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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ Themes & Provenance ▸ HistoryView Options:  |  |  |     

Collecting History through Ancient Coins

Holding an ancient coin is holding history in your hands. Some coins actually depict historical events. Many include the image of a historic king or emperor. Every ancient coin relates to the people and events of the time and place it was struck. Every ancient coin relates to an interesting historical story. The stories on this page are a primary source of our ancient coin obsession. We hope you enjoy them.


Lucilla, Augusta c. 164 - 182 A.D., Wife of Lucius Verus

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Vesta was originally a household spirit. Later she was personified as the goddess of the hearth and given the stature of her Greek equivalent, Hestia. In the temple of Vesta her flame was kept alive by Vestal Virgins.
RB79847. Orichalcum sestertius, BMCRE IV MA1178, RIC III MA1779, Cohen III 94 corr. (torch for palladium), SRCV II 5510, Hunter III -, aVF, well centered, corrosion, weight 24.955 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 164 - 166 A.D.; obverse LVCILLAE AVG - ANTONINI AVG F, Draped bust right, hair waived and in a chignon lown on back of head; reverse VESTA, Vesta standing left, flaming column alter at feet on left, simpulum in right hand, palladium in left hand sloped at shoulder in left, S - C flanking across lower half of field; $245.00 (€218.05)


Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt

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Tyche (Greek for luck; the Roman equivalent was Fortuna) was the presiding tutelary deity that governed the fortune and prosperity of a city, its destiny. Increasingly during the Hellenistic period, cities had their own specific iconic version of Tyche, wearing a mural crown (a crown like the walls of the city).
SH66838. Billon tetradrachm, Dattari 5342; Geissen 2982; Kampmann-Ganschow 91.47; SRCV III 10716; BMC Alexandria p. 2266; Milne 4140, Choice aEF, weight 11.345 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 315o, Alexandria mint, 29 Aug 266 - 28 Aug 267 A.D.; obverse KOPNHΛIA CAΛWNEINA CEB, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in horizontal ridges and in plait looped below ear; reverse Tyche reclining left on couch, kalathos on head, rudder in right hand, LI∆ (year 14) above; $225.00 (€200.25)


Poppaea Sabina, Wife of Nero, Augusta 63 - 65 A.D., Perinthus, Thrace

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Poppaea was renowned for her beauty and voluptuous extravagance. Nero divorced his first wife Octavia to marry her in 62 A.D. Three years later, in a fit of anger, Nero kicked her in the abdomen. Pregnant, she died from her injuries.

Perinthos, later called Heraclea and Marmara Eregli today, is 90 km west of Istanbul near a small pointed headland on the north shore of the Marmara Sea. Perinthus was the capital of Roman Thracia.
RP83451. Bronze AE 26, Schönert-Geiss Perinthos 259 - 271; RPC I 1756; Varbanov 27 (R4); BMC Thrace p. 149, 15; Moushmov 4424; SGICV 6070, gF, green patina, light scratches and marks, some porosity, weight 9.709 g, maximum diameter 26.0 mm, die axis 320o, Heraclea Perinthos (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 63 - 65 A.D.; obverse ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust right, wearing stephane; reverse headdress of Isis, Π - E across field, over a stalk of grain on each side flanking base of crown, all within olive wreath; ex Pecunem auction 30, lot 290; $225.00 (€200.25)


Bruttium, Italy, The Brettian League, c. 216 - 214 B.C.

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All coinage of the Brettii was issued during the Second Punic War when they allied themselves with Hannibal.
GB79276. Bronze drachm, Pfeiler p. 22, 1; SNG ANS 44; SNG Cop 1663; HN Italy 1942, VF, dark green patina, some spots of hard green encrustation, weight 9.084 g, maximum diameter 23.3 mm, die axis 270o, c. 216 - 214 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, stalk of grain behind; reverse BPETTIΩN, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, cornucopia left; ex CNG e-auction 385, lot 5; $210.00 (€186.90)


Severina, Augusta Spring 274 - November 275 A.D.

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Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown holding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
SH65365. Bronze as, MER-RIC 1884, RIC V 7, BnF XII 319, Hunter IV 17, Cohen VI 9, SRCV III 11711, VF, weight 8.682 g, maximum diameter 24.8 mm, die axis 0o, 7th officina, Rome mint, 11th issue, early - Sep 275; obverse SEVERINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse IVNO REGINA, Juno standing slightly left, head left, patera in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, peacock left at feet on left; $200.00 (€178.00)


Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I

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Aelia Flaccilla was a fervent supporter of the Nicene Creed. Sozomen reports her preventing a conference between Theodosius and Eunomius of Cyzicus who served as figurehead of Anomoeanism, a sect of Arians. Ambrose and Gregory of Nyssa praise her Christian virtue and comment on her role as "a leader of justice" and "pillar of the Church." She is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church; her feast day is 14 September.
RL70543. Bronze half centenionalis, RIC IX Siscia 35.2 (R2), LRBC II 1566, SRCV V 20623, Cohen VIII 5, VF, excellent centering, weight 0.926 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Aug 383 - autumn 384 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, BSIS• in exergue; rare; $200.00 (€178.00)


Severina, Augusta Spring 274 - November 275 A.D.

