Roman Civil Wars, Revolt of , Governor of Spain, April - June 68 A.D.
lived in for eight years. This coin was issued by as governor of Spain in revolt against . The is copied from Republican struck in 62 B.C. by the moneyer L. Scribonius Libo.SH63560. Silver , 9 (R4), 396, 9, 2072, F, , 3.515 g, maximum 17.7 mm, 225o, (?) mint, Apr - Jun 68 A.D.; , young female ( ) right, around forehead; ROM RENASC, standing right in military garb, on globe in right hand, eagle-tipped over left shoulder in left; bargain priced for this interesting R4 rarity implying the restoration of the Republic!, from the Jyrki Muona Collection; very (R4); $1170.00 (€1041.30)
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
peaked during the 1st and 2nd century A.D. when it was second in importance and size only to Rome, with a population estimated at 400,000 to 500,000 in 100 A.D. The city was famous for the Temple of , the Library of Celsus, and its theater, seating 25,000 spectators. also had several large bath complexes and one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world. Water powered numerous , one of which has been identified as a sawmill for marble. The city and temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263 A.D., marking the decline of the city's splendor.RS77202. Silver , , 1, 1457; 475; 277; 853, gVF, excellent portrait, , some luster in recesses, , tiny edge cracks, 3.275 g, maximum 18.0 mm, mint, 74 A.D.; IMP AVG TR P P P, laureate right; , advancing right, filleted wreath raised in extended right hand, frond in left hand over left shoulder; lower right, annulet below; very ; $1000.00 (€890.00)
, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.
This was likely struck in anticipation of the upcoming war with . One of Galba's latest types is identical except for the : instead of . Several coins struck with what appear to be re-cut dies are known. SH72953. Silver , 17, 24a, 25, -, -, aVF, nice portrait, , light scrape on , 3.282 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 15 Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; IMP M , right; , standing left on globe, wreath extended in right, frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Angel Fernandez; 17/1000 coins of this in Jyrki Muona' die-study; very ; $900.00 (€801.00)
, 22 April - 29 July 238 A.D.
was elected along with to end the reign of the brutal . A military stalemate ensued, until was murdered by his own troops. The population and the Praetorian guard held little respect for the two ex-senators, however, and they were murdered after a reign of only 99 days.SH77281. Silver , 8, 27, 37, 8491, VF, excellent portrait, , 3.036 g, maximum 20.4 mm, 0o, Rome mint, 1st emission; IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped, and right; , standing facing, left, raising wreath in right, frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex J. ; ; $900.00 (€801.00)
, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.
This was likely struck in anticipation of the upcoming war with . SH72952. Silver , 16, 24, 24, 21, 2165, F, nice portrait and , attractive , porous, 3.038 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 15 Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; IMP M , right; , walking left, wreath extended in right, frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, 23/1000 coins of this in Jyrki Muona' die-study; very ( ); $800.00 (€712.00)
Taras, , Italy, c. 272 - 240 B.C.
Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta). These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at and was told to make the harbor of Taranto their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a sent to him by Poseidon. This symbol of the ancient Greek city is the symbol of modern Taranto today.SH75331. Silver nomos, 927, 890, 1037, gVF, , on a , , some marks, scratches, and light corrosion, 6.332 g, maximum 18.7 mm, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 272 - 240 BC; |−HPAK/ΛHTOΣ below, helmeted and warrior on horseback right, on his back, transverse spear downward in right hand; TAPAΣ, Phalanthos on left, flower in extended right, in left hand, EΓ and (incense burner) behind; $670.00 (€596.30)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG II
This may have been II , disbanded by . The well-known II Augusta, which took in the conquest of Britain and was later stationed in South Wales, was one of Octavian's legions, and so not likely to be the Second Legion referred to on this coin. Other Second Legions (Adiutrix, , Parthica and Traiana) were raised much later in imperial times.SH76924. Silver , 544/14, 1216, II East 190, 27, 349, gVF, well struck, , , marks and scratches, 3.521 g, maximum 17.5 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - II, ( ) between two legionary standards; ex Inferior Numismatics; $550.00 (€489.50)
Athens, , , c. 140 - 175 A.D.
