Syrians offered him the crown and after conquering Phoenicia and Cilicia, he effectively ended the Seleucid Empire. His southern border reached as far as Akko-Ptolemais. The first Armenian ruler to issue coins, he adopted the Seleucid tradition and struck coins at Antioch and Damascus during his occupation of Syria from 83 to 69 B.C. In 66 B.C., Pompey advanced into Armenia with Tigranes' own son as an ally. Tigranes, now almost 75 years old, surrendered. Pompey treated him generously and returned some of his kingdom in return for 6,000 talents of silver. His unfaithful son was sent back to Rome as a prisoner. Tigranes continued to rule Armenia as an ally of Rome until his death in 55 B.C.
SH66375. Bronze four chalci, cf. Nercessian 84; Bedoukian 119; BMC Seleucid p. 104, 12 (half chalkous); SNG Cop -, aF, weight 9.332 g, maximum diameter 21.2 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, c. 83 - 69 B.C.; obverse head of Tigranes I right wearing five-pointed Armenian tiara, A behind; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ TIΓPANOY, Nike advancing left, wreath in extended right, left hand on hip, uncertain letters outer left; ex Gianni Aiello Collection; rare; $180.00 (€156.60)


Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.

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In 77 or 78 A.D., Gnaeus Julius Agricola was made governor of Roman Britain, a post he occupied until 84. In his first year, Agricola subdued the Ordovices in Wales and pursued the remnants of the tribe to Anglesey, the holy island of the Druids. According to Tacitus, he exterminated the whole tribe. The Ordovices do completely disappear from the historical record, but considering the mountainous terrain, it is unlikely killed the entire population. Another tribe, the Silures, was either also militarily defeated or simply agreed to terms. Tacitus wrote of the Silures: non atrocitate, non clementia mutabatur - the tribe "was changed neither by cruelty nor by clemency." A Roman squadron, sent by Agricola, explored the north of Scotland for the first time, discovering the Orkney and Shetland Islands.Pre-Roman Wales
RS70179. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, Vespasian 957; RSC II 49; BMCRE II 234; BnF III 207; SRCV I 2638, VF, superb portrait, toned, weight 3.303 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right; reverse COS V, helmeted rider on rearing horse right; $180.00 (€156.60)


Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.

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In 363, Jovian negotiated a disastrous peace with Persia, surrendering four of the five Roman provinces gained by Galerius in 298, and the cities Nisibis and Singara.
SH90399. Bronze AE 1, RIC VIII Thessalonica 238, VF, green patina, weight 8.537 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 135o, 4th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIAN - VS P F AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM, Jovian standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and Chi-Rho standard, •TES∆•; rare; $180.00 (€156.60)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta

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On 14 April 70 A.D. Titus surrounded Jerusalem. He allowed pilgrims to enter to celebrate Passover but this was a trap to put pressure on supplies of food and water; he refused to allow them to leave. On 10 May he began his assault on the walls. The third wall fell on 25 May. The second wall fell on 30 May. On 20 July Titus stormed the Temple Mount. On 4 August 70 A.D. Titus destroyed the Temple. The Jewish fast of Tisha B'Av mourns the Fall of Jerusalem annually on this date.
SH90414. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 2; Hendin 1479; BMCRE II 35; RSC II 226; SRCV I 2296, F, toned, weight 2.312 g, maximum diameter 16.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 69 - 70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA, Jewess seated right, mourning, veiled, supporting chin with left hand, trophy of captured arms behind her; $180.00 (€156.60)




  



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