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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ MilitaryView Options:  |  |  |   

Military, Combat & Arms on Ancient Coins

Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG VI - Ferrata, the "Ironclad"

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The VI Ferrata, the "Ironclad," was an old legion of Caesar's that fought for Antony. It was retained by Augustus, and later served in Syria and Judaea. The VI Victrix, on the other hand, was one of Octavian's legions. This Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus issued a 'restitution' of the type, presumably in connection with the latter's Eastern campaigns.
SH76382. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/19, Sydenham 1223, BMCRR II East 197, RSC I 33, Sear CRI 356, Choice EF, near perfect centering, light toning, slightly uneven strike, contact marks, areas of porosity and light corrosion, weight 3.664 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 180o, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANTAVG / III VIRRPC, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - VI, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards; ex Forum (2005); $1400.00 (1232.00)


Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, Feb - Mar 44 B.C.

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"The coin that killed Caesar." The obverse legend declares Caesar is "Dictator for Life" and he wears the veil, symbolic of his life-term position as Pontifex Maximus. Caesar would be both the dictator and high priest of Rome for the remainder of his life, but his life would end only a few weeks after this coin was struck. For Caesar to put his image on coins and in effect declare himself king was too much for Brutus and his republican allies. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed to death by as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theater of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied "Aye, Caesar; but not gone." This meeting is famously dramatized in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."

Minted for Caesar's planned Parthian war, this type was often carelessly struck indicating the mint was working under great pressure.
SH76555. Silver denarius, Crawford 480/7b, Sear CRI 104a, BMCRR I Rome 4155, Sydenham 1062, RSC I Julius Caesar 24, SRCV I 1410, VF, attractive iridescent toning, uneven strike, contact marks, graffiti, weight 3.273 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, moneyer L. Aemilius Buca, Feb - Mar 44 B.C.; obverse CAESAR - DICT PERPETVO (starting upper right), wreathed head of Caesar right; reverse Venus seated right, Victory in extended right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, L BVCA downward behind; ex Roma auction 13 (29 Nov 2014), lot 369; ex Andrew McCabe Collection; scarce; $1350.00 (1188.00)


Roman Civil Wars, Revolt of Galba, Governor of Spain, April - June 68 A.D.

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Galba lived in Tarraco for eight years. This coin was issued by Galba as governor of Spain in revolt against Nero. The obverse is copied from Republican denarii struck in 62 B.C. by the moneyer L. Scribonius Libo.
SH63560. Silver denarius, RIC I 9 (R4), RSC II 396, BMCRE I 9, SRCV I 2072, F, toned, weight 3.515 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 225o, Tarraco(?) mint, Apr - Jun 68 A.D.; obverse BON EVENT, young female head (Bonus Eventus) right, fillet around forehead; reverse ROM RENASC, Roma standing right in military garb, Victory on globe in right hand, eagle-tipped scepter over left shoulder in left; bargain priced for this interesting R4 rarity implying the restoration of the Republic!, from the Jyrki Muona Collection; very rare (R4); $1300.00 (1144.00)


Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.

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This Victory type was likely struck in anticipation of the upcoming war with Vitellius. One of Galba's latest reverse types is identical except for the legend: VICTORIA P R instead of VICTORIA OTHONIS. Several Otho coins struck with what appear to be re-cut Galba reverse dies are known.
SH72953. Silver denarius, RIC I 17, RSC II 24a, BMCRE I 25, BnF III -, SRCV I -, aVF, nice portrait, toned, light scrape on obverse, weight 3.282 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 15 Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; obverse IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right; reverse VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory standing left on globe, wreath extended in right, palm frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, ex Angel Fernandez; 17/1000 coins of this type in Jyrki Muona' Otho die-study; very rare; $1000.00 (880.00)


Otho, 15 January 69 - 17 April 69 A.D.

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This Victory type was likely struck in anticipation of the upcoming war with Vitellius.
SH72952. Silver denarius, RIC I 16, RSC II 24, BMCRE I 24, BnF III 21, SRCV I 2165, F, nice style portrait and reverse, attractive toning, porous, weight 3.038 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 15 Jan - Feb 69 A.D.; obverse IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right; reverse VICTORIA OTHONIS, Victory walking left, wreath extended in right, palm frond in left; from the Jyrki Muona Collection, 23/1000 coins of this type in Jyrki Muona' Otho die-study; very rare (RIC R3); $900.00 (792.00)


Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.

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"The coin that killed Caesar." The obverse legend declares Caesar is "Dictator for Life" and he wears the veil, symbolic of his life-term position as Pontifex Maximus. Caesar would be both the dictator and high priest of Rome for the remainder of his life, but his life would end only a few weeks after this coin was struck. For Caesar to put his image on coins and in effect declare himself king was too much for Brutus and his republican allies. On the Ides of March (15 March) 44 B.C. Caesar was stabbed to death by as many as 60 conspirators, led by Brutus and Cassius. According to Plutarch, a seer had warned that harm would come to Caesar no later than the Ides of March. On his way to the Theater of Pompey, where he would be assassinated, Caesar passed the seer and joked, "The ides of March have come," meaning to say that the prophecy had not been fulfilled, to which the seer replied "Aye, Caesar; but not gone." This meeting is famously dramatized in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, when Caesar is warned by the soothsayer to "beware the Ides of March."