Minos demanded that, every ninth year, Athens send seven boys and seven girls to to be devoured by the , a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth. , son of Aigeus, the of Athens, volunteered to take the place of one of the youths and slay the monster to stop this horror. Upon his arrival to , , Minos' daughter, fell in love with him and gave him a ball of to him find his way out of the Labyrinth. promised that if he escaped he would take her with him. Using the string to mark his path, he made his way to the heart of the Labyrinth, slew the , followed the string out, and then rescued the Athenian boys and girls. told to leave and Phaedra behind on the beach. Distressed by his broken heart, forgot to put up the white sails that were to signal his success. Upon seeing black sails, his father committed suicide, throwing himself off a cliff into the sea, causing this body of water to be named the Aegean.GB77873. Bronze , p. 105, 764; 341; , pl. 96, 1; 276, aF, corrosion, 7.132 g, maximum 23.7 mm, 180o, Athens mint, pseudo-autonomous under Rome, c. 140 - 175 A.D.; helmeted of right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; AΘHNAIΩN, right, preparing to slay the , nude, planting knee on the back of , raising club in his right hand, a horn of the in his left hand, the falling right on left knee; from the Butte College Foundation, ex (Antioch Associates); very ; $500.00 (€445.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
This may have been a legion raised by Antony and disbanded by . The XI , an old legion of Caesar's, fought for (and won the title Actiaca at the battle of ).
SL79267. Silver , 544/25, 1229, II East 203, 39, NGC F, strike 3/5, surface 2/5, banker's marks (2400602-008), , 3.48 g, maximum 15.4 mm, 180o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XI, ( ) between two legionary standards; NGC certified (slabbed); $500.00 (€445.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XII
This old Caesarean legion was known at different times as , Antiquae, Paterna and finally XII Fulminata ('the thunderers'). Its veterans settled (among other places) in Patras in . After fighting without great distinction in the First Jewish Revolt, the legion was transferred to Melitene in , where it remained for several hundred years.RR76782. Silver , 544/20, 1224, II East 198, 34, VF, , contact marks, , 3.561 g, maximum 19.3 mm, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XII, ( ) between two legionary standards; $450.00 (€400.50)
, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.
The Roman–Parthian War of 161 - 166 was fought between the Roman and Parthian Empires over and Upper . In 166, the Romans made successful campaigns into lower and Media, and sacked Ctesiphon, the Parthian capital. The Romans were be victorious but the returning army brought back a pandemic known as the Antonine Plague. The plague significantly depopulated the entire Roman Empire.SH76376. Silver , 163a, 878, 406, 33, 4933, VF, excellent centering and bold strike, tiny edge cracks, 3.079 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 0o, Rome mint, summer - Dec 166 A.D.; M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate right; TR P XX IMP IIII , standing slightly left, right, frond vertical in right hand, inscribed set on tree in left hand; from the Scott Collection; $450.00 (€400.50)
, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.
In the spring of 68, was informed of Nero's intention to put him to death. On 2 April 68, at , declared himself the "representative of the Roman people" and received salutation by the troops as . This was not quite a claim to the throne, but was clearly rebellion. This is from a small issue struck in Gaul during the period after Galba's salutation as , but before his recognition as in mid-June. On the claims he will achieve for the Roman people.BB76887. Silver , 111 (R2), 227, 322, -, -, -, aVF, , scratch, light corrosion, 3.352 g, maximum 18.8 mm, 180o, uncertain Gaul (Narbo?) mint, c. 10 April - mid Jun 68 A.D.; SER (counter-clockwise from lower right), laureate and draped right; (counter-clockwise from upper left), standing left on globe, wreath in right hand, frond in her left; ; $400.00 (€356.00)
, 209 - c. 26 December 211 A.D.
