(?), Imitative of Zangids of , c. 1146 - 1200 A.D.,
This coin is a crude imitative of an Islamic fals of the Zangids of , Nur al-Din Mahmud, struck at Halab (Aleppo, ), 1146 - 1173 ( 73, 1850). That was itself also imitative, copying a of Constantine X, struck at Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey), 1059 - 1067 ( 8, 1853). The quality of the Zangids fals vary greatly and it can be difficult to distinguish between Halab mint issues and imitatives. This example is very crude and if any can be attributed to the , this is one.BZ77974. Bronze , -; cf. 73 (notes "barbaric" imitations), 1850 (notes imitations are perhaps struck by the ), F, desert , , 2.798 g, maximum 22.0 mm, 180o, uncertain mint, c. 1150 - 1200 A.D.; two imperial figures (Constantine X and ) standing facing, supporting between them resting on three steps, EX downward on left, imitation of inner left; Christ standing facing, , book of Gospels in left hand, right hand on hip, flanking , blundered imitation of around; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; $200.00 (€178.00)
Kingdom of , VI (HRE), 1194 - 1197
VI was of Germany from 1190 - 1197, Holy Roman Emperor from 1191 - 1197, and of from 1194 - 1197. In 1197, his German soldiers mercilessly suppressed a revolt in Italy, especially in southern . In this same year, prepared for a Crusade, but, on 28 September, he died of malaria (or he may have been poisoned) in Messina. His son, Frederick II, inherited both the Kingdom of and the Imperial crown.ME72172. fraction, 1780 (R2), 2 (RR); 457 (R); , 477, VF, typical , slightly off-center, 0.944 g, maximum 10.1 mm, 0o, Palermo mint, 1194 - 1195; Arabic in Nashki script: Harir / quaysar / aughust ( ); + / Z REX / SICI +; ; $160.00 (€142.40)
Islamic, Seljuqs Sultanate of Rum, Kaykhusraw I, 1192 - 1196, 1204-1210,
ME65438. Bronze fals, cf. 1202, 957, 121946 (all same , not brockages), VF, , 3.135 g, maximum 22.3 mm, 0o, horseman right, sword in right at shoulder, at each side of his , ornament below; of (normal is Arabic script); $95.00 (€84.55)
Normans, Kingdom of , William II, 1166 - 1189 A.D.
Secluded and pleasure-loving, William II, the , seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign was marked by an ambitious foreign policy and vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa.ME77194. Bronze follaro, 432, VF, 2.208 g, maximum 12.6 mm, 0o, Messina mint, facing ; Arabic "al-malik / Ghulyalim / al-thani" ( William 2nd); $75.00 (€66.75)
Islamic, Seljuqs Sultanate of Rum, Kaykhusraw I, 1192 - 1196, 1204-1210
IS67182. Bronze fals, 1207, -, F, 2.506 g, maximum 19.7 mm, 315o, 2nd reign, 600 - 607 AH, 1205 - 1211; horseman riding right, sword in right, two stars above; Arabic inscriptions, no mint or date, including title "Abul-Fat-h"; $45.00 (€40.05)
Roman-Byzantine or Early Islamic, Bronze Disk , c. 350 - 650 A.D.
This is light for a and we would suspect it is a game piece but insists all these types of bronze with concentric rings are . He suggests some may be early Islamic.BZ90517. cf. 127, VF, green , 3.570 g, maximum 15.1 mm, concentric circles (appear to cast); plain; $45.00 (€40.05)
The Coinage of the Ayyubids
BW40234. The Coinage of the Ayyubids by Paul , Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication Number 12, , 1980, 334 pages, 50 plates, hardcover, dust jacket, new; $40.00 (€35.60)
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, , c. 680s A.D., Coinage
is the capital of and is now, due to civil war fighting in Aleppo, most likely the largest city of . First settled in the second millennium B.C., was the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman rule, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. today is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant.BZ77975. Bronze fals, 7; 560; 49; 3517.1 (S), -, , porous, 3.449 g, maximum 19.2 mm, 180o, Dimashq ( ) mint, c. 650 A.D.; DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long in left hand, in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; large M (40 nummi), above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM ( ) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $38.00 (€33.82)
Islamic, Umayyad Caliphate, , c. 680s A.D., Coinage
While the Muslims administered the city, the population of remained mostly Christian—Eastern Orthodox and Monophysite—with a growing community of Muslims from Mecca, Medina, and the Syrian Desert. The governor assigned to the city which had been chosen as the capital of Islamic was Mu'awiya I. After the death of Caliph Ali in 661, Mu'awiya was chosen as the caliph of the expanding Islamic empire. Because of the vast amounts of assets his clan, the Umayyads, owned in the city and because of its traditional economic and social links with the Hijaz as well as the Christian Arab tribes of the region, Mu'awiya established as the capital of the entire Caliphate. With the ascension of Caliph Abd al-Malik in 685, an Islamic coinage system was introduced and all of the surplus revenue of the Caliphate's provinces were forwarded to the treasury of . Arabic was also established as the official language, giving the Muslim minority of the city an advantage over the Aramaic-speaking Christians in administrative affairs. It is critical to note that, at the time was conquered by the Muslims, the majority of Arabs were either pagans or Christians. itself was predominantly Aramaic with Arab speaking people.BZ77973. Bronze fals, 7; 560; 49; 3517.1 (S), -, aF, rough, 3.450 g, maximum 17.7 mm, Dimashq ( ) mint, c. 650 A.D.; DAMACKOC, emperor standing facing, long in left hand, in right hand, bird standing right atop T on left, ΛEO curving downward on right; large M (40 nummi), above, arc over horizontal line below, ANO downward on left, X/Y/II (frozen pseudo regnal year 17) in three lines on right, ∆AM ( ) in ; from the Butte College Foundation, ex ; ; $35.00 (€31.15)
Islamic, Zangid Atabegs of Sinjar, Qutb al-Din Muhammad, 594 - 616 AD, 1197 - 1219 A.D.
The is imitative of a bronze of struck at Edessa, .IS47246. Bronze dirhem, 81, 1880.2, 1139 - 1140, F, obv off-center, 9.677 g, maximum 25.8 mm, 45o, Sinjar mint, 596 - 600 AH, 1199 - 1204 A.D.; : mint name and date (date off ), bare headed, curly-haired, draped a Roman-style left, spear in right over shoulder, on left shoulder; cursive four line : names and titles of the Abbasid Calif al-Nasir and Qutb al-Din Muhammad; Zengid tamga ( ) below; $19.00 (€16.91)
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