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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Roman Coins ▸ The Severan Period ▸ CaracallaView Options:  |  |  |   

Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, better known as Caracalla, was the son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, born in 188 A.D. He was named Caesar in 196 and Augustus in 198. Shortly before his death, Severus advised his sons, "Agree with each other, give money to the soldiers and scorn all other men." But the brothers hated each other and soon Caracalla had Geta murdered and massacred thousands suspected of supporting him. Although a capable military commander, the actual running of the government was left to his mother. He gradually slipped more and more into paranoia and delusions of grandeur before being murdered on his way to an Eastern campaign aimed at fulfilling his belief that he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great.


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Indulgentia is the personification of clemency, leniency, grace, or favor. This coin may refer to some specific permission or clemency given, or some privilege bestowed by the emperor.
RS75231. Silver denarius, RIC IV 300 (S); RSC III 103; BMCRE V p. 444, 68; Hunter p. 87, 48; SRCV II 6808, Choice VF, excellent portrait, excellent centering, good strike, flan cracks, light contact marks, areas of very slight corrosion, weight 3.094 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, end 213 - 217 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right; reverse INDVLGENTIAE AVG, Indulgentia seated left, patera in extended right hand, transverse scepter in left hand, feet on small stool; scarce; $90.00 (80.10)


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Virtus to the ancient Romans included valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin vir, "man"). Curiously, despite the masculine characteristics of virtus, the personification or deity Virtus was usually depicted as a female warrior, in armor holding a spear, parazonium, victory or a shield. Virtus and Mars can usually be distinguished since Mars is usually shown nude and Virtus is always shown clothed.
RS74206. Silver denarius, RIC IV 176 (S); RSC III 672; BMCRE V p. 260, 522; Hunter III p. 58, 63; SRCV II 6905, VF, excellent portrait, porous, a little rough, weight 2.964 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 207 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS AVGVSTOR, Virtus seated left, helmeted, Victory in right, parazonium in left, feet on low stool, shield resting against near side of seat; scarce; $85.00 (75.65)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Rabbathmoba, Arabia

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Rabbathmoba, probably the Biblical Ir-Moab, was conquered by Alexander Jannaeus. Its ruins are 18 kilometers north of Kerak in Jordan.
RP72140. Bronze AE 24, Spijkerman 29b; BMC Arabia, p. 44, 5 var. (date P − ∆); Rosenberger 15 var. (same); SNG ANS -; Sofaer -, aF, green highlighting patina, porous, weight 8.987 g, maximum diameter 24.1 mm, die axis 315o, Rabbathmoba mint, 209 - 210 A.D.; obverse AVT KAIC ANTΩNINOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PABAΘMOVBHNΩN, Poseidon standing left, nude, foot on prow, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left, ∆ − P (year 104) divided across field; $80.00 (71.20)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Nicaea, Bithynia

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Nicaea (Iznik, Turkey today) remained an important town throughout the imperial period. Although only 70 km (43 miles) from Constantinople, Nicaea did not lose its importance when Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Empire. The city suffered from earthquakes in 358, 362 and 368; after the last of which, it was restored by Valens. During the Middle Ages it was a long time bulwark of the Byzantine emperors against the Turks.
RB72569. Bronze AE 25, Rec Gn II, p. 459, 481; SNG Cop 507; BMC Pontus -; SNGvA -, SNG Tbingen -, VF/F, excellent portrait, pitting on reverse, weight 8.685 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 45o, Nicaea (Iznik, Turkey) mint, 28 Jan 198 - 8 Apr 217 A.D.; obverse ANTΩNINOC AVΓOVCTOC, laureate head of Caracalla right; reverse NIKA-IEΩN, legionary aquila on pole with vexillum, flanked by two signa; very rare; $70.00 (62.30)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Amasia, Pontos