This refers to military campaign successes in northern Britain. and accompanied their father to Britain and when was promoted to , it was the first time ever three emperors had ruled. primarily remained in Eburacum (York) and serving in an administrative role.RS76963. Silver , 91 (S); p. 369, 67; 220; 7255; -, EF, portrait, , slight die wear, 3.135 g, maximum 19.1 mm, Rome mint, 210 A.D.; P SEPT AVG , laureate and bearded right; , advancing right, raising wreath in right hand, frond in left hand over left shoulder; $400.00 (€356.00)
, 20 November 423 - May 425 A.D.
was primicerius notariorum ( civil servant) for and seized the throne of the Western Roman Empire upon Honorius' death. issued coins for and attempted to negociate his position. refused to recognize him, elevated to , and marched into Italy at the of a formidable army. was captured at Ravenna in early summer 425 A.D., tortured, mutilated, exhibited in the mounted on an ass and executed.RL77210. Bronze half
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Capta
This celebrates the success of and in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Coins commemorating this event are referred to as "Judaea Capta" issues.
RS79260. Silver , , 1, 2; 1479; 35; 226; 18; 2296, F, excellent centering, , 3.044 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69 - 70 A.D.; IMP AVG, laureate right; IVDAEA, Jewess seated right, mourning, veiled, supporting chin with left hand, of captured arms behind her; $400.00 (€356.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C.,
Struck by Antony and at while preparing for the struggle with . Twenty-three different legions are named on coins of this issue. This may have been the famous V Alaudae ('the larks'), a Caesarean legion which remained loyal to Antony but was later retained by . There are other possibilities, however: V Macedonica, a Caesarean legion about which little is known; V Urbana, disbanded after (and therefore quite likely an Antonian legion); and V Gallica, a Caesarean legion that was probably the one that under Lollius lost its to German raiders in Gaul in 17 B.C.SH77472. Silver , 544/18, 1221, II East 196, 32, 354, VF, , minor flaw on , light scratches, 3.401 g, maximum 17.0 mm, mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT AVG III. VIR. R. P. C., galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - V, legionary between two standards; $375.00 (€333.75)
Thebes, Boiotia, , 405 - 395 B.C.
The largest city in , leader of the Boeotian confederacy, and rival of Athens, Thebes sided with during Xerxes' invasion in 480 B.C. Thebes ended Sparta's power of at the Battle of Leuctra in 371. The Sacred Band of Thebes famously fell to at Chaeronea in 338. After a revolt in 335, Alexander the Great destroyed the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet .GS74435. Silver tetartemorion, 466; p. 77, 87; 294; 35; 37, VF, , 0.163 g, maximum 6.4 mm, Thebes mint, 405 - 395 B.C.; Boiotian ox hide ; bunch of grapes on stem, Θ−E flanking above; ex ; $360.00 (€320.40)
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312 - 280 B.C.
Seleukos (Seleucus) founded the Seleukid Empire and the Seleukid dynasty which ruled until Pompey made it a Roman province in 63 B.C. Seleukos was never one of Alexander the Great's principal generals but he commanded the royal bodyguard during the Indian campaign. In the division of the empire after Alexander's death Seleukos did not receive a satrapy. Instead, he served under the regent Perdikkas until the latter's murder in 321 or 320. Seleukos was then appointed of . Five years later Monophthalmus (the One-eyed) forced him to flee, but he returned with support from Ptolemy. He later added and Media to his territory and defeated both and . He was succeeded by his son Antiochus I.
SH79745. Silver , I 130, 18a, F, , grainy, scratches, 15.041 g, maximum 26.3 mm, 0o, Seleukia on the II mint, c. 296 - 280 B.C.; laureate of Zeus right; fighting in a of horned elephants right, wearing helmet, javelin in her right hand, on her left arm, BAΣIΛEΩΣ curved upward on left, ΣEΛEYKOY in , obscure control above elephants and perhaps in ; $360.00 (€320.40)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
In 278, defeated the , expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of and .RA76279. , , p. 63; RIC, 2, V 376 (S) var. ( ); 283 var. (same); 131 var. (same, and ); 11984 (same), aEF, some mint luster, most remains, fantastic heroic , light corrosion, 3.341 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 0o, 5th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; , left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for over right shoulder and rectangular with square corner in on left shoulder; HERCVLI PACIF, standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and skin in left, in ; very ; $315.00 (€280.35)
Roman Republic, M. Porcius Cato, 89 B.C.