Minted for Caesar's planned Parthian war, this type was often carelessly struck indicating the mint was working under great pressure.
SH76556. Silver denarius, Crawford 480/10, BMCRR I Rome 4169, Sydenham 1073, Sear CRI 107a/, RSC I Julius Caesar 38, SRCV I 1413, Vagi 55, F, porous, scratches, off center, weak strike areas, weight 3.872 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, moneyer P Sepullius Macer, Feb - Mar 44 B.C.; obverse CAESAR DICT PERPETVO, wreathed head of Caesar right; reverse P SEPVLLIVS MACER, Venus Victrix standing left, Victory in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, shield at feet on right leaning on scepter; ex CNG e-auction 352, lot 395; $760.00 (668.80)


Taras, Calabria, Italy, c. 272 - 240 B.C.

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Taras, the only Spartan colony, was founded in 706 B.C. The founders were Partheniae ("sons of virgins"), sons of unmarried Spartan women and Perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta). These out-of-wedlock unions were permitted to increase the prospective number of soldiers (only the citizens could be soldiers) during the bloody Messenian wars. Later, however, when they were no longer needed, their citizenship was retroactively nullified and the sons were obliged to leave Greece forever. Their leader, Phalanthus, consulted the oracle at Delphi and was told to make the harbor of Taranto their home. They named the city Taras after the son of Poseidon, and of a local nymph, Satyrion. The reverse depicts Taras being saved from a shipwreck by a dolphin sent to him by Poseidon. This symbol of the ancient Greek city is still the symbol of modern Taranto today.
SH75331. Silver nomos, SNG Cop 927, Vlasto 890, HN Italy 1037, gVF, fine style, well centered on a tight flan, toned, some marks, scratches, and light corrosion, weight 6.332 g, maximum diameter 18.7 mm, Taras (Taranto, Italy) mint, c. 272 - 240 BC; obverse |−HPAK/ΛHTOΣ below, helmeted and cuirassed warrior on horseback right, shield on his back, transverse spear downward in right hand; reverse TAPAΣ, Phalanthos on dolphin left, flower in extended right, cornucopia in left, EΓ monogram and thymiaterion (incense burner) behind; $750.00 (660.00)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG II

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This may have been II Sabina, disbanded by Augustus. The well-known II Augusta, which took part in the conquest of Britain and was later stationed in South Wales, was one of Octavian's legions, and so not likely to be the Second Legion referred to on this coin. Other Second Legions (Adiutrix, Italica, Parthica and Traiana) were raised much later in imperial times.
SH76924. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/14, Sydenham 1216, BMCRR II East 190, RSC I 27, Sear CRI 349, gVF, well struck, toned, crowded flan, marks and scratches, weight 3.521 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANTAVG / III VIRRPC, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - II, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards; ex Germania Inferior Numismatics; $550.00 (484.00)


Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C.

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Heraclea Pontica, on the coast of Bithynia in Asia Minor, at the mouth of the river Lycus, was founded by Megara c. 560 - 558 B.C. It was named after Herakles who was said to have entered the underworld through a cave on the adjoining Archerusian promontory (Cape Baba). The colonists soon subjugated the native Mariandynians but agreed to terms that none would be sold into slavery outside their homeland. Prospering from the rich, fertile adjacent lands and the sea-fisheries of its natural harbor, Heraclea soon extended its control along the coast as far east as Cytorus (Gideros, near Cide), eventually establishing colonies of its own (Cytorus, Callatis and Chersonesus). The prosperity of the city was destroyed in the Mithridatic Wars.Heraclea-Pontica
GS74866. Silver tetradrachm, Thompson 178, Mller 365, SNG Cop -, aVF, rough, bumps and scratches, some corrosion, flan defect on obverse top near edge, weight 15.601 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 0o, Herakleia Pontika (Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey) mint, c. 288 - 281 BC; obverse diademed head of the deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon; reverse Athena Nikephoros seated left, Nike in her right hand crowning king's name with wreath, left arm resting on grounded round shield behind, transverse spear against far side, HP monogram on throne, club left in exergue; $450.00 (396.00)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XII

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This old Caesarean legion was known at different times as Victrix, Antiquae, Paterna and finally XII Fulminata ('the thunderers'). Its veterans settled (among other places) in Patras in Greece. After fighting without great distinction in the First Jewish Revolt, the legion was transferred to Melitene in Cappadocia, where it remained for several hundred years.
RR76782. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/20, Sydenham 1224, BMCRR II East 198, RSC I 34, VF, toned, contact marks, graffiti, weight 3.561 g, maximum diameter 19.3 mm, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANTAVG / III VIRRPC, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - XII, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards; $450.00 (396.00)


Roman Republic, Second Triumvirate, Mark Antony and Octavian, Spring - Early Summer 41 B.C.

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AVG in the obverse legend, abbreviates Antony's official position as Augur (not Augustus, a title which did not yet exist). The augur was an official and priest, whose main role was to interpret the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds: whether they are flying in groups or alone, what noises they make as they fly, direction of flight and what kind of birds they are. This was known as "taking the auspices." The ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society, public or private, including matters of war, commerce, and religion. The Roman historian Livy stresses the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices; that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"

Octavian's "equivalent" position as Pontifex, a priest, is abbreviated PONT in the reverse legend.