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Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown holding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
RB73881. Bronze as, MER-RIC 1879, RIC V 7, BnF XII 310, Hunter IV 15, Cohen VI 9, SRCV III 11711, aVF, well centered, nice portrait, light corrosion and encrustation, weight 8.524 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 0o, 6th officina, Rome mint, 11th issue, early - Sep 275; obverse SEVERINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse IVNO REGINA, Juno standing slightly left, head left, patera in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, peacock left at feet on left, ς in exergue; $200.00 (€178.00)


Otacilia Severa, February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RB76218. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV P208a, Cohen V 46, Hunter III 23, SRCV III 9168, Choice VF, excellent portrait, well centered, nice green patina, reverse double struck, flan cracks, weight 14.922 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 245 - 247 A.D.; obverse MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, diademed draped bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGSTAE, Pietas standing slightly left, head left, raising right hand, box of perfume in left hand, S - C flanking low across field; $200.00 (€178.00)


Julia Mamaea, Augusta 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D.

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Vesta was originally a household spirit. Later she was personified as the goddess of the hearth and given the stature of her Greek equivalent, Hestia. In the temple of Vesta her flame was kept alive by Vestal Virgins.
RS77110. Silver denarius, RIC IV 362; RSC III 85; BMCRE VI p. 156, 440; SRCV II 8218, Choice EF, superb portrait, sharp reverse detail, some luster, uneven toning, weight 2.764 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 227 A.D.; obverse IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, veiled head left, palladium in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand; $200.00 (€178.00)


Plautilla, Augusta 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Wife of Caracalla

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Although this coin suggests Caracalla and Plautilla desired an heir, it would have been difficult because their mutual hatred was so strong they even refused to dine together. Their marriage was likely never consummated. After the fall and execution of her father, Caracalla's Praetorian Prefect, she was exiled to the Lipari islands and executed in 212 A.D.
RS79621. Silver denarius, RIC IV 367, RSC III 16, BMCRE V 422, SRCV II 7072, Choice VF, nice portrait, well centered, edge cracks, weight 3.431 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 203 A.D.; obverse PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair wavy, looped plait at back of neck; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing facing, head right, long scepter vertical in right hand, child on left arm; scarce; $200.00 (€178.00)


Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius

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Faustina I was the wife of Antoninus Pius. Little is known of her, except that she was regarded as vain and frivolous, though this may have just been malicious gossip. Antoninus Pius loved her greatly, and upon her death in 141 A.D. she was deified and a temple was built in her honor.
SH65151. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III AP1118, BMCRE IV AP1514, Hunter II 119, Cohen II 88, SRCV II 4614, Nice VF, green patina, small patina edge chip on rev, weight 27.399 g, maximum diameter 32.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, pearls in hair and hair in elaborate bun on top; reverse AVGVSTA, Ceres standing facing, veiled head left, torch raised in right hand, stalks of grain downward in left, S - C flanking across field; $180.00 (€160.20)


Koinon of Macedonia, Reign of Gordian III, 238 - 244 A.D., Alexander and Bucephalus

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Plutarch tells the story of how, in 344 B.C. Philonicus the Thessalian, a horse dealer, offered a massive wild stallion to Alexander's father, King Philip II. Since no one could tame the animal, Philip was not interested. Alexander, however, seeing that the horse was afraid of his own shadow, promised to pay for the horse himself should he fail to tame it. He was given a chance and surprised all by subduing it. Alexander spoke soothingly to the horse and turned it towards the sun so that it could no longer see its shadow. Eventually Bucephalus allowed Alexander to ride him. Embarrassed, Philip commented "O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee." Alexander named the horse Bucephalus because the horse's head seemed "as broad as a bull's." Bucephalus died of battle wounds in 326 B.C., in Alexander's last battle. Alexander founded the city of Bucephala (thought to be the modern town of Jhelum, Pakistan) in memory of his wonderful horse.
SH65202. Bronze AE 26, AMNG III 724; cf BMC Macedonia p. 22, 102 (one neokorie); SNG Cop -; SNG Hunterian -; SNG Bar -; SNG Saroglos -; Lindgren -, F, weight 10.822 g, maximum diameter 25.2 mm, die axis 180o, Macedonia, Beroea(?) mint, 238 - 244 A.D.; obverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, head of Alexander the Great right, as Herakles, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse KOINON MAKE∆ONΩN B NEΩ, Alexander galloping left on his horse Bucephalus, about to spear a lion leaping left below; rare; $180.00 (€160.20)


Julia Mamaea, Augusta 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D.

