The practice of "countermarking" coins, or stamping additional elements of design to a coin after it had originally been struck, was widespread throughout much of antiquity. This was particularly common in the provinces of the Roman Empire. Exactly when and why individual countermarks were applied is often difficult say with any certainty. Countermarks were applied to coins for many reasons, including revaluation, reaffirmation of validity, and propaganda.
Bauslaugh, R. "Cistophoric Countermarks and he Monetary System of Eumenes II" in NC 1990. Elayi, J. & A. Lemaire. Graffiti et contremarques ouest-sémitiques sur les monnaies grecques et proche-orientales. Glaux 13. (Milan, 1998). Howgego, C. Greek Imperial Countermarks. (London, 1985). Martini, R. Nomismata 6: The Pangerl Collection Catalog and Commentary on the Countermarked Roman Imperial Coins. (Milan, 2003). Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Volume IV: The Coinage of Eastern Palestine, and legionary countermarks, Bar-Kochba overstruck. (Jerusalem, 1978). Seyrig, H. "Monnaies contremarquées en Syrie," in Syria 35 (1958), pp. 187-197. Topalov, S.A. New Contributions to the Study of the Countermarking of Coins in the Area of the West Pontic Cities, 3rd-1st c. B.C. (Sofia, 2002). Werz, U. Gegenstempel auf Reichs - und Provinzialprägungen der römischen Kaiserzeit - Katalog der Sammlung Dr. Konrad Bech, Mainz. (Speyer, 2004).
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