From Alexander the Great's conquest until Roman domination, the city states and small nations of the region, including Judaea, were at various times either ruled or dominated by the great Seleukid or Ptolemaic Kingdoms.
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus XII Dionysos, c. 88 - 84 B.C.
Antiochus XII rule was challenged by the Nabataeans, the Judeans and by the Seleucids' perpetual fratricidal wars. Philip I took briefly took Damascus. Antiochus perished in battle at the hands of the Nabataeans, after which Damascus, the long time Southern stronghold of Seleucid power freely gave itself over to the benevolent rule of King Aretas III of Nabataea.
GB58539. Bronze AE 21, HoughtonLorber II 2481, SNG Spaer 2881 - 2883, aVF, weight 6.288 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, c. 83 - 82 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Antiochos XII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ∆IONYΣOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY, Zeus standing left Nike in right, scepter in left, monogramin ex; $90.00 (€67.50)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, 204 - 180 B.C.
The name of Ptolemy V Epiphanes appears on the Rosetta stone. He married Cleopatra I, the daughter of the Seleukid king Antiochos III, and was the father of Ptolemy VI, VII, and Cleopatra II. Ptolemy V lost Judea, Philistia, and Phoenicia to Antiochos III after the battle of Panium in 198 B.C. (Dan 11:13-16).
GP42375. Bronze obol, Svoronos 1494 (Ptolemy VIII), SNG Cop 339 ff. (Ptolemy VIII), Weiser 126, BMC Ptolemies p. 69, 9 - 10 (Paphos?), Noeske -, Hosking -, nice F, weight 11.390 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Alexandria mint, 200 - 197 B.C.; obverse bearded head of Herakles right wearing lion-scalp headdress; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, head left; scarce; $50.00 (€37.50)
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy IV Philopator, 221 - 204 B.C.
Ptolemy IV's surname, Philopator, means father lover, ironic since according to some authorities he poisoned his father. Ptolemy IV is a major protagonist of the apocryphal 3 Maccabees, which describes events following the Battle of Raphia, in both Jerusalem and Alexandria. He was a cruel and evil monarch.
GP55334. Bronze hemiobol, Svoronos 1153; BMC Ptolemies -; Weiser -; SNG Cop -, aVF, weight 5.561 g, maximum diameter 19.2 mm, Phoenicia, Tyre mint, obverse diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right; reverse ΠTOΛEMAIOY BAΣIΛEΩΣ, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, club left, ΣE monogram between legs; scarce; $50.00 (€37.50)
Seleukid Kingdom, Demetrius III Eucaerus, c. 96 - 87 B.C.
Demetrius III Eucaerus ("the Timely") was nicknamed Acaerus ("the Untimely) by the Jews. He defeated the Hasmonaean Priest King Alexander Jannaeus but was forced to withdraw from Judaea by the hostile population. While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip IPhiladelphus, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, and taken prisoner. He was held in confinement in Parthia by Mithridates II until his death in 88 B.C.
GB57106. Bronze AE 19, Houghton-Lorber II 2456.2; SNG Spaer 2875 - 2877, aVF, weight 3.561 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, 96 - 87 B.C.; obverseradiate and diademed, lightly bearded head of Demetrius III right; reverse BACIΛEΩC ∆HMHTPIOY ΘEOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOC CΩTHPOC, Hermes standing left on a square basis, kerykeion in right, palm frond in left, N over Θ outer left; $36.00 (€27.00)