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Vesta was originally a household spirit. Later she was personified as the goddess of the hearth and given the stature of her Greek equivalent, Hestia. In the temple of Vesta her flame was kept alive by Vestal Virgins.
SH66879. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 708, BMCRE VI 389, Cohen IV 83, SRCV II 8236, VF, weight 24.538 g, maximum diameter 30.9 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 226 A.D.; obverse IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right; reverse VESTA S C, Vesta standing half-left, veiled head left, palladium in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand; $180.00 (€160.20)


Eastern Celts or Other Tribal, 3rd - 2nd Century B.C., Alexander the Great Chios Mint Imitative

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Clearly the engraver was illiterate and did not even know the correct letter forms. Looking at the throne, it seems the engraver may have never actually seen a chair.
CE76171. Silver drachm, Price B19 var. (nothing under throne); Muller Alexander 2324 var. (same), gVF, interesting barbaric style, toned, tight flan, weight 3.858 g, maximum diameter 17.8 mm, die axis 0o, Tribal mint, 3rd - 2nd century B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse Zeus Aëtophoros seated left on high back throne, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, M in circle over grapes left, ΛE (E reversed) below throne; $180.00 (€160.20)


Faustina Junior, Augusta 146 - Winter 175/176 A.D., Wife of Marcus Aurelius

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Uncirculated, bold, mint luster. Minted under her father, Antoninus Pius.
RS77581. Silver denarius, RIC III AP495a, RSC II 15, BMCRE IV AP1099, SRCV II 4700, EF, well centered on tight flan, small edge cracks, strong flow lines, die wear, weight 2.977 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, struck under Antoninus Pius, 157 - 161 A.D.; obverse FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right with head bare, hair waived and coiled on back of head; reverse AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing slightly left, head left, Victory in right, resting left hand on shield set on helmet; $180.00 (€160.20)


St. Helena, Augusta, 8 November 324 - c. 330 A.D., Mother of Constantine the Great

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The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL79443. Billon reduced centenionalis, RIC VIII Trier 42 (S), LRBC I 104, Voetter 9, SRCV V 17491, Cohen VII 5, Hunter V 1 var. (1st officina), EF, well centered on a tight flan, obverse die break, weight 1.447 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 0o, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 337 - 340 A.D.; obverse FL IVL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing necklace; reverse PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left, olive branch pointed down in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, cross lower left, TRS in exergue; scarce; $180.00 (€160.20)


Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.

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Lucifer means lightbringer, from the Latin lux light and ferre to bear or bring. The word Lucifer is found in only one place in the Bible -- Isaiah 14:12 -- but only in the King James and related versions: How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! The King James Version is based on the Vulgate, the Latin translation of Jerome. Jerome translated the Hebrew helel (bright or brilliant one) as lucifer, which was a reasonable Latin equivalent. And yet it is this lucifer, the bright one or lightbearer, that came to be understood by so many as the name for Satan, Lord of Darkness.
RS77026. Silver denarius, RIC IV C373a; RSC III 32; BMCRE V p. 430, 1; SRCV II 7100, Choice VF, nice style, well centered and struck, light toning, weight 3.470 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, under Caracalla, c. 214 A.D.; obverse IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right; reverse DIANA LVCIFERA (light bringing Diana), Diana Lucifera standing facing, head left, holding flaming long torch transverse left with both hands; $175.00 (€155.75)


Carthage, Zeugitana, North Africa, Second Punic War, c. 215 - 205 B.C.

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The Second Punic War, 218 - 201 B.C., is most remembered for Hannibal's crossing of the Alps, followed by his crushing victories over Rome in the battle of the Trebia, at Trasimene, and again at Cannae. After these defeats, many Roman allies joined Carthage, prolonging the war in Italy for over a decade. Against Hannibal's skill on the battlefield, the Romans deployed the Fabian strategy. More capable in siegecraft, the Romans recaptured all the major cities that had defected. The Romans defeated an attempt to reinforce Hannibal at the battle of the Metaurus and Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major took New Carthage and ended Carthaginian rule over Iberia in the Battle of Ilipa. The final showdown was the Battle of Zama in Africa where Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal, resulting in the imposition of harsh peace conditions on Carthage, which ceased to be a major power and became a Roman client-state.The Battle of Cannae 215 B.C.
SH78057. Billon tridrachm, Coin Hoards IX, group 4 (flan cast in a double-sided mold), 97 - 239; cf. Alexandropoulos 44; SNG Cop 190, Müller Afrique 104, SGCV II 6494, VF/F, porous, reverse double struck, weight 8.514 g, maximum diameter 26.2 mm, die axis 0o, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, triple-pendant earring, and necklace with many pendants; reverse unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; scarce; $170.00 (€151.30)