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Amaseia was captured by the Roman Lucullus in 70 B.C. from Armenia. Pompey designated it a free city and the administrative center of the new province of Bithynia and Pontus. Amaseia was a thriving city, the home of thinkers, writers and poets, and one of them, Strabo, left a full description of Amaseia as it was between 60 B.C. and 19 A.D.
RP57031. Bronze AE 31, cf. BMC Pontus p. 11, 33 (inscriptions obliterated); SNG Cop 113 (date above); SNGvA 32 (tree right); Lindgren 16 (lit altar, no eagle), F, weight 17.323 g, maximum diameter 31.3 mm, die axis 180o, Amasia mint, 206 A.D.; obverse AY KAI MAP AYP − ANTΩONINOC, CEBA below bust, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse A∆PCE AN[T A]MACIAC MHTNΩNΠON (some ligate and retrograde letters), eagle standing right on altar, wings open, head left, wreath in beak, palm tree beside altar left, ETCH (year 208) below; $65.00 (57.85)


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In 195, Lucius Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla), age 7, changed his name to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus to reinforce his connection with the family of Marcus Aurelius and was given the title Caesar. This scarce type is from his first issue as Caesar.
RS77756. Silver denarius, RSC III 562a; BMCRE V p. 50, 181; RIC IV 2; SRCV III 6678; Hunter III -, F, small edge crack, weight 3.541 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, as caesar, 196 A.D.; obverse M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, boy's bare-headed and draped bust right, from behind; reverse SECVRITAS PERPETVA (Security Everlasting), Minerva standing slightly left, helmeted head left, aegis on breast, resting right hand on grounded shield, inverted spear vertical in left; scarce; $55.00 (48.95)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D., Carrhae, Mesopotamia

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Caracalla was assassinated near Carrhae on 8 April 217, while urinating on a roadside. When his escort gave him privacy to relieve himself, Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard, ran forward and killed Caracalla with a single sword stroke. Martialis fled on horseback, but was killed by a bodyguard archer. Herodian says Caracalla had executed Martialis' brother a few days earlier on an unproven charge. Cassius Dio says that Martialis was resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion. Macrinus, the Praetorian Guard Prefect, who succeeded him as emperor, may have arranged the assassination.
RP67880. Bronze AE 20, cf. BMC Arabia p.85, 16 ff.; SNG Hunterian 2485 ff.; SNG Cop 176 ff., F, nice green patina, flan crack, weak legends, weight 4.254 g, maximum diameter 20.3 mm, die axis 180o, Carrhae (Altinbasak, Turkey) mint, obverse M AVR ANTONINVS P F AVG, laureate head right, with short beard; reverse COL MET ANTONINIANA, turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right; $50.00 (44.50)


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In 196, Septimius Severus captured and sacked Byzantium after a long siege.
RB67889. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 399, Cohen 564, Fair, attractive for grade, weight 16.570 g, maximum diameter 28.7 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, as caesar, 196 - 197 A.D.; obverse M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed boy's bust right, from behind; reverse SECVRITAS PERPETVA, Minerva standing left, resting right hand on grounded shield, inverted spear behind in left hand, S - C flanking across field; scarce; $50.00 (44.50)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D. Heliopolis, Coele Syria

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Baalbek, a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon, east of the Litani River, was known as Heliopolis during Roman rule. It was one of the largest sanctuaries in the empire and contains some of the best preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon. The gods worshiped at the temple, the triad of Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus, were grafted onto the indigenous deities of Hadad, Atargatis and a young male god of fertility. Local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, which vary from the classic Roman design.
RY73101. Bronze AE 18, Sawaya 391 - 393 var. (D78/R153, unlisted die combination), SNG Cop 430, Lindgren-Kovacs A2162A, BMC Galatia -, VF, well centered and struck, nice green patina, weight 3.684 g, maximum diameter 17.6 mm, die axis 0o, Heliopolis (Baalbek, Lebanon) mint, 211 - 212 A.D.; obverse M AVR ANTONI, laureate head right, from behind; reverse COL HEL, Hermes standing slightly left, head left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, purse in right, caduceus in left; the second example from these dies handled by Forum; $50.00 (44.50)


Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.