The seated figure on the is presumably Virgo, whose shrine was built by Cato Censorious. This was copied by in 47 - 46 B.C. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. RR74536. Silver , 247, 596a, 343/1b, 5, Nice VF, attractive and , 3.903 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 270o, Rome mint, 89 B.C.; diademed female right, (MA ) behind, M·CATO (AT ) below; seated right holding , (TR ) in ; $315.00 (€280.35)
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Capta Issue
This celebrates the success of and in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Coins commemorating this event are referred to as "Judaea Capta" issues. RIC lists this as common; we think in error. This is the first example of the handled by .RS77388. Silver , , 1, 1120; 243; 1488; 388; 297; 161; 2262, aF, , light scratches, 3.179 g, maximum 16.2 mm, 180o, ( , France) mint, 71 A.D.; IMP , laureate right; ( Defeated), Jewess standing left, draped, slightly bowed, tied in front of her, date tree behind her; ex Pecunem Numismatik Naumann auction 36, lot 622; ; $310.00 (€275.90)
, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
This is apparently unpublished and this is the only example of the known to . This was used for very (both R5) issues of and . CNG e-auction 368, lot 496, is with this same , also 5th , but with on on the left holding a on globe and .RL76392. , apparently unpublished, cf. 116 - 117 (for ) and 138 - 139 (for , issues of the Licinii), EF, excellent portrait, both sides slightly off center, left side of weak, some , a few light marks, 2.773 g, maximum 19.0 mm, 180o, 5th , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, as , 320 A.D.; CONSTANTINVS IVN , laureate and left; , inscribed VOT / XX in two lines, two seated barbarian captives back-to-back flanking base, ( ) left, in ; ex Scott Collection; extremely ; $300.00 (€267.00)
, 18 January 350 - 10 August 353 A.D.
On 28 September 351, at the Battle of Mursa Major, defeated the usurper . The battle was one of the bloodiest in Roman military history. During the fighting Marcellinus, a general of was killed, but himself survived.RL77938. heavy maiorina, Amiens 23 (S), II 13, 125 (8 spec.), 18817, 69, aEF, 4.031 g, maximum 23.1 mm, 45o, (Amiens, France) mint, Spring 351 - 18 Aug 353 A.D.; D N MAGNENTIVS , bare-headed, draped, and right, A behind; AVG ET CAE, two Victories standing , together holding wreath containing in four lines, ( ) above, AMB and crescent in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex , ex Frank S. Robinson; ; $300.00 (€267.00)
, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.
Adventus types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign, or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.RA76334. , , 2, 904 (S); 69; , p. 43; 311 var. (1st ); cf. 11195 (Rome mint, etc.), gVF, green with some remaining, 4.393 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 2nd , Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 2nd emission, end 276 - beginning 277 A.D.; , , helmeted, and left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval decorated with charging horseman on left arm; PROBI AVG, on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, B in ; ; $280.00 (€249.20)
, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a nation of all-female warriors. Herodotus placed them in a region bordering Scythia in (in modern Ukraine). Other historiographers placed them in Anatolia or in .RS77244. Silver , 76a, 1108, 147, 122, -, -, VF, nice portrait, light bumps and marks, edge cracks, 3.271 g, maximum 18.1 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 123 A.D.; IMP TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate and draped right; , standing slightly left, left, wearing crested helmet, dressed as Amazon in short tunic, in right hand, vertical spear in left hand; $280.00 (€249.20)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG III
This legion was probably Caesar's old III Gallica, which fought for Antony. Another possibility is III , which was perhaps taken over from . The III Augusta was probably an legion.RR73643. Silver , 544/15, 1217, II East 193, 28, 350, aVF, 3.378 g, maximum 17.9 mm, ,180o, (?) mint, fall 32 - spring 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - III, ( ) between two legionary standards; $270.00 (€240.30)
, II Gonatas, 277 - 239 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great
Most people expect the crests on ancient helmets to strictly run from front to back. Officer's helmets, however, frequently had a crest running from ear to ear, as on the helmet used as a control symbol on the of this coin. The two ear flaps dangle below the and visor of the helmet. SH75314. Silver , 618 (same die); , Administrative VI.1, die A1; 629; 233; -, -, VF, centered, golden , , light scratches and marks, lamination defect on , 16.793 g, maximum 28.4 mm, 90o, (or Amphipolis?) mint, c. 275 - 270 B.C.; of Herakles right, clad in scalp headdress tied at neck; AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Aëtophoros enthroned left, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, in right hand, long vertical behind in left hand, crested Macedonian officer's helmet facing on left, ΠAP under seat strut, KE in ; ex CNG auction 349, lot 35; $250.00 (€222.50)
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
, is the church that had forsaken its first love (Revelation 2:1-7).