Tranquillina, Augusta, May 241 - 25 February 244 A.D., Deultum, Thrace

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Tranquillina was the beautiful daughter of the faithful Praetorian Prefect Timisitheus and was married to Gordian III in May 241 A.D. Greatly loved by her husband, she survived his assassination, possibly due to her immense popularity with both the general population and the soldiery. The imperial coinage of Tranquillina is very rare. Provincial coinage of Tranquillina is more available.
RP79970. Bronze AE 24, Jurukova Deultum 414; SNG Deultum 1526 (O148/R67); Draganov Deultum 1527a (O148/R67); Varbanov II 2957 (R4); Moushmov 3744; MPR II-4 2083, aVF, well centered, some corrosion, cleaning scratches, weight 7.108 g, maximum diameter 23.7 mm, die axis 0o, Deultum (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint, May 241 - 25 Feb 244 A.D.; obverse SAB TRANQVILLINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, elaborate hairstyle with hair in ridges, and in plait looped below her ear and then up the back of her head; reverse COL FL PA-C, DEVLT (starting above, ending in exergue), she-wolf standing right, head turned back left, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus; $170.00 (€151.30)


Antonia, Daughter of Mark Antony, Wife of Nero Drusus, Mother of Claudius, Grandmother of Caligula

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Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives. All her coinage was issued early in the reign of Claudius. She died around 37 A.D., possibly as a result of forced suicide ordered by Caligula.
RB77501. Orichalcum dupondius, SRCV I 1902, RIC I Claudius 92, BMCRE I Claudius 166, Cohen I 6, BnF II Claudius 143, F, banker's mark, weak obverse legend, corrosion, weight 11.564 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, struck under Claudius, c. 41 - 50 A.D.; obverse ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait; reverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius standing left, veiled and togate, simpulum in right, S - C flanking across field; $165.00 (€146.85)


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB72290. Bronze AE 17, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613 var. (divided ethnic); BMC Italy p. 131, 12 var. (same), VF, green patina, weight 3.570 g, maximum diameter 17.1 mm, die axis 225o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY (upward on left), bunch of grapes; rare; $160.00 (€142.40)


Arpi, Apulia, Italy, 215 - 212 B.C., Struck Under Hannibal

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Arpi remained faithful to Rome until Rome's defeat at the battle of Cannae and then defected to Hannibal. Rome captured Arpi in 213 or 212 B.C. and it never recovered its former importance. No Roman inscriptions have been found there, and remains of antiquity are scanty.
GB73614. Bronze AE 20, HN Italy 650; SNG ANS 646; SNG Cop 613; BMC Italy p. 131, 12, F, weight 3.792 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 270o, Arpi (near Foggia, Italy) mint, 215 - 212 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet; reverse APΠANOY, bunch of grapes; rare; $150.00 (€133.50)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RS69156. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9495, EF, sharp detail, well centered, weight 3.339 g, maximum diameter 21.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 250 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil from face with right hand, scepter in left hand; $145.00 (€129.05)


Sabina, Augusta 128 - c. 136 A.D., Wife of Hadrian

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Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown holding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
RB73707. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC II Hadrian 1028, Cohen II 38, BMCRE III Hadrian 1869, SRCV II 3934, Hunter II -, gF, spots of patina flaking, small areas of corrosion, cleaning scratches, weight 24.517 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, c. 132 A.D.; obverse SABINA AVGVSTA HADRAINI AVG P P, diademed and draped bust right; reverse IVNONI REGINAE, Juno standing left, patera extended in right, scepter in left, S - C flanking across field below center; ex Forum (2009); scarce; $145.00 (€129.05)


Julia Mamaea, Augusta 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D.

