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Coins of China

The earliest Chinese proto-coins, as early as 770 - 476 B.C., were imitations of the cowrie shells used in ceremonial exchanges. The first metal coins, also introduced in this period, were not initially round; instead, they were knife shaped or spade shaped. Round metal coins with a round hole, and then later a square hole, in the center were first introduced around 350 B.C. The beginning of the Qin Dynasty (221 - 206 B.C.), the first dynasty to unify China, standardized coinage for the whole Empire. At first, coinage was limited to use around the capital city district but by the beginning of the Han Dynasty, coins were widely used for paying taxes, salaries, and fines. Ancient Chinese coins are markedly different from coins produced in the west. Chinese coins were cast in molds, unlike western coins which were typically struck (hammered) or, in later times, milled. Chinese coins were usually made from bronze, brass, or iron. Precious metals like gold and silver were uncommonly used. The alloys of the coin metals varied considerably. Most Chinese coins were produced with a square hole in the middle. At the mint coins were threaded on a square rod so that the rough edges could be filed smooth on a lathe, after which they were threaded on strings for ease of handling. Official coin production was sometimes spread over many mint locations throughout the country. Aside from officially produced coins, private coining was common during many stages of Chinese history. At times private coining was tolerated, sometimes it was illegal. Some coins were produced in very large numbers. During the Western Han, an average of 220 million coins a year were produced. Some other types were of limited circulation and are extremely rare today.


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
A diamond punch is a hole that has been punched offset to produce a diamond shape hole relative to the orientation of the coin.
CH87007. Bronze 2 cash, Gorny 2016 26b.36 D, Hartill 16.198, aVF, diamond punch variety, light encrustations, weight 8.424 g, maximum diameter 32.2 mm, 1068 - 1078 A.D.; obverse Xi Ning zhong bao, Lishu (clerical script), clockwise, squat boxy wide characters, no left hand stroke on Xi, short compact Ni, short boxy bao; reverse plain; $28.00 (€23.80)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86020. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.349, Schjoth 605, Fisher 1009, VF, earthen deposits, weight 7.588 g, maximum diameter 31.18 mm, 1098 - 1100 A.D.; obverse Yuan Fu tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $26.00 (€22.10)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86022. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.349, Schjoth 605, Fisher 1009, VF, earthen deposits, weight 8.326 g, maximum diameter 31.6 mm, 1098 - 1100 A.D.; obverse Yuan Fu tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $26.00 (€22.10)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86023. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.349, Schjoth 605, Fisher 1009, VF, earthen deposits, encrustations, weight 8.742 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, 1098 - 1100 A.D.; obverse Yuan Fu tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $26.00 (€22.10)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong, 1101 - 1126 A.D.