The moneyer M. Barbatius was a friend of Julius Caesar. In 41 B.C. he was a quaestor pro praetore to Antony in the East.
RR73605. Silver denarius, RSC I Mark Antony and Augustus 8, BMCRR 103, Sydenham 1181, Crawford 517/2, SRCV I 1504, F, well centered, toned, grainy surfaces, weight 3.156 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 0o, military mint moving with Antony, Ephesus(?) mint, spring - early summer 41 B.C.; obverse M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV ligate), bare head of Antony right; reverse CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, bare head of Octavian right; scarce; $400.00 (352.00)


Thebes, Boiotia, Greece, 405 - 395 B.C.

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The largest city in Boeotia, leader of the Boeotian confederacy, and rival of Athens, Thebes sided with Persia during Xerxes' invasion in 480 B.C. Thebes ended Sparta's power of at the Battle of Leuctra in 371. The Sacred Band of Thebes famously fell to Philip II at Chaeronea in 338. After a revolt in 335, Alexander the Great destroyed the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.
GS74435. Silver tetartemorion, BCD Boiotia 466; BMC Central p. 77, 87; SNG Cop 294; Brend Fractions 35; Head Boeotia 37, Choice VF, toned, weight 0.163 g, maximum diameter 6.4 mm, Thebes mint, 405 - 395 B.C.; obverse Boiotian shield; reverse bunch of grapes on stem, Θ−E flanking above; ex BCD Collection; $400.00 (352.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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In 278, Probus defeated the Alamanni, expelled the Franks from Gaul, reorganized the defenses on the Rhine, resettled the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire, and adopted the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
RA76279. Silvered antoninianus, Pink VI-1, p. 63; RIC, part 2, V 376 (S) var (cuirass); Cohen VI 283 var (same); Hunter IV 131 var (same, and obv legend); SRCV III 11984 (same), Choice aEF, some mint luster, most silvering remains, fantastic heroic bust, light corrosion, weight 3.341 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG, radiate bust left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for balteus over right shoulder and rectangular Aegis shield with square corner in on left shoulder; reverse HERCVLI PACIF, Hercules standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and Nemean Lion skin in left, VXXT in exergue; very rare; $350.00 (308.00)


Roman Republic, M. Porcius Cato, 89 B.C.

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The seated figure on the reverse is presumably Victoria Virgo, whose shrine was built by Cato Censorious. This type was copied by Cato Uticensis in 47 - 46 B.C. -- Roman Republican Coinage by Michael H. Crawford
RR74536. Silver denarius, SRCV I 247, Sydenham 596a, Crawford 343/1b, RSC I Porcia 5, Nice VF, attractive style and toning, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 270o, Rome mint, 89 B.C.; obverse diademed female bust right, ROMA (MA ligate) behind, MCATO (AT ligate) below; reverse Victory seated right holding patera, VICTRIX (TR ligate) in exergue; $350.00 (308.00)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG XIX

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This LEG XIX was probably raised by Antony and disbanded by Octavian. The old Caesarean legions XVII, XVIII and XIX were destroyed with Scribonius Curio in Africa in 49 B.C., restored by Octavian (Augustus), and then destroyed again in Germany under Quinctilius Varus in 9 A.D.
SH76755. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/35, Sydenham 1242, BMCRR II East 214, RSC I 55, VF, crowded flan, scuff on galley, some deposits in devices, weight 3.225 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Patrae(?) mint, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANTAVG / IIIVIRRPC, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - XIX, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards; ex CNG auction 146 (23 Aug 2006), lot 200; $350.00 (308.00)


Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, October 49 - 15 March 44 B.C.

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This type was a special military coinage produced by Caesar during his final campaign. This campaign against the Pompeian forces in Spain culminated in the battle of Munda on 17 March 45 B.C. The obverse refers to Caesar's mythical descent from the goddess Venus. The reverse refers to Caesar's victories in Gaul and the male Gaulish captive may be Vercingetorix.
RR77115. Silver denarius, SRCV I 1404, BMCRR Spain 89, RSC I 13, Crawford 468/1, F, nice style Venus, light toning, reverse 1/5 off center, some light marks, weight 3.610 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, Spanish mint, 46 - 45 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Venus right, small Cupid behind; reverse trophy of Gallic arms; on left, Gallia seated left with hand to head in attitude of morning; on right, male (Vercingetorix?) captive seated right, hands bound behind, looking up; CAESAR in exergue; $350.00 (308.00)


Vetranio, 1 March - 25 December 350 A.D.