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Although many coin references classify Fecunditas as a personification of fertility rather than as an actual deity, Fecunditas was recognized as a Roman divinity by Nero, who erected a statue to her. Tacitus notes that upon the birth of Claudia Neronis, the senate decreed the construction of a temple of Fertility to be built at Antium. Fecunditas is always portrayed as a female figure holding a child, or children and often a scepter, cornucopia, palm branch or caduceus. Sometimes the children are depicted standing at her feet. Coins portraying her usually advertise the fertility of the imperial family.
RB73634. Copper as, RIC IV SA669, BMCRE VI 924, Cohen IV 9, SRCV II 8241, aVF, green patina, light roughness, weight 9.921 g, maximum diameter 25.1 mm, die axis 315o, Rome mint, 15th emission, c. 232 A.D.; obverse IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right; reverse FECVNDITAS AVGVSTAE, Fecunditas standing left, extending right hand over child standing before her with arms raised, cornucopia in left hand, S - C flanking very low in field; ex CNG e-auction 243 (27 Oct 2010), lot 385; ex J.S. Wagner Collection; $145.00 (€129.05)


Lucilla, Augusta c. 164 - 182 A.D., Wife of Lucius Verus

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Ceres a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships, was listed among the Di Consentes, Rome's equivalent to the Twelve Olympians of Greek mythology. The Romans saw her as the counterpart of the Greek goddess Demeter, whose mythology was reinterpreted for Ceres in Roman art and literature.
SL73983. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III M1728; BMCRE IV p. 575, 1194; Cohen III 2; Hunter II 47; MIR Szaivert 24; SRCV II 5496, NGC F, strike 4/5, surface 3/5 (3761245-013), weight 26.30 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 2nd issue, c. 166 - 169 A.D.; obverse LVCILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair elaborately waved and fastened in a chignon; reverse CERES, Ceres seated left on a basket (cista mystica) from which a snake is emerging, two stalks of grain in right hand, torch in left, S - C flanking across field; ex Johnathan K. Kern; $145.00 (€129.05)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RS69200. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9495, aEF, attractive portrait, weight 3.927 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 250 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil from face with right hand, scepter in left hand; $140.00 (€124.60)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RS70595. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9495, gVF, well centered, weight 4.296 g, maximum diameter 21.7 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 250 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil from face with right hand, scepter in left hand; $140.00 (€124.60)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RS72574. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9495, Choice VF, full circles strike on a broad flan, golden toning, porosity, reverse die wear, small edge cracks, weight 3.135 g, maximum diameter 24.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 250 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil from face with right hand, scepter in left hand; $140.00 (€124.60)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RS74470. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9495, Choice EF, weight 4.389 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 250 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left on throne, drawing veil from face with right hand, scepter in left hand; $140.00 (€124.60)


Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.

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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS79616. Silver denarius, RIC IV S572, BMCRE V S165, RSC III 150, Hunter III 16, SRCV II 6600, VF, nice portrait, full circles centering on obverse and reverse, some die wear, flan cracks, weight 3.543 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 204 A.D.; obverse IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right; reverse PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing half left, veiled, dropping incense on altar with right hand, box in left hand; $140.00 (€124.60)


Otacilia Severa, Augusta, February 244 - End of September 249 A.D., Zeugma, Commagene, Syria

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A tetrastyle temple is a temple with four columns. A peribolos is a court enclosed by a wall, especially one surrounding an ancient Greek or Roman temple.
GB90700. Bronze AE 29, BMC Galatia p. 128, 34; Butcher 31b; SNG München 435 var. (capricorn right); SGICV 4056 var. (same); SNG Cop -, Choice VF, perfect centering, weight 18.168 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, die axis 180o, Zeugma mint, Feb 244 - end Sep 249 A.D.; obverse MAP ΩTAKIΛ CEOYHPAN CEB, draped bust right, wearing stephane, crescent behind shoulders; reverse ZEYΓM−ATEΩN, tetrastyle temple with peribolos enclosing the sacred grove of trees, statue of seated Zeus within temple, capricorn left in exergue; $135.00 (€120.15)


Macedonian Kingdom, Philip III Arrhidaeus and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C., In the Name of Alexander

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Struck after Alexander's death during the joint reign of Alexander's mentally disabled half-brother, Philip III, and Alexander's infant son with Roxana, Alexander IV. The two were made joint kings by Alexander's generals who only intended to use them as pawns. Philip III was imprisoned upon his return to Macedonia, and in 317 B.C. he was executed under orders from Olympias. Olympias was Alexander the Great's mother and Alexander IV's grandmother, but not Philip III's mother. Alexander IV and his mother Roxana were executed by the boy's regent, Kassander, in 311 B.C.
GS75257. Silver drachm, Price 2264, Prokesch-Osten I 378, SNG Berry 231, SNG München 593, Müller Alexander -, SNG Cop -, SNG Alpha Bank -, VF, well centered on a crowded flan, uneven toning, die wear, weight 3.970 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 0o, Ionia, Teos mint, struck under Menander or Kleitos, 323 - 319 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne without back, nude to waist, himation around hips and legs, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left, Πο over ∆I left; scarce; $135.00 (€120.15)


Macedonian Kingdom, Antigonos I Monophthalmos, 320 - 306 B.C., In the Name and Types of Alexander the Great