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Huizong, one of the most famous Song Dynasty emperors, spent most of his life surrounded by luxury, sophistication, and art, but ended in tragedy. An artist, Huizong neglected the army, and Song China became increasingly weak. On Jan 18, 1126, after the forces of the Jin had crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of the Song capital, Kaifeng, Huizong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Qinzong. The Jin entered Kaifeng on Jan 9, 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Huizong and Qinzong were captured and demoted to commoner. Huizong was deported to northern Manchuria, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive.
CH86063. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.449, Schjoth 640, Fisher 1079, VF, weight 6.871 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, 1111 - 1117 A.D.; obverse Zheng He tong bao, li script, round bao; reverse plain; $25.00 (€21.25)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong, 1101 - 1126 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Huizong, one of the most famous Song Dynasty emperors, spent most of his life surrounded by luxury, sophistication, and art, but ended in tragedy. An artist, Huizong neglected the army, and Song China became increasingly weak. On Jan 18, 1126, after the forces of the Jin had crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of the Song capital, Kaifeng, Huizong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Qinzong. The Jin entered Kaifeng on Jan 9, 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Huizong and Qinzong were captured and demoted to commoner. Huizong was deported to northern Manchuria, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive.
CH86064. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.449, Schjoth 640, Fisher 1079, VF, weight 7.187 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, 1111 - 1117 A.D.; obverse Zheng He tong bao, li script, round bao; reverse plain; $25.00 (€21.25)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong, 1101 - 1126 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Huizong, one of the most famous Song Dynasty emperors, spent most of his life surrounded by luxury, sophistication, and art, but ended in tragedy. An artist, Huizong neglected the army, and Song China became increasingly weak. On Jan 18, 1126, after the forces of the Jin had crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of the Song capital, Kaifeng, Huizong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Qinzong. The Jin entered Kaifeng on Jan 9, 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Huizong and Qinzong were captured and demoted to commoner. Huizong was deported to northern Manchuria, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive.
CH86065. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.449, Schjoth 640, Fisher 1079, VF, weight 8.549 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, 1111 - 1117 A.D.; obverse Zheng He tong bao, li script, round bao; reverse plain; $25.00 (€21.25)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. The Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. The Southern Song Dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, and later the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song Dynasty in 1279. China was once again unified, under the Yuan Dynasty. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_Dynasty
CH86027. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 17.47, Schjoth 688, Fischer 1161, VF, weight 6.196 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, 1131 - 1162; obverse Shao Xing yuan bao, regular script, clockwise; reverse crescent above, dot below; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86067. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 7.055 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86070. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, weight 6.923 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, 1127 - 1130; obverse Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; reverse plain; scarce; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86071. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, weight 8.987 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, 1127 - 1130; obverse Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; reverse plain; scarce; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86072. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, weight 6.955 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, 1127 - 1130; obverse Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; reverse plain; scarce; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. The Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. The Southern Song Dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, and later the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song Dynasty in 1279. China was once again unified, under the Yuan Dynasty. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_Dynasty
CH86024. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 17.47, Schjoth 688, Fischer 1161, VF, weight 6.420 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, 1131 - 1162; obverse Shao Xing yuan bao, regular script, clockwise; reverse crescent above, dot below; $22.00 (€18.70)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Zhezong ascended the throne at age 10 under the supervision of Empress Dowager Gao. He was powerless until the Empress' death in 1093. Under Zhenzong the country prospered. But after the Khitan attacked, despite initial successes, he concluded a treaty agreeing to an inferior position and an annual tribute of 100,000 oz. of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The treaty brought over a century of peace, but the admission of inferiority would plague foreign affairs and the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers. Zhezong died in 1100 in Kaifeng and was succeeded by his younger brother. He was only 24.
CH86089. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.319, Schjoth 595, Fisher 996, VF, weight 7.478 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; obverse Shao Sheng yuan bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $22.00 (€18.70)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86068. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 8.261 g, maximum diameter 30.0 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $21.00 (€17.85)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86069. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 7.507 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $21.00 (€17.85)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86066. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 8.317 g, maximum diameter 29.8 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86082. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, VF, weight 8.361 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; obverse Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86083. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, VF, weight 6.349 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; obverse Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86084. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, VF, weight 6.748 g, maximum diameter 29.8 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; obverse Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86059. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.284, Schjoth 576, Fisher 984, VF, weight 8.348 g, maximum diameter 29.8 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan You tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $19.00 (€16.15)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86061. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.285, Schjoth 576, Fisher 984, weight 6.920 g, maximum diameter 29.6 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan You tong bao, running script, clockwise, claw foot bao; reverse plain; $19.00 (€16.15)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86060. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.284, Schjoth 576, Fisher 984, VF, weight 7.885 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan You tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86062. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.284, Schjoth 576, Fisher 984, VF, weight 9.327 g, maximum diameter 30.3 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; obverse Yuan You tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Gaozong was a Northern Song regional ruler. When Qinzong and Huizong were captured by the Jurchen, he established Southern Song Empire. After years of fighting, he signed a treaty with the Jurchens. He did not actually want to defeat them because Qinzong might then be restored to the throne. He was a notable poet with significant influence. Gaozong abdicated after reigning more than 35 years.
CH86075. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 17.39, Schjoth 684, VF, weight 7.071 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, 1131 - 1162 A.D.; obverse Shao Sheng yuan bao, seal script, clockwise; reverse moon and star reverse (crescent and dot); $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Zhezong ascended the throne at age 10 under the supervision of Empress Dowager Gao. He was powerless until the Empress' death in 1093. Under Zhenzong the country prospered. But after the Khitan attacked, despite initial successes, he concluded a treaty agreeing to an inferior position and an annual tribute of 100,000 oz. of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The treaty brought over a century of peace, but the admission of inferiority would plague foreign affairs and the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers. Zhezong died in 1100 in Kaifeng and was succeeded by his younger brother. He was only 24.
CH86087. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.319, Schjoth 595, Fisher 996, aVF, weight 8.079 g, maximum diameter 30.8 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; obverse Shao Sheng yuan bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
In 1071, the Xi Ning zhong bao coin was issued as a 10 cash to meet military expenses. Later illicit minting forced devaluation to 3 cash and then in 1073 to 2 cash. The slightly smaller size than expected, edge flaws and casting pearl flaws, visible in the photographs, suggest this may have been one of the illicit examples that forced devaluation.
CH87006. Bronze 2 cash, Gorny 2016 26b.36, Hartill 16.198, VF, edge chip, casting pearls (raised bumps), weight 7.194 g, maximum diameter 32.1 mm, 1068 - 1078 A.D.; obverse Xi Ning zhong bao, Lishu (clerical script), clockwise, squat boxy wide characters, no left hand stroke on Xi, short compact Ni, short boxy bao; reverse plain; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86028. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.248, Schjoth 556, VF, weight 6.928 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; obverse Yuan Feng tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $17.00 (€14.45)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86031. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.248, Schjoth 556, VF, weight 8.013 g, maximum diameter 30.0 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; obverse Yuan Feng tong bao, running script, clockwise; reverse plain; $17.00 (€14.45)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86032. Bronze 2 cash, Hartill 16.193, Schjoth 5438, Fisher 955, VF, weight 7.456 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, 1071 - 1077 A.D.; obverse Xi Ning zhong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; reverse plain; $16.00 (€13.60)
 




    



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REFERENCES

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Coole, A., et al. An Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins. (1967 - 1976).
Fisher, G. Fisher's Ding. (