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This reverse is much scarcer than Vetranio's usual HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS and CONCORDIA MILITVM types.
RL76972. Billon maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 296 (S), LRBC II 1182, Voetter 12, SRCV V 18908, Cohen VIII 11 corr., aEF, well centered and struck, ragged flan, weight 2.511 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, 5th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 350 A.D.; obverse D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM, emperor standing right, transverse spear in right hand, raising globe in left hand, captive at feet seated right with head turned back left and wearing Parthian cap, ESIS in exergue; scarce; $320.00 (281.60)


Mark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., LEG III

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This legion was probably Caesar's old III Gallica, which fought for Antony. Another possibility is III Cyrenaica, which was perhaps taken over from Lepidus. The III Augusta was probably an Octavian legion.
RS73643. Silver denarius, Crawford 544/15, Sydenham 1217, BMCRR II East 193, RSC I 28, Sear CRI 350, aVF, weight 3.378 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis ,180o, Patrae(?) mint, fall 32 - spring 31 B.C.; obverse ANTAVG / III VIRRPC, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow; reverse LEG - III, aquila (legionary eagle) between two legionary standards; $300.00 (264.00)


Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

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The shield held by Victory is the golden shield that was dedicated to Augustus by the Senate and Roman People (S. P. Q. R.) in recognition of his classic, cardinal virtues. By placing the shield and Victory on his coin, Nero was claiming these same virtues were part of his regime. -- Roman History from Coins by Michael Grant
SH76397. Copper as, RIC I 543, BMCRE I 381, BnF II 160, Mac Dowall WCN 593, Hunter I 131, Cohen I 302, SRCV I -, VF, nice portrait, well centered, some light corrosion, weight 10.627 g, maximum diameter 27.8 mm, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, c. 66 A.D.; obverse IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head right, globe at point of neck; reverse Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R, S - C across field; from the Jeff Michniak Collection; $300.00 (264.00)


Macedonian Kingdom, Antigonus II Gonatas, 277 - 239 B.C., In the Name of Alexander the Great

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Most people expect the crests on ancient helmets to strictly run from front to back. Officer's helmets, however, frequently had a crest running from ear to ear, as on the helmet used as a control symbol on the reverse of this coin. The two ear flaps dangle below the bowl and visor of the helmet.
SH75314. Silver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 618 (same obv. die); Mathisen, Administrative VI.1, obv. die A1; Price 629; Mller Alexander 233; SNG Cop -, SNG Alpha Bank -, VF, centered, golden toning, test cut, light scratches and marks, lamination defect on reverse, weight 16.793 g, maximum diameter 28.4 mm, die axis 90o, Pella (or Amphipolis?) mint, c. 275 - 270 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus Atophoros enthroned left, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, eagle in right, long scepter vertical behind in left, crested Macedonian officer's helmet facing on left, ΠAP monogram under seat strut, KE monogram in exergue; ex CNG auction 349, lot 35; $280.00 (246.40)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign, or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.
RA76334. Billon antoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 904 (S); Cohen VI 69; Pink VI-1, p. 43; Hunter IV 311 var (1st officina); cf. SRCV III 11195 (Rome mint, etc.), gVF, green patina with some silvering remaining, weight 4.393 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, 2nd officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 2nd emission, end 276 - beginning 277 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG, radiate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval shield decorated with charging horseman on left arm; reverse ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Probus on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, B in exergue; scarce; $280.00 (246.40)


Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.

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This type may commemorate a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea.
RB68879. Copper as, RIC II, part 1, 335; BMCRE II 617; Cohen I 632; Hunter I 119 var. (S - C, low across field); SRCV I -, F, well centered, nice green patina, small areas of corrosion on obv, weight 12.620 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left, S C in exergue; from the Jyrki Muona Collection; $250.00 (220.00)


Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea Maritima, Samaria

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Judaea Capta issue minted at Caesarea, Judaea. After Herod's death, Caesarea was the seat of the Roman procurator and capital of Roman Palestine for about 500 years. A riot in 66 A.D. between Syrians and Jews in the city led to the First Jewish Revolt. Paul was delivered to Caesarea when his life was threatened in Jerusalem (Acts 9:30). From Caesarea, Paul departed to Tarsus, his birthplace. Paul met the church in Caesarea (Acts 18:22; 21:8,16). Finally, Paul was taken prisoner (Acts 23:23,33) and returned to Caesarea where he was tried before Festus and King Agrippa (Acts 25:1-4; 24:6-13)
JD75361. Bronze AE 26, Hendin 1454, Meshorer TJC 391, RPC II 2304, F, red earthen encrustation, some corrosion, weight 10.803 g, maximum diameter 25.8 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea Maritima mint, c. 83 A.D.; obverse IMP DOMITIANVS CAES AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head left; reverse Minerva standing right on galley with owl on prow, shield in left, spear downward in right, trophy behind, palm frond right, no legend; from the J. Berlin Caesarea Collection (a surface find from an agricultural field near Caesarea Paneas in 1972); $250.00 (220.00)


Syracuse, Sicily, Roman Rule, 212 - c. 189 B.C.

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Overcoming formidable resistance and the ingenious devices of Archimedes, the Roman General Marcus Claudius Marcellus took Syracuse in the summer of 212 B.C. Archimedes was killed during the attack. The plundered artworks taken back to Rome from Syracuse lit the initial spark of Greek influence on Roman culture.
GI76996. Bronze AE 22, Calciati II p. 424, 227; SNG ANS 1066 ff.; SNG Cop 900; SNG Mnchen 1472 ff.; HGC 2 1474 (S), Choice VF, interesting style, nice centering, nice green patina, small areas a bit flat, weight 8.870 g, maximum diameter 22.0 mm, Syracuse mint, 212 - c. 189 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus left; reverse Nike in galloping in a biga right, whip(?) in right hand, reins in left hand, crescent above, ΣYPAKOΣIΩN in exergue; scarce; $250.00 (220.00)


Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D., Issued by Vetranio

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In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.
RL90446. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 286 (S), LRBC II 1173, Voetter 51, SRCV V 18203, VF, well centered, slightly rough green patina, coppery high-points, weight 4.749 g, maximum diameter 22.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, issued by Vetranio, 1 Mar - 25 Dec 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star before; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing facing head left, holding labarum (Chi Rho Christogram standard) and spear, Victory right crowning him, A left, ASIS in exergue (A's often appear as H in this period); scarce; $240.00 (211.20)


Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I

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Aelia Flaccilla was a fervent supporter of the Nicene Creed. Sozomen reports her preventing a conference between Theodosius and Eunomius of Cyzicus who served as figurehead of Anomoeanism, a sect of Arians. Ambrose and Gregory of Nyssa praise her Christian virtue and comment on her role as "a leader of justice" and "pillar of the Church." She is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church; her feast day is 14 September.
RL70543. Bronze half centenionalis, RIC IX Siscia 35.2 (R2), LRBC II 1566, SRCV V 20623, Cohen VIII 5, VF, excellent centering, weight 0.926 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Aug 383 - autumn 384 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, BSIS in exergue; rare; $225.00 (198.00)


Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

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The reverse legend translates, "Happy Times Restored." Happy times would not last for Constans. This coinage was among his last issues before his general Magnentius rebelled and had him killed.
RL90437. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 244, LRBC II 1136, Voetter 31, SRCV V 18730, Cohen VII 10, Choice gVF, light encrustations, weight 4.945 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 45o, 2nd officina, Aquileia mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), Constans standing left in Galley left, labarum in left hand, Phoenix on globe in right hand, Victory steering at stern, AQS in exergue; $225.00 (198.00)


Kingdom of Thrace, Rhoemetalkes I, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.

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When the Cotys VII, King of Thrace, died about 48 B.C. Rhoemetalces I became the guardian of his nephew Rhescuporis I, his brother's young son and heir. In 13 B.C., Rhescuporis I was defeated and slain in battle by Vologases, chief of the Thracian Bessi, who was leading a revolt against Rome. As Rhescuporis I had left no heir, Rhoemetalces became king. An ally of Augustus, the Roman Historian Tacitus described Rhoemetalces as attractive and civilized. After his death, Augustus divided his realm, half for his son Cotys VIII and the other half for Rhoemetalces' brother Rhescuporis II. Tacitus states that Cotys received the cultivated parts, most towns and most Greek cities of Thrace, while Rhescuporis received the wild and savage portion with enemies on its frontier.
RP72883. Bronze AE 15, Youroukova 159, RPC I 1707, BMC Thrace -, SNG Cop -, SNG Stancomb -, VF, weight 1.999 g, maximum diameter 14.6 mm, die axis 225o, c. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.; obverse K ΣEBAΣTOY, capricorn right, globe upper right between legs; reverse POIMH, Nike advancing right, raising wreath in extended right, grounded palm frond before her in left; rare; $225.00 (198.00)


Carinus, First Half 283 - Spring 285 A.D.

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When this coin was struck in 282, Carinus was still the Prince of Youth, full of promise. Later he would be remembered as one of the worst Roman emperors. This infamy is, however, likely part fiction, supported by Diocletian himself. For example, the (unreliable) Historia Augusta has Carinus marrying nine wives, while neglecting to mention his only real wife, Magnia Urbica, by whom he had a son, Nigrinianus. After his death, Carinus' memory was officially condemned in the Roman proceeding known as Damnatio Memoriae. His name, along with that of his wife, was erased from inscriptions.
RS71588. Silvered antoninianus, Venra Hoard IV 390 (LV 4227); RIC V, part 2, 182; Cohen VI 97; Hunter III 71; Pink VI-2, p. 28; SRCV III 12302, Choice EF, most silvering remains, well centered and struck, nice portrait, some porosity, weight 4.627 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, 4th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 2nd issue as caesar, 282 - 283 A.D.; obverse M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Carinus standing left, globe in extended right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, bound captive seated left at feet on left, QXXI in exergue; $225.00 (198.00)


Amisos, Pontos, c. 85 - 65 B.C.

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Amisos was settled c. 760 - 750 B.C. by people from Miletus, who established a flourishing trade relationship with the ancient peoples of Anatolia. Amisos came under the rule of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great's Macedonian Empire, and then the Kingdom of Pontus. The Romans took control in 47 B.C. and Amisos remained within the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome. In 1200, the city was captured by the Seljuks, to be later taken over by the Ilhanlilar. Amisos today is Samsun, a city of about half a million people on the north coast of Turkey.
GB76954. Bronze AE 20, BMC Pontus p. 20, 72; SNG BM 1187 var. (different monogram right); SNG Stancomb 688 ff. var. (different monograms); SNG Cop 167 ff. var. (same), VF, well centered on usual tight flan, nice green patina, minor flan adjustment marks, weight 8.426 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, Amisos (Samsun, Turkey) mint, c. 85 - 65 B.C.; obverse aegis with facing head of Medusa (gorgoneion) in center; reverse AMI−ΣOY, Nike advancing right, holding palm frond across shoulders behind, A∆T monogram lower left, AMTE monogram lower right; $225.00 (198.00)


Aigai, Aiolis, 2nd - 1st Century B.C.