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Antigonos I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") was a nobleman and strategos (general and governor) under Alexander the Great. Upon Alexander's death in 323 B.C., he established himself as one of the successors and declared himself King in 306 B.C. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus, answered by also proclaiming themselves kings. Antigonus found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all of them. He died in battle at Ipsus in 301 B.C. Antigonus' kingdom was divided up, with Seleucus I Nicator gaining the most. His son, Demetrius I Poliorcetes, took Macedon, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by Rome in 168 B.C.
GS75263. Silver drachm, ADM I Series XX, Price 2683, SNG München 641, Müller Alexander 1690, SNG Cop -, VF, attractive style, toned, tight flan, scratches and scrapes, light corrosion, weight 3.879 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 270o, Lydia, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, as strategos of Asia, 319 - 315 B.D.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus enthroned left, nude to waist, himation around waist and legs, feet on footstool, right foot drawn back, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left, K monogram in circle with base on left, HA monogram below throne; rare; $135.00 (€120.15)


Fausta, Augusta 324 - 326 A.D., Second Wife of Constantine the Great

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Fausta is depicted as Spes, the Roman personification of hope. She holds her infant children, Constantine II and Constantius II, her hopeful promise for the future of the "Republic."
RL76975. Billon centenionalis, RIC VII Trier p. 209, 484; LRBC I 36; SRCV IV 16560; Cohen VII 17, EF, excellent centering, green patina, cleaning scratches, spot of corrosion, weight 2.804 g, maximum diameter 19.5 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 326 A.D.; obverse FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, draped bust right, hair waived, bun at back, wearing pearl necklace; reverse SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Fausta standing facing, looking left, holding infants Constantine II and Constantius II, PTR followed by dot over crescent with horns up in exergue; $135.00 (€120.15)


Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Struck in the Name of Alexander the Great

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Colophon struck this commemorative in the name of Alexander the Great under the rule of Lysimachus. The city also issued the same type with the same symbols in the name of King Lysimachus (examples are listed in Forum's catalog). Colophon was about 15 miles (24 km) northwest of Ephesus.
GS71735. Silver drachm, Price 1842, Müller Alexander 358, SNG Cop 909, SNG München 539, SNG Alpha Bank -, VF, toned, porous, weight 4.067 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 0o, Ionia, Kolophon (near Degirmendere Fev, Turkey) mint, c. 301 - 297 B.C.; obverse head of Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, right leg drawn back, feet on footstool, lion-forepart over crescent horns left in left field, pentagram under throne; $130.00 (€115.70)


Plotina, Wife of Trajan, Augusta 105 - 129 A.D., Sardes, Lydia

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"The colonial coins of Plotina are, according to Vaillant, of the highest degree of rarity. Amongst those bearing Latin inscriptions are issues from Cassendreia in Macedonia, and Corinth in Achaia." -- Dictionary of Roman Coins
RP77845. Bronze AE 18, SNG München 23, 518; SNG Cop -; BMC Lydia -, Fair, green patina, weight 3.412 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Sardes (Sart, Turkey) mint, c. 112 - 117; obverse ΠΛΩTEI−NA CEBACTH, draped bust right, hair in plait behind; reverse CAP∆I−ANΩN, Pelops on horseback right, holding whip; rare; $130.00 (€115.70)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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In 250 the Plague of Cyprian, a pandemic probably smallpox, began. It was still raging in 270, when it claimed the life of emperor Claudius II Gothicus. At the height of the outbreak, 5,000 people a day were said to be dying in Rome. The plague caused widespread manpower shortages in agriculture and the Roman army.
RB68394. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 136b, Cohen V 22, VF, light scratches, weight 16.030 g, maximum diameter 28.5 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 249 - 251 A.D.; obverse HERENNIA ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed draped bust right; reverse PVDICITIA AVG S C, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil with right, transverse scepter in left; $125.00 (€111.25)


Herennia Etruscilla, Augusta July 249 - April/August 253 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RS72575. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 59b, RSC IV 19, Hunter III 10, SRCV III 9495, VF/F, well centered, light toning, porosity, reverse die wear, tiny edge cracks, weight 3.874 g, maximum diameter 24.0 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 250 A.D.; obverse HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, on crescent; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia (modesty) seated left, drawing veil from face with right hand, scepter in left hand; $125.00 (€111.25)


Otacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

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Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to the gods, family, other people and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others.
RS73597. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 130, RSC IV 43, Hunter III 8, SRCV III 9158, Choice VF, excellent portrait, centered, toned, weight 3.923 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing left, veiled, extending right hand, box of incense in left; $125.00 (€111.25)


Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.