RS76092. Silver , , 1, 1412 (R); 278a; 820, VF, fantastic portrait, dark , on a , tiny , 3.099 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 0o, mint, 70 A.D.; IMP AVG TR P P P, laureate right; , walking left, wreath in extended right, frond in left, Φ lower left (unstruck); ; $250.00 (€222.50)
, , July or August 350 - 18 August 353 A.D.
recorded only a single specimen, notes another in the British Museum. We know of a few more examples.RL77937. maiorina, Trier 313 (R), 65 (1 spec.), II 59, 18886, 37, gVF, , nice portrait, edge cracks, spots of light corrosion, light marks, 4.810 g, maximum 21.9 mm, 1sto , (Trier, Germany) mint, Jan 351 - Aug 352 A.D.; D N DECENTIVS , bare-headed, draped and right, seen from front, A behind; AVG ET , two Victories standing , holding between them a wreath inscribed MVLT X in four lines within, TRP in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex , ex Frank S. Robinson; very ; $250.00 (€222.50)
, and Prefect of the Fleet, executed 35 B.C.
Struck in by , the younger son of . Although was the supreme naval commander, had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating . He was, however, defeated by at the naval battle of Naulochus on 3 September 36 B.C. and executed by order of in 35 B.C.
SH79738. Silver , 1391, 1a ( 21), 15, 1347, 511/2b, S 1391, F, , 3.344 g, maximum 18.6 mm, 90o, Sicilian mint, 42 B.C.; IMP , diademed of Neptune right, trident behind; PRÆF CLAS ET ORAE , naval of captured arms placed on , made of trident, , helmet, stem of prow, , and heads of and Charybdis; $250.00 (€222.50)
, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D., Issued by
In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will be the ." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.RL90446. heavy maiorina, 286 (S), II 1173, 51, 18203, VF, , slightly rough green , coppery high-points, 4.749 g, maximum 22.5 mm, 180o, 1st , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issued by , 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; D N CONSTANTIVS , pearl-diademed, draped and right, A behind, before; HOC SIGNO ERIS, Constantius standing facing left, holding ( ) and spear, right crowning him, A left, •ASIS• in (A's often appear as H in this period); ; $240.00 (€213.60)
and , 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D., Marcianopolis, Inferior
Renamed by after his sister, , Marcianopolis was an important strategic center for centuries. The city was repeatedly destroyed by barbarian raids (Goths, Huns, Avars and others) but also was repeatedly rebuilt and prospered. During Valens' conflict with the Goths, Marcianopolis was a temporary capital of the empire and the largest city in . An Avar raid destroyed the city in 614 or 615.
RP70334. Bronze pentassarion, 184.108.40.206, I/I 778, 1290, -, -, VF, attractive green , a few minor scratches, , , 10.894 g, maximum 27.4 mm, 0o, Markianopolis (Devnya, Bulgaria) mint, consular legate Pontianus, 217 - 218 A.D.; AYT K OΠEΛ CEYH MAKPEINOC K M OΠEΛ ANTΩNEINOC, laureate of right with bare-head of left; YΠ ΠONTIANOY MAPKIANOΠOΛEITΩN, standing left, laureate, wearing military garb, right foot on helmet, on globe offering wreath in his right hand, reversed spear vertical in left hand, two oval shields at feet on left, E in left ; ex CNG e-auction 278, lot 179; $240.00 (€213.60)
, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
This may commemorate a on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of .RB68879. Copper as, , 1, 335; 617; 632; 119 var. ( , low across ); -, F, , nice green , small areas of corrosion on 12.620 g, maximum 27.6 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; AVG , right; , standing right on a prow, wreath in right, frond over should in left, S C in ; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $225.00 (€200.25)
Kingdom of , Rhoemetalkes I, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.