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Aegae (or Aigai) means place of goats and was the name of many cities of antiquity. Aegae, Aeolis was located at the mid-point between the modern cities of zmir, Manisa, Bergama and Aliaa.
GB90401. Bronze AE 17, SNG Cop 12 var (different monograms); SNGvA 1598 var (same); SNG Mnchen 368 var (same); BMC Troas p. 96, 14 (no monograms); SGCV II 4169, gVF, weight 4.601 g, maximum diameter 17.3 mm, die axis 0o, Aigai mint, 2nd - 1st Centuries B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse AIΓAEΩN, Nike standing left, wreath in righ, palm in left, monogram left, monogram right; $220.00 (193.60)


Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.

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On 3 July 324, at Adrianople, Constantine defeated Licinius forcing him to retreat to Byzantium. Crispus destroyed Licinius' fleet at the Battle of Hellespont in the Dardanelles, allowing his father to cross over the Bosporus and besiege Licinius. On 18 September, Constantine I decisively defeated Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis and became sole emperor.
RL90682. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII London 281, Cohen VII 28, SRCV IV 16726, Choice EF, green patina, perfect centering, small die break on reverse at 8:00, weight 4.026 g, maximum diameter 19.8 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Londinium (London, England) mint, 323 - 324 A.D.; obverse CRISPVS NOBIL C, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; reverse BEAT TRANQLITAS, globe on altar inscribed VOT/IS / XX in three lines, three stars above, PLON in exergue; scarce; $220.00 (193.60)


Aitna, Sicily, The Kampanoi Mercenaries, c. 392 - 358 B.C.

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In 475 B.C. Hieron moved ten thousand settlers from Syracuse and Peloponnesus to Katane and renamed it Aetna. In 461, after Hieron's death, the new settlers were expelled. They moved to the southern slope of the volcano and founded a new Aetna. In 403 B.C., Dionysius the Elder made himself master of Aetna, where he settled his discharged Campanian mercenaries, the Kampanoi. The Kampanoi retained possession of Aitna until 339 B.C., when Timoleon took the city and put them to the sword. Under Rome, Aitna became a municipal town of considerable importance; its territory being one of the most fertile of all Sicily. The site of the city and time of its destruction are unknown today.
GI76936. Bronze AE 14, Calciati III, p. 327, 2 (Mercenaries at Aitna); HGC 2 1608 (R1, mercenaries at Tauromenion); SNG Morcom 877, VF, green patina, weight 2.744 g, maximum diameter 14.4 mm, die axis 60o, Aitna or Tauromenion mint, c. 344 - 339 B.C.; obverse Phrygian helmet with cheek guards, ornamented with a griffin, linear border; reverse KAM (Kampanoi?), AIT (Aitna?), or TA (Tauromenion?) monogram in laurel wreath; $220.00 (193.60)


Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

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Constantine II was about eight years old when this coin was minted. Here he is draped and cuirassed as a powerful child Caesar with the world in his hands!
SH63721. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 382 (R3) corr. (no cuirass), SRCV IV 17155, Cohen VII 23, gVF, well centered on a tight flan, nice green patina, weight 2.868 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, Victory on globe offering wreath in right hand, mappa in left, head of Medusa on cuirass; reverse BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX, surmounted by globe, three stars above, STR in exergue; rare; $215.00 (189.20)


Judean Kingdom, Herod the Great, 37 - 4 B.C.

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The eight prutot was Herod's largest denomination.
JD64052. Copper eight prutot, Hendin 1169, Meshorer TJC 44, Meshorer AJC II 1, RPC I 4901, F, weight 7.360 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Samaria mint, 40 B.C.; obverse military helmet facing, with cheek pieces and straps, wreathed with acanthus leaves, star above, flanked by two palm-branches; reverse HPΩ∆OY BAΣIΛEΩΣ (of King Herod), tripod, ceremonial bowl (lebes) above, LΓ - P (year 3 of the tetrarchy) across fields; $200.00 (176.00)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Amphipolis, Macedonia

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Amphipolis was home to an imperial cult, worshiping the living emperor, and to a cult dedicated to Artemis Tauropolos. The obverse depicts Trajan as a military victor and probably copies an imperial statue. The reverse may depict a local statue of Artemis Tauropolos.
GB90406. Bronze AE 20, Lindgren II 978 (same dies), Varbanov 7179 (R7), AMNG III 79, Hunterian I 37, Moushmov 6068, SNG ANS -, SNG Cop -, SNG Tb, BMC Macedonia -, gF, centered, some porosity, weight 5.099 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8/9 Aug 117 A.D.; obverse KAICAP TPAIANOC, emperor on horseback galloping right, brandishing spear to strike a prostrate foe below; reverse AMΦIΠOΛEITWN, Artemis Tauropolos standing left, kalathos on head, long torch before her in right hand, small branch in left hand downward at side, grounded shield behind; rare; $200.00 (176.00)


Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

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The reverse legend translates, "Happy Times Restored." Happy times would not last for Constans. This coinage was among his last issues before his general Magnentius rebelled and had him killed.
RL90440. Billon heavy maiorina, RIC VIII Siscia 252, LRBC II 1151, Voetter 47, SRCV V 18673, Cohen VII 13, Choice VF, weight 4.795 g, maximum diameter 23.4 mm, die axis 225o, 5th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 349 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO (happy times restored), Constans standing left in galley left, Victory with wreath and palm on globe in right hand, labarum in left hand, Victory seated in stern steering, A left, ESIS in exergue; $200.00 (176.00)


Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.