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Julia Domna was born in Emesa in 170 A.D. She was the youngest daughter of high-priest Julius Bassianus, a descendant of the Royal House of Emesa. Emesa was famous for its Temple of the Sun, the center of worship for the ancient pagan cult El-Gebal (or Elagabal). El-Gebal, worshipped in the form of a conical black stone, was the Aramaic name for the Syrian Sun God and means God of the Mountain. Emesa was also the birthplace of three other Roman empresses, Julia Maesa, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, and one emperor, Julia Domna's nephew, Elagabalus.
RS76585. Silver denarius, RIC IV S536; RSC III 194; BMCRE V p. 27, S49; Hunter III 3, SRCV II 6608, VF, tight flan, struck with a worn reverse die, weight 2.719 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 135o, Rome mint, 193 - 196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VENERI VICTR, Venus standing right, seen from behind, naked to below the buttocks, apple in extended right hand, palm frond over shoulder in left, resting left elbow on column; scarce; $125.00 (€111.25)


Magnia Urbica, Augusta middle 283 - middle 285 A.D.

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The epithet Genetrix identified Venus as the goddess of motherhood and domesticity.
RA74495. Billon antoninianus, RIC V, part 2, 337 (R); Hunter IV, p. 217, 8; Cohen VI 8; Pink p. 24, series 6; SRCV III 12421, aF, well centered, near black patina, corrosion, weight 3.934 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, Middle 283 - Middle 285 A.D.; obverse MAGNIA VRBICA AVG, draped bust right on crescent; reverse VENVS GENETRIX (Mother Venus), Venus standing left holding apple and scepter, D in left field; rare; $120.00 (€106.80)


Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius

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There are peculiarities about these crescent and star reverse types that are difficult to understand. First, the crescents are almost always depicted with the horns up. The moon is never seen this way in the sky. Also, in the sky, stars are never visible within the horns of the crescent moon because there they would be behind the shadowed yet solid and opaque orb.
RB79606. Copper as, SRCV II 4658, RIC III AP1199, BMCRE IV AP1476, Cohen II 275, F, green patina, corrosion on reverse, weight 10.739 g, maximum diameter 26.0 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 141 - 146 A.D.; obverse DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse large crescent horns up, seven stars, six around, one in center, S C below; $120.00 (€106.80)


St. Helena, Augusta, 8 November 324 - c. 330 A.D., Mother of Constantine the Great

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Constantine appointed his mother Helena as Augusta Imperatrix, and gave her unlimited access to the imperial treasury in order to locate the relics of Judeo-Christian tradition. In 326 - 328 Helena undertook a trip to the Holy Places in Palestine. According to Eusebius of Caesarea she was responsible for the construction or beautification of two churches, the Church of the Nativity, Bethlehem, and the Church on the Mount of Olives, sites of Christ's birth and ascension, respectively.
RL79453. Billon reduced centenionalis, Hunter V 2 (also 1st officina), RIC VIII Trier 63, LRBC I 112, SRCV V 17493, Cohen VII 4, Choice EF, mint luster, well centered and struck, sharp reverse, tiny edge cracks, weight 1.591 g, maximum diameter 15.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 337 - 340 A.D.; obverse FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing necklace; reverse PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left, olive branch pointed down in right hand, long scepter transverse in left hand, •TRP• in exergue; $120.00 (€106.80)


Theodora, Augusta, 2nd Wife of Constantius I, Grandmother of Caesars and Emperors

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Theodora is often referred to as a stepdaugher of Emperor Maximian by ancient sources, leading to claims by historians Otto Seeck and Ernest Stein that she was born from an earlier marriage between Eutropia, wife of Maximian, and Afranius Hannibalianus. This man was consul in 292 and praetorian prefect under Diocletian. Timothy Barnes challenges this view stating that all "stepdaughter sources" derive their information from the partially unreliable work Kaisergeschichte (written in the 4th century), while more reliable sources refer Theodora as Maximian's natural daughter. He concludes that she was born no later than c. 275 to an unnamed earlier wife of Maximian, possibly one of Hannibalianus' daughters.
RL79457. Billon reduced centenionalis, Hunter V 2 (also 1st officina), RIC VIII Trier 91, LRBC I 129, Voetter 4, SRCV V 17502, Cohen VII 4, EF, nice portrait, some luster, reverse slightly off center, area of light corrosion on reverse, weight 1.323 g, maximum diameter 15.4 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 337 - 340 A.D.; obverse FL MAX THEODORAE AVG, draped bust right, wearing diadem, elaborate hairstyle, pearl necklace; reverse PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas standing facing, head right, holding infant at her breast, TRP followed by branch in exergue; $120.00 (€106.80)


Julia Mamaea, Augusta 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D.