When the Cotys VII, of , died about 48 B.C. Rhoemetalces I became the guardian of his nephew Rhescuporis I, his brother's young son and heir. In 13 B.C., Rhescuporis I was defeated and slain in battle by Vologases, chief of the Thracian Bessi, who was leading a revolt against Rome. As Rhescuporis I had left no heir, Rhoemetalces became . An ally of , the Roman Historian described Rhoemetalces as attractive and civilized. After his death, divided his realm, half for his son Cotys and the other half for Rhoemetalces' brother Rhescuporis II. states that Cotys received the cultivated parts, most towns and most Greek cities of , while Rhescuporis received the wild and savage portion with enemies on its frontier.RP72883. Bronze AE 15, 159, 1707, -, -, -, VF, 1.999 g, maximum 14.6 mm, 225o, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.; K ΣEBAΣTOY, capricorn right, globe upper right between legs; POIMH, advancing right, raising wreath in extended right, grounded frond before her in left; ; $225.00 (€200.25)
, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.
When this coin was struck in 282, was the Prince of Youth, full of promise. Later he would be remembered as one of the worst . This infamy is, however, likely fiction, supported by himself. For example, the (unreliable) Augusta has marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, , by whom he had a son, Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as . His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.RS71588. , 390 (LV 4227); , 2, 182; 97; 71; , p. 28; 12302, EF, most remains, and struck, nice portrait, some , 4.627 g, maximum 23.0 mm, 0o, 4th , Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 2nd issue as , 282 - 283 A.D.; CARINVS , , draped and right; , standing left, globe in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, bound captive seated left at feet on left, QXXI in ; $225.00 (€200.25)
Amisos, Pontos, c. 85 - 65 B.C.
Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of . The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the coast of Turkey.GB76954. Bronze AE 20, p. 20, 72; 1187 var. (different right); 688 ff. var. (different ); 167 ff. var. (same), VF, on usual , nice green , minor adjustment marks, 8.426 g, maximum 19.8 mm, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, c. 85 - 65 B.C.; with facing of ( ) in center; AMI−ΣOY, advancing right, holding frond across shoulders behind, A∆T lower left, AMTE lower right; $225.00 (€200.25)
Aitna, , The Kampanoi Mercenaries, c. 392 - 358 B.C.
In 475 B.C. Hieron moved ten thousand settlers from and to Katane and renamed it Aetna. In 461, after Hieron's death, the new settlers were expelled. They moved to the southern slope of the and founded a new Aetna. In 403 B.C., Dionysius the Elder made himself master of Aetna, where he settled his discharged Campanian mercenaries, the Kampanoi. The Kampanoi retained possession of Aitna until 339 B.C., when Timoleon took the city and put them to the sword. Under Rome, Aitna became a municipal town of considerable importance; its territory being one of the most fertile of all . The site of the city and time of its destruction are unknown today. GI76936. Bronze AE 14, III, p. 327, 2 (Mercenaries at Aitna); 1608 (R1, mercenaries at Tauromenion); 877, VF, green , 2.744 g, maximum 14.4 mm, 60o, Aitna or Tauromenion mint, c. 344 - 339 B.C.; Phrygian helmet with cheek guards, ornamented with a , linear ; KAM (Kampanoi?), AIT (Aitna?), or TA (Tauromenion?) in laurel wreath; $220.00 (€195.80)
Boiotia, , Boiotian League, c. 225 - 171 B.C.