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Adventus reverse types commemorate the emperor's arrival at Rome, either at the commencement of his reign, or on his return from a distance. They may also refer to his arrival in some other city or province of the empire. At their accession, emperors were not conveyed in a chariot nor in any other vehicle, but went on horseback or on foot when they made their first public entry into the capital of the Roman world.
RA76277. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 166 (S); Cohen VI 69; Hunter IV 6; Pink VI-1, pp. 55; SRCV III 11953 var (obv leg), aEF, magnificent armed bust, most silvering remaining, perfect centering, some corrosion, weight 4.183 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, emission 2, 277 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG, radiate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust left, spear in right hand over right shoulder, oval shield on left shoulder; reverse ADVENTVS PROBI AVG, Probus on horseback left, raising right hand in salute, long scepter in left hand, horses' right foreleg raised over bound captive seated left, R in exergue; scarce; $200.00 (176.00)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.

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They look similar, but there is a significant physical difference between angels and Victory. Angels are all male. Victory (Nike) is female.
SL73455. Silver denarius, RIC II 60, Cohen II 242, BMCRE III 121, SRCV II 3147, NGC Ch XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5, deposits (2410838-004), weight 3.31 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 101 - 102 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder; reverse PMTRPCOSIIIIPP, Victory walking left, wreath in extended right hand, palm frond in left; $200.00 (176.00)


Tisna, Aeolis, c. 350 - 300 B.C.

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GB68074. Bronze AE 10, Trait II 2074, pl. CLVII, 22; Klein 345 var (head right); SNG Cop -; SNGvA -, SNG Mnchen -, BMC Troas -, Lindgren -, VF, weight 1.214 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 225o, Tisna mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.; obverse youthful head of river-god Tisnaios left; reverse sword in scabbard with strap, TIΣNA/ON (in two lines, one above, one below); very rare; $195.00 (171.60)


Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Amphipolis, Macedonia

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Amphipolis was home to an imperial cult, worshiping the living emperor, and to a cult dedicated to Artemis Tauropolos. The obverse depicts Trajan as a military victor and probably copies an imperial statue. The reverse may depict a local statue of Artemis Tauropolos.
GB90707. Bronze AE 20, Lindgren II 978 (same dies), Varbanov 7179 (R7), AMNG III 79, Hunterian I 37, Moushmov 6068, SNG ANS -, SNG Cop -, SNG Tb, BMC Macedonia -, F, weight 6.620 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, Amphipolis mint, 25 Jan 98 - 8/9 Aug 117 A.D.; obverse KAICAP TPAIANOC, emperor on horseback galloping right, brandishing spear to strike a prostrate foe below; reverse AMΦIΠOΛEITWN, Artemis Tauropolos standing left, kalathos on head, long torch before her in right hand, small branch in left hand downward at side, grounded shield behind; rare; $195.00 (171.60)


Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus III the Great, 223 - 187 B.C.

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Antiochus' victory at the Battle of Panium in 198 B.C. transferred control of Judaea from Ptolemaic Egypt to the Seleukid Kingdom. When Antiochos conquered Asia Minor, however, the Romans responded. Antiochos' losses were so great that the whole of his empire was shattered and he was forced to content himself with the region that he had held in the beginning, Syria.
SL74043. Bronze AE 26, Houghton-Lorber 1256, Newell ESM 611, SNG Spaer 795, Hoover Syrian 482 (R2), NGC VG, strike 4/5, surface 3/5, (4161256-003), weight 13.00 g, maximum diameter 26.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ekbatana mint, c. 205 A.D.; obverse diademed head right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Nike walking left, wreath in extended right hand, long palm in left, ∆Ϙ monogram over horse head left in inner left field, TBΛ monogram inner right; ex Tom Cederlind; rare; $190.00 (167.20)


Numerian, February or March 283 - October or November 284 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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RX72854. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5611; Milne 4724 var (unbroken legend); Kampmann 114.9; BMC Alexandria p. 320, 2467 var (no star); Geissen 3195 var (same), Choice VF, highlighting patina, weight 8.197 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, as Augustus, c. Oct 283 - 28 Aug 284 A.D.; obverse A K M A NOVM-EPIANOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Nike advancing right wreath in right hand, palm frond in left, L - B (year 2 of Carus) divided across field, star in right field; rare; $185.00 (162.80)


Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.

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This coin was dedicated to the fidelity of the Pretorian Guard or perhaps to "the leaders." In either case, in the end, Gallienus lost the fidelity of his guard and officers. He was ambushed and murdered by his own men. The future emperors Claudius Gothicus and Aurelian were likely both involved in the conspiracy leading to his assassination.
RA90710. Billon antoninianus, Gbl MIR 518d, RIC V S568 (Siscia), RSC IV 216 (Siscia), SRCV III 10211, Hunter IV p. lx, Normanby -, VF/F, nice portrait, well centered, ragged tight flan cutting off the tops of legend letters, flan cracks, some corrosion, weight 2.035 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 262 - 263 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse FIDEI PRAET, legionary aquila (eagle) between two legionary standards, the standards on the left topped with a wreath, the standards on the right topped with an open hand; RIC lists this type as common but market evidence clearly indicates it is rare; rare; $180.00 (158.40)


Mark Antony and Octavian, Thessalonica, Macedonia, 37 B.C.

