From Alexander the Great's conquest until Roman domination, the city states and small nations of the region, including Judaea, were at various times either ruled or dominated by the great Seleukid or Ptolemaic Kingdoms.
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus XII Dionysos, c. 88 - 84 B.C.
Antiochus XII rule was challenged by the Nabataeans, the Judaeans and by the Seleucids' perpetual fratricidal wars. Philip I took briefly took Damascus. Antiochus perished in battle at the hands of the Nabataeans, after which Damascus, the long time Southern stronghold of Seleucid power freely gave itself over to the benevolent rule of King Aretas III of Nabataea.
GB58539. Bronze AE 21, HoughtonLorber II 2481, SNG Spaer 2881 - 2883, aVF, weight 6.288 g, maximum diameter 20.9 mm, die axis 0o, Damascus mint, c. 83 - 82 B.C.; obverse diademed and draped bust of Antiochos XII right; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ∆IONYΣOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY, Zeus standing left Nike in right, scepter in left, monogramin ex; $80.00 (€69.60)