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Hygieia is usually said to be a daughter of Asklepios, along with her sisters, Panacea and Iaso. Hygieia, though, was the most important of the attendants of Asklepios and was thought by some in antiquity to be not his daughter but his wife. She was more important than other members of the family and more on par with Asklepios himself. Hygieia is remembered today in the word, "hygiene." She appears on numerous coins, usually depicted feeding the sacred snake from a patera. Salus was the Roman goddess of health, identified by the Romans with the Greek Hygiea.
Gallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D.
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.RA71411. Billonantoninianus, GŲbl MIR 1354i, RIC V S512, Cohen V 932, SRCV III -, EF, no wear but small areas of light corrosion, well centered on tight flan, weight 3.373 g, maximum diameter 21.1 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 267 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassedbust right; reverseSALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake in right from patera in left, MS in exergue; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.
The motto ĎSalus Generis Humani,í meaning safety of the human race and the health of humanity, is engraved on a pin presented to graduates at Columbia University who have successfully completed the masterís degree in nursing.RS73529. Silver denarius, RIC IV 350, SRCV II 6883, BMCRE V 701, RSC III 558a, VF, tight flan cuts off part of the reverselegend, weight 2.914 g, maximum diameter 19.4 mm, die axis 0o, Laodicea ad Mare (Latakia, Syria) mint, 200 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped and cuirassedbust right, from behind; reverseSAL GEN HVM (Salus Generis Humani), Salus standing left, extending right hand to kneeling woman, long vertical snake-wreathed scepter in left; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
Roman Republic, Mn. Acilius Glabrio, 49 B.C.
Salus and Valetudo were honored on coins of the Aciliagens because they claimed to have introduced the first Greek physician into Rome. Valetudo, Hygieia to the Greeks, was the original Roman goddess of personal health. Over time, Salus, the goddess of safety and well-being (including welfare and prosperity in addition to health) assumed Valetudo's role. Few recognize Valetudo's name today.
On 10 January 49 B.C., Julius Caesar led his army across the Rubicon, which separated his jurisdiction (Cisalpine Gaul) from that of the Senate (Italy), and thus initiates a civil war. In October 49 B.C., Caesar was appointed Dictator of Rome.RR74560. Silver denarius, Crawford 442/1a, RSC IAcilia 8, BMCRR I Rome 3944, Sydenham 922, SRCV I 412, gVF, nicely toned, head on reverse flatly struck, weight 4.003 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 49 B.C.; obverseSALVTIS (upward behind), laureate head of Salus right; reverse MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETVS (clockwise from upper right, MN and TV ligate), Valetudo (the old Roman goddess of personal health) standing left, snake in right hand, resting left elbow on column; $150.00 SALE PRICE $135.00
Philip I the Arab, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D.
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. According to Strack III, p. 129, the idea behind the type is that the safety of the state is dependent on the health of the emperor. "For that reason Salus holds the rudder of Fortuna in some of these types, as an indication that the fate of the empire rests in her hands."RB73723. Orichalcumsestertius, SRCV III 9016, Hunter III 76, Cohen V 206, RIC IV 187(a) var (scepter vice rudder), VF/F, excellent portrait, grainy surfaces, light corrosion, weight 18.695 g, maximum diameter 30.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassedbust right, seen from behind; reverseSALVS AVG, Salus standing facing, head left, feeding snake coiled around altar, rudder vertical vertical behind in left, S - C flanking low across field; $130.00 SALE PRICE $117.00
Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. This coin, dedicated to the health of the emperor, probably indicates the emperor was at the time suffering from some disease, and sacred rites had been performed for his recovery.RS71509. Silver denarius, RIC III 305, RSC II 741, BMCRE IV 988, SRCV II 4106, VF, weight 3.372 g, maximum diameter 17.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 159 - 160 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII, laureate head right; reverseSALVTI AVGCOS IIII, Salus standing left, from patera in right, feeding snake coiled around altar at feet on left, long scepter vertical behind in left; $110.00 SALE PRICE $99.00
Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.
In 91 B.C., the tribune Marcus Livius Drusus proposed extending Roman citizenship to allied Italian cities. He was assassinated, leading to the Social War. RR71926. Silver denarius, RSC IJunia 18, Crawford 337/2c, BMCRR Rome 1842, Sydenham 645, SRCV I 223, VF, toned, weight 3.870 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 45o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obversehead of Salus right, SALVS (AL ligate) below, reversed B (control letter) below chin, torque as border; reverseVictory in a biga right holding reins and palm frond, ROMA below, D SILANVS L F in exergue; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 11, lot 141; and May 2013 Auction, lot 1211; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00
Nemausus, Gaul, c. 40 B.C.
ColoniaNemausus was founded as a colony by TiberiusClaudiusNero in 45 or 44 B.C. for veterans that had served Julius Caesar under his command in Gaul and the invasion of Egypt. He was the first husband of Livia and was persuaded or forced by Octavian to divorce her. At the wedding he gave her in marriage to Octavian "just as a father would."RP74283. Brass semis, RPC I 520, SNG Cop 692, SNG MŁnchen 431, CCC BM III 231, De la Tour 2735, VF, weight 2.108 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 270o, Nemausus (Nimes) mint, c. 40 B.C.; obverse helmeted and draped bust right, S (mark of value) behind; reverse NEM COL (downward on right), Salus standing, patera in right over two snakes, left elbow on column behind; $100.00 SALE PRICE $90.00
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
Nicopolis ad Istrum was founded by Trajan around 101 - 106, at the junction of the Iatrus (Yantra) and the Rositsa rivers, in memory of his victory over the Dacians. Its ruins are located at the village of Nikyup, 20 km north of Veliko Tarnovo in northern Bulgaria. The town reached its peak during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonines and the Severan dynasty.RP73901. Bronze assarion, Varbanov 2517 (R3), H-H-J Nikopolis 184.108.40.206 (R2) var (...ICT), AMNG I/I 1348 var (same), Moushmov 1020, SNG Cop -, BMC Thrace -, VF, weight 2.530 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 45o, Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) mint, 9 Apr 193 - 4 Feb 211 A.D.; obverse AV KAI CE - CEVHPOC, laureate head right; reverse NIKOΠOΛ−IT ΠPOC IC, Hygieia standing right feeding snake in her arms, from a patera in her left hand; $75.00 SALE PRICE $67.50
Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 December 192 A.D.
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius and Minerva.RB63619. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC III 345, F, weight 17.020 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 182 A.D.; obverse M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG, laureate head right; reverseSALVS AVG TR P VII IMP V COS III S C, Salus (goddess of health) standing left, feedings snake raising from altar; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00
Claudius IIGothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.
Salus was the Roman goddess of health. She was Hygieia to the Greeks, who believed her to be the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine and healing, and Epione, the goddess of soothing of pain. Her father Asclepius learned the secrets of keeping death at bay after observing one serpent bringing another healing herbs. Woman seeking fertility, the sick, and the injured slept in his temples in chambers where non-poisonous snakes were left to crawl on the floor and provide healing.BB69510. Billonantoninianus, MER-RIC 816 (4 spec.), RIC V 242, Hunter -, Normanby -, VenŤra Hoard -, SRCV III -, gVF, dark toning, double struck, flan crack, weight 3.196 g, maximum diameter 25.3 mm, die axis 180o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, issue 1, phase 2, c. end 268 - early 269; obverse IMP C M AVR CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassedbust right; reverseSALVS AVG, Salus standing right feeding snake held in both hands, SPQR in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; rare; $60.00 SALE PRICE $54.00