After the destruction of Thebes by Alexander in 335 B.C., the Boeotians never again pursued independent policy, but followed protecting powers. Unable to defend its frontiers, the land became more than ever the "dancing-ground of Ares." was generally loyal to Macedon, and supported its kings against Rome. Devastation during the First Mithridatic War was a death-blow to the country's prosperity. Rome dissolved the league, but it was revived under , and merged with the other central Greek federations in the Achaean synod. -
SH79751. Silver , 127; Cop 387 var. (ΓAN ); p. 42, 99 var. (same); 3306 var. (different ), VF, nice , light , some die wear, light marks, tiny punch or flaw inner right on , 4.902 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 45o, Thebes(?) mint, c. 225 - 171 B.C.; laureate of Poseidon right; standing left, raising wreath in right, trident vertical behind in left, BOIΩTΩN downward on left, AN inner left; variant; $220.00 (€195.80)
, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of I
was a fervent supporter of the Nicene Creed. Sozomen reports her preventing a conference between and Eunomius of Cyzicus who served as figurehead of Anomoeanism, a sect of Arians. Ambrose and Gregory of Nyssa praise her Christian virtue and comment on her role as "a leader of justice" and "pillar of the Church." She is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church; her feast day is 14 September.RL70543. Bronze half , 35.2 (R2), II 1566, 20623, 5, VF, excellent centering, 0.926 g, maximum 13.3 mm, 0o, 2nd , (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Aug 383 - autumn 384 A.D.; AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped right; , seated right inscribing on set on , BSIS• in ; ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.
The translates, "Happy Times ." Happy times would not last for . This coinage was among his last issues before his general rebelled and had him killed.RL90437. heavy maiorina, 244, II 1136, 31, 18730, 10, gVF, light encrustations, 4.945 g, maximum 22.8 mm, 45o, 2nd , mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; D N CONSTA-NS , pearl-diademed, draped and right; FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times ), standing left in Galley left, in left hand, on globe in right hand, steering at stern, AQS• in ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Capta, Maritima,
Capta issue minted at , . After Herod's death, was the seat of the Roman procurator and capital of Roman for about 500 years. A riot in 66 A.D. between Syrians and Jews in the city led to the First Jewish Revolt. Paul was delivered to when his life was threatened in Jerusalem (Acts 9:30). From , Paul departed to Tarsus, his birthplace. Paul met the church in (Acts 18:22; 21:8,16). Finally, Paul was taken prisoner (Acts 23:23,33) and returned to where he was tried before Festus and (Acts 25:1-4; 24:6-13)
JD75361. Bronze AE 26, 1454, 391, 2304, F, red earthen encrustation, some corrosion, 10.803 g, maximum 25.8 mm, 0o, Maritima mint, c. 83 A.D.; IMP DOMITIANVS AVG , laureate left; standing right on galley with owl on prow, in left, spear downward in right, behind, frond right, no ; from the J. Collection (a surface find from an agricultural near in 1972); $200.00 (€178.00)
Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
It is no wonder this is . belonged to Licinius. In 321, Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging territory in his realm, across the Danube into Licinius' territory. When he repeated this chasing Goths who had pillaged in , Licinius complained that Constantine had broken their treaty. Soon after this issue began, the co-emperors were at war. In 324, this same was struck for , who Licinius, after being defeated by Constantine at Adrianople, had appointed as his co-emperor and Constantine's nominal replacement in the .
The XIIΓ probably indicates that the was retariffed to 12 1/2 communes.