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After Apollo insulted him, Eros (cupid) shot Apollo with an arrow that caused him to fall in hopeless love with Daphne, a mortal woman. Eros shot Daphne with an arrow which made her incapable of loving Apollo. Nevertheless Apollo pursued her, and out of desperation Daphne escaped by having herself turned into a laurel. Ever after, winners of the games to honor Apollo wore wreaths of laurel in honor of Apollo's Daphne.
RB73718. Bronze sestertius, RIC IV SA694, BMCRE VI SA190, Cohen IV 62, SRCV II 8232, VF, excellent portrait, attractive reverse style, well centered, tiny flan crack, cleaning scratches, weight 13.843 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 224 A.D.; obverse IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right; reverse VENERI FELICI, Venus standing facing, head right, long scepter vertical in right hand, cupid seated facing her in her left hand, cupid is naked, winged and extends his hands toward her, S - C flanking across field; $110.00 (€97.90)


Lucilla, Augusta c. 164 - 182 A.D., Wife of Lucius Verus

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For Roman wives, piety often meant accepting neglect. It was not considered adultery for a Roman husband to have sex with slaves or unmarried women. The historian Spartianus wrote that after Lucilla complained, Lucius Verus reproached her: "Uxor enim dignitatis nomen est, non voluptatis" (Wife is the name of dignity, not bliss).
RB83576. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 1756, BMCRE IV 1161, Cohen III 54, Hunter II 27, SRCV II 5505, F, glossy dark sea-green patina, light corrosion on obverse, rough areas on reverse, squared tight flan, weight 19.43 g, maximum diameter 30.9 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 164 - 166 A.D.; obverse LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F, draped bust right; reverse PIETAS, Pietas standing left, veiled, raising her right hand, perfume-box in left, flaming altar at feet on left, S - C flanking across field; $110.00 (€97.90)


Faustina Sr., Augusta 25 February 138 - Early 141, Wife of Antoninus Pius

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Ceres' known mythology is indistinguishable from Demeter's. Her virgin daughter Proserpina (Persephone) was abducted by Hades to be his wife in the underworld. Ceres searched for her endlessly lighting her way through the earth with torches. While Ceres (Demeter) searched, she was preoccupied with her loss and her grief. The seasons halted; living things ceased their growth, then began to die. Some say that in her anger she laid a curse on the world that caused plants to wither and die, and the land to become desolate. Faced with the extinction of all life on earth, Zeus sent his messenger Hermes to the underworld to bring Proserpina back. However, because she had eaten while in the underworld, Hades had a claim on her. Therefore, it was decreed that she would spend four months each year in the underworld. During these months Ceres grieves for her daughter's absence, withdrawing her gifts from the world, creating winter. Proserpina's return brings the spring.
SL73986. Silver denarius, RIC III 362, BMCRE IV 421, RSC II 104, SRCV II 4584, NGC Ch VF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5, (4162520-008), weight 3.00 g, maximum diameter 16.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA, Ceres standing facing, head left, long torch in right hand, raising drapery with left; $105.00 (€93.45)


Otacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

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Pudicitia, modesty and chastity, was for Romans the highest regarded female virtue. For an unmarried girl, pudicitia meant virginity. For a wife, it meant faithfulness and devotion to her husband. Romans loved the story of Arria, an ultimate example of Roman pudicitia. When the emperor Claudius ordered her husband Paetus to end his own life, he hesitated. Arria took his dagger and stabbed herself to set an example, saying, "Paetus, it doesn't hurt."
RB79787. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 209a, Cohen V 55, SRCV III 9169, Hunter III - (p. cxi), aVF, nice portrait, attractive green patina, light corrosion, edge crack, scratches, weight 20.081 g, maximum diameter 32.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, c. 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, diademed draped bust right; reverse PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia seated left, drawing veil from face with right hand, long transverse scepter in left, S C in exergue; $105.00 (€93.45)


Salonina, Augusta 254 - c. September 268 A.D.

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This type was struck during Salonina's lifetime, so the unusual reverse legend was not struck in memorial. There has been some fanciful speculation that "IN PACE," meaning "in peace," was a Christian phrase indicating the empress had converted to Christianity.
RS65817. Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1231a, RIC V S60, RSC IV 20, Hunter III 25, Cunetio 1535, SRCV III 10626, gF, toned white metal, green encrustations, weight 2.153 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, 266 - 267 A.D.; obverse SALONINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, hair in ridges and in plait looped below ear up the back of head, crescent behind shoulders; reverse AVGVSTA IN PACE (Augusta in peace), Pax seated left on throne without back, olive branch downward in right, long transverse scepter in right; rare; $100.00 (€89.00)




    



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