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Felicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She became a prominent symbol of the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.
RB78073. Copper as, RIC IV C630, BMCRE V C227, Hunter III 32, Cohen IV 180; SRCV II 7133, aF, centered, marks and corrosion, weight 12.971 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caracalla, 215 A.D.; obverse IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right with hair waived and coiled at back, wearing stephane; reverse SAECVLI FELICITAS (era of good fortune), Felicitas standing half-left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lit garlanded altar, long caduceus vertical behind in left hand, S - C flanking across field below center; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (44.50)


Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D. Heliopolis, Coele Syria

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Baalbek, a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon, east of the Litani River, was known as Heliopolis during Roman rule. It was one of the largest sanctuaries in the empire and contains some of the best preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon. The gods worshiped at the temple, the triad of Jupiter, Venus and Bacchus, were grafted onto the indigenous deities of Hadad, Atargatis and a young male god of fertility. Local influences are seen in the planning and layout of the temples, which vary from the classic Roman design.
RY73044. Bronze AE 18, Sawaya 388 var. (D74/R -, unlisted reverse die), SNG Cop 430, Lindgren-Kovacs A2162A, BMC Galatia -, aVF, centered, green patina, cleaning scratches, weight 3.612 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 0o, Heliopolis (Baalbek, Lebanon) mint, 211 - 212 A.D.; obverse M AVR ANTONI, laureate head right, from behind; reverse COL HEL, Hermes standing slightly left, head left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, purse in right hand, caduceus in left hand; $45.00 (40.05)


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In 198 A.D. Septimius Severus' oldest son Caracalla was made Augustus and his youngest son Geta received the title of Caesar.
RS79779. Silver denarius, RIC IV 336b (S), RSC III 159, BMCRE VI 640 corr., Hunter III -, SRCV II -, F, uneven toning, weight 3.500 g, maximum diameter 19.1 mm, die axis 180o, Laodicea mint, 198 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P, laureate and draped older boy's bust right, from behind; reverse MINER VICTRIX, Minerva standing left holding Victory in right and spear in left, shield at feet, trophy behind; scarce; $45.00 (40.05)




  



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OBVERSE LEGENDS

ANTONINVSAVGVSTV
ANTONINVSAVGVSTVS
ANTONINVSPIVSAVG
ANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT
ANTONINVSPIVSAVGGERM
ANTONINVSPIVSFELAVG (ALSO USED BY ELAGABALUS)
DIVOANTONINOMAGNO
IMPCAEMAVRANTAVGPTRP
IMPCAESMAVRELANTONINVSAVG
IMPANTONINETGETACAESAVGFIL
IMPCMAVRANTONAVGPTRP
IMPCMAVRANTONINVSAVG
IMPCMAVRANTONAVGPTRP
IMPCMAVRANTONINVSAVG
IMPCMAVRANTONINVSPONTAVG
IMPMAVRANTONINVSPIVSAVGPMTRPXIII
MAVRANTCAESPONTIF
MAVRANTONCAESPONTIF
MAVRANTONINVSCAES
MAVRELANTONINVSPIVSAVG
MAVRELANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT
MAVRELANTONINVSPIVSAVGGERM


REFERENCES

Banti, A. & L. Simonetti. Corpus Nummorum Romanorum. (Florence, 1972-1979).
Calic, E.X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. II: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cayn, J. Los Sestercios del Imperio Romano, Vol. III: De Marco Aurelio a Caracalla (Del 161 d.C. al 217 d.C.). (Madrid, 1984).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappes sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 4: Septimius Severus to Maximinus Thrax. (Paris, 1884).
Mattingly, H.B., E.A. Sydenham & C.H.V. Sutherland. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol IV, From Pertinax to Uranius Antoninus. (London, 1986).
Mattingly, H. & R.A.G. Carson. Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Vol. 5: Pertinax to Elagabalus. (London, 1950).
Mouchmov, N.A. Le Tresor Numismatique De Reka-Devnia (Marcianopolis). (Sofia, 1934).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. III. Pertinax to Aemilian. (Oxford, 1977).
Seaby, H.A. & Sear, D.R. Roman Silver Coins, Volume III, Pertinax to Balbinus and Pupienus. (London, 1982).
Sear, D.R. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. II: The Accession of Nerva to the Overthrow of the Severan Dynasty AD 96 - AD 235. (London, 2002).
Vagi, D. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. (Sidney, 1999).

Catalog current as of Wednesday, August 24, 2016.
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Roman Coins of Caracalla