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The reverse inscription abbreviates, MAPKOΣ ANTΩNIONΣ AYTOKPATΩP ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAP AYTOKPATΩP. The bust of Libertas on the obverse "refers to the grant of freedom by the Triumvirs to Thessalonica in 42 BC after the battle of Philippi (the victory which is celebrated on the reverse)." -- RPC I, p. 29
SH72307. Leaded bronze AE 31, BMC Macedonia p. 115, 63; RPC I 1551/20-26; Sear CRI 672; SNG Cop 374; SNG ANS 823, aVF, weight 17.561 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 37 B.C.; obverse ΘEΣΣAΛONKEΩN EΛEYΘEPIAΣ, diademed and draped bust of Eleutheria (Liberty) right, E (year 5) below chin; reverse M ANT AYT Γ KAI AYT, Nike advancing left, extending wreath in right, palm frond in left; $180.00 (158.40)


Polyrhenion, Crete, c. 330 - 280 B.C.

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GB73555. Bronze AE 11, SNG Cop 534, SGCV I 3357, BMC Crete p. 68, 17, Choice gVF, green patina with earthen highlighting, weight 1.301 g, maximum diameter 10.5 mm, die axis 180o, Polyrhenion mint, c. 330 - 280 B.C.; obverse round shield, bull's head in center, border of dots; reverse arrow-head pointed upwards, Π−O/Λ−Y flanking in two lines; $180.00 (158.40)


Crispus, Caesar, 1 March 317 - 326 A.D.

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In 323, Constantine the Great defeated invading Goths and Sarmatians north of the Danube in Dacia, and claimed the title Sarmaticus Maximus.
RL74542. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 372, SRCV IV 16731, Cohen VII 21; very rare shield decoration, aF, corrosion, patina flaking, weight 16.330 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 322 - 323 A.D.; obverse IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust left, spear over shoulder in right, shield on left shoulder ornamented with Victory inscribing shield; reverse BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, altar inscribed VO/TIS / XX surmounted by globe, three stars above, PTR in exergue; $180.00 (158.40)


Mark Antony and Octavian, Thessalonica, Macedonia, 37 B.C.

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The reverse inscription abbreviates, MAPKOΣ ANTΩNIONΣ AYTOKPATΩP ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAP AYTOKPATΩP. The bust of Libertas on the obverse "refers to the grant of freedom by the Triumvirs to Thessalonica in 42 BC after the battle of Philippi (the victory which is celebrated on the reverse)." -- RPC I, p. 29
SH63716. Leaded bronze AE 31, BMC Macedonia p. 115, 63; RPC I 1551; Sear CRI 672; SNG Cop 374; SNG ANS 823, F, weight 18.710 g, maximum diameter 31.0 mm, die axis 180o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 37 B.C.; obverse ΘEΣΣAΛONKEΩN EΛEYΘEPIAΣ, diademed and draped bust of Eleutheria (Liberty) right, E (year 5) below chin; reverse M ANT AYT Γ KAI AYT, Nike advancing left, extending wreath in right, palm frond in left; $175.00 (154.00)


Florianus, June or July - August or September 276 A.D.

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Providentia is the personification of the ability to foresee and to make provision for the future. This ability was considered essential for the emperor and providentia was among the embodiments of virtues that were part of the imperial cult. Cicero said that providentia, memoria (memory) and intellegentia (understanding) are the three main components of prudentia, the knowledge what is good or bad or neither.
RA73897. Bronze antoninianus, MER-RIC 4511 (6 spec.), BnF XII - (not in the collection but noted p. 408), RIC V -, Hunter IV -, SRCV III -, Venra Hoard II -, VF, well centered and struck, green patina, scratches, weight 3.027 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 180o, 3rd officina, Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria) mint, issue 2, Aug 276 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse PROVIDEN DEOR (foresight of the gods), Fides Militum on left, standing right, holding two flanking standards, one in each hand; Sol on right, standing left, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe behind in left, star low between the figures, Γ in exergue; very rare; $175.00 (154.00)


Himera, Sicily, c. 472-413 B.C.

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In 409 B.C., Carthage attacked Himera. The city was unprepared; its fortifications weak. At first they were supported about 4000 auxiliaries from Syracuse, but their general, Diocles, seized with panic for the safety of Syracuse itself, abandoned Himera. The city was utterly destroyed, its buildings, even its temples, were razed to the ground. More than 3000 prisoners were put to death by General Hannibal Mago as a human sacrifice to the memory of his grandfather General Hamilcar who had been defeated at the Battle of Himera in 480 B.C.
GA76588. Silver obol, cf. SNG Cop 312; SNG Mnchen 355; SNG Lloyd 1027; BMC Sicily p. 81, 47; SNG ANS -; Klein -, VF, obverse off center, reverse legend weak, uneven toning, a little rough, weight 0.586 g, maximum diameter 10.6 mm, Himera mint, c. 472-413 B.C.; obverse bearded male (Kronos?) head right, wearing fillet (hair band); reverse HIMEPA (or similar), Corinthian helmet right, no crest, within shallow incuse; rare; $175.00 (154.00)




  



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