RT76372. , p. 607, 43 (R4); 15950, 292; -, VF, excellent centering, cleaning scratches, light corrosion, 2.870 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 180o, 2nd , (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 321 - 324 A.D.; IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS , , draped and right; , standing facing, left, nude but for over left shoulder, on globe offering wreath in his right hand, topped vertical in left, with wreath in beak standing left on left, XII/Γ on right above bearded captive at feet seated right with turned looking back at , SMNB in ; very ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG III
This legion was probably Caesar's old III Gallica, which fought for Antony. Another possibility is III , which was perhaps taken over from . The III Augusta was probably an legion.RR77566. Silver , 544/15, 1217, II East 193, 28, 350, F, 3.121 g, maximum 17.6 mm, 180o, (?) mint, fall 32 - spring 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - III, ( ) between two legionary standards; $200.00 (€178.00)
, Triumvir and , 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XX
Antony's XX must have been disbanded by . The well-known XX Valeria (which later took in the conquest of Britain) was probably constituted by , perhaps after .RR77568. Silver , 544/36, 1243, II East 215, 57, F, off center, light marks and scratches, 3.117 g, maximum 17.9 mm, 135o, (?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; LEG - XX, ( ) between two legionary standards; $200.00 (€178.00)
Katane, , c. 461 - 413 B.C., Dies by Euanotos
Catania, on the east coast of facing the Sea, has had a long and eventful history, having been founded in the 8th century B.C. As observed by Strabo, the location of Catania at the foot of Mount Etna has been both a curse and a blessing. On the one hand, violent outbursts of the throughout history have destroyed large parts of the city, on the other hand the volcanic ashes yield fertile soil, especially suited for the growth of vines. ( . vi. p. 269)GS77854. Silver , pl. 14, 7; 439; 1263; 38; unsigned dies by the master engraver Euainetos, aF, rough, 3.738 g, maximum 19.3 mm, 0o, Katane (Catania, , Italy) mint, c. 410 B.C.; Female charioteer, holding and reins, driving galloping to right; above, flying to left crowning charioteer with wreath held in outstretched arms; KATANAIΩN in ; AMENANOΣ, youthful of river-god Amenanos left, diadem in hair, small bull's horn above forehead; fish above shrimp before, second fish behind; very ; $200.00 (€178.00)
, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.
The in the , a symbol of the sun-god, stands for the mint of Rome.
RS79250. Silver , 194, 45, 7535, EF, portrait, perfect centering and bold strike, detail, a few small edge cracks, some light marks, 3.038 g, maximum 18.9 mm, 180o, Rome mint, 221 A.D.; IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate right; IIII P P, flying left holding open laurel diadem in both , at each side a small , right; $200.00 (€178.00)
, Aiolis, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.
(or ) means place of goats and was the name of many cities of antiquity. , was located at the mid-point between the modern cities of Ýzmir, Manisa, Bergama and Aliaða.GB90401. Bronze AE 17, 12 var. (different ); 1598 var. (same); 368 var. (same); p. 96, 14 (no ); 4169, gVF, 4.601 g, maximum 17.3 mm, 0o, mint, 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C.; helmeted of right; AIΓAEΩN, standing left, wreath in righ, in left, left, right; $195.00 (€173.55)
, , 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.
On 3 July 324, at Adrianople, Constantine defeated Licinius forcing him to retreat to . destroyed Licinius' fleet at the Battle of Hellespont in the Dardanelles, allowing his father to over the and besiege Licinius. On 18 September, decisively defeated Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis and became sole emperor.RL90682. , 281, 28, 16726, EF, green , perfect centering, small die break on at 8:00, 4.026 g, maximum 19.8 mm, 180o, 1st , Londinium ( , England) mint, 323 - 324 A.D.; CRISPVS , helmeted and left, holding spear and ; , globe on inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, three stars above, in ; ; $195.00 (€173.55)
, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Amphipolis,
Amphipolis was home to an imperial cult, worshiping the living emperor, and to a cult dedicated to . The depicts as a military and probably copies an imperial statue. The may depict a local statue of .GB90707. Bronze AE 20, 978 (same dies), 7179 (R7), 79, 37, 6068, -, -, , -, F, 6.620 g, maximum 20.2 mm, 180o, Amphipolis mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8/9 Aug 117 A.D.; TPAIANOC, emperor on horseback galloping right, brandishing spear to strike a prostrate foe below; AMΦIΠOΛEITWN, standing left, on , long torch before her in right hand, small branch in left hand downward at side, grounded behind; ; $195.00 (€173.55)
, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.
was about eight years old when this coin was minted. Here he is draped and as a powerful child with the world in his !SH63721. , Trier 382 (R3) (no ), 17155, 23, gVF, on a , nice green , 2.868 g, maximum 18.0 mm, 180o, 2nd , (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; CONSTANTINVS IVN , laureate, draped and left, on globe offering wreath in right hand, in left, of on ; (blessed tranquility), inscribed VO/TIS / XX, surmounted by globe, three stars above, •STR• in ; ; $190.00 (€169.10)
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