Titus Flavius Vespasianus was the hero of the Judean rebellion (from the Roman perspective) and a very popular emperor. He presided over the empire during the cataclysmic eruption of Vesuvius, which buried half the towns of the Bay of Naples, including Pompeii. He was described as handsome, charming and generous. Titus once complained that he had lost a day because twenty-four hours passed without his bestowing a gift. He was, however, generous to a fault, which depleted the treasury. If he had ruled longer, he might have brought the empire to bankruptcy and lost his popularity. He died of illness in 81 A.D., succeeded by his brother Domitian.
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.
In 72 A.D. the the Roman governor Lucius Flavius Silva laid siege to Masada, a desert fortress, the last outpost of the Jewish rebels following the end in 70 of the First Jewish Revolt. The Legio X Fretensis surrounded the mountain fortress with a 7-mile long siege wall and built a rampart of stones and beaten earth against the western approach. In the Spring of 73 A.D., 960 Zealots under the leadership of Eleazar ben Ya'ir committed mass suicide when defeat became imminent.
SH64354. Silver denarius, RIC II (Vespasian) 1563, Hendin 1493, RPC II 1935, RSC II 395, aEF, areas of light corrosion, weight 3.311 g, maximum diameter 18.0 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch mint, as caesar, 72 - 73 A.D.; obverse T CAES IMP VES PO-N TR POT, laureate and draped bust right; reverse no legend, Titus driving triumphal quadriga right, branch and reigns in right, scepter in left; ex Heritage auction 3021, lot 21537; rare; $750.00 (€577.50)
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Koinon of Galatia
Luna, the Greek moon-goddess, was female, which seems natural because the female menstrual cycle follows the lunar month. But Mên was a male moon-god, probably originally of the indigenous non-Greek Karian people. By Roman times Mên was worshiped across Anatolia and in Attica. He was associated with fertility, healing, and punishment. Mên is usually depicted with a crescent moon behind his shoulders, wearing a Phrygian cap, and holding a lance or sword in one hand and a pine-cone or patera in the other. His other attributes include the bucranium and chicken. A temple of Mên has been excavated at Antiochia, Pisidia.
SH63417. Brass AE 26, RPC II 1621; SNG Cop 107; SNGvA 6133, BMC Galatia p. 8, 1; Arslan Roman 19; SNG Leypold -, Nice F, weight 9.993 g, maximum diameter 26.4 mm, die axis 15o, Ancyra mint, as caesar, 69 - 79 AD; obverseAUTOKRA TITOS KAISAR SABAS UIOS, laureate head right; reverseSABASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN, Mên standing left, wearing a Phrygian cap, crescent behind shoulders, phiale extended in right; ex Frank L. Kovacs; rare; $250.00 (€192.50)
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Judea Capta, Caesarea, Judaea
Judaea Capta issue minted at Caesarea, Judaea.
JD57463. Bronze AE 20, Hendin 1446, RPC II 2311, SNG ANS 466, Meshorer 2, gF, weight 8.359 g, maximum diameter 21.8 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea mint, as caesar, 71 - 73 A.D.; obverse AYTOKP TITOC KAICAP, laureate head right; reverseIOUDAIAS EALWKUIAS, Nike (Victory) standing right, nude to waist, left foot on helmet, writing on a shield hung on a palm tree; $200.00 (€154.00)
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Berytos, Phoenicia
After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews. (Josephus, Bell. Jud., VII, iii, 1.)
RP55005. Bronze AE 25, RPC II 2045, Rouvier 513, F, weight 13.564 g, maximum diameter 25.4 mm, die axis 180o, Berytos mint, obverse IMP T CAESARAVG F, bare head left; reverse COL IVL / [AVG], founder plowing with two oxen right; $180.00 (€138.60)
Minerva, equated with the Greek Athena, was the Roman virgin warrior goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic, and the inventor of music. She was worshipped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad along with Jupiter and Juno.
RB40003. Copper quadrans, RIC II 254, aVF, porous, weight 2.136 g, maximum diameter 14.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse IMP T VESP AVG COS VIII, helmeted head of Minerva right; reverse S C within laurel wreath; $80.00 (€61.60)
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Judaea
Judaea Capta issue minted at Caesarea, Judaea.
JD42683. Bronze AE 24, Meshorer TJC 384, Hendin 1449, SNG ANS 477, Fair, weight 12.855 g, maximum diameter 23.0 mm, die axis 0o, Caesarea mint, as caesar, 71 - 73 A.D.; obverseAUTOKR TITOS KAISAR, laureate head right; reverseIOUDAIAS EALWKUIAS, trophy flanked by Judaea seated left, mourning and shield to right; ex Amphora Coins (David Hendin); $60.00 (€46.20)
BB63793. Orichalcumsestertius, RIC IIpart 1, 155, Fair, weight 21.662 g, maximum diameter 34.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse IMP T CAESVESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, laureate head left; reversePAX AVGVST, Pax standing left, olive branch downward in right, cornucopia in left, S - C across field; $60.00 (€46.20)
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D., Gadara, Decapolis
Gadara (Um Qais, Jordan), located on a mountain summit about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, was the capital of the Roman province Peraea. The local era of Gadara (Pompeian) began in 64 B.C. Mark (5:1) and Luke (8:26-39) describe the miracle healing of a demoniac (Matthew [8:28-34] says two demoniacs) in the country of the Gadarenes. Gadara had a large Jewish population and the reverse of this type is similar to that used on some Judean prutah.
BB62562. Bronze AE 19, RPC II 2096, Spijkerman 30, SNG ANS 1302, Hendin -, aF, weight 4.862 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 0o, Gadara mint, as caesar, 73 - 74 A.D.; obverseTITOS KAISAR, laureate head right; reverseGADAREWN, L ZLR (year 137=A.D. 73/74), two crossed cornucopia, cruciform ornament between; $25.00 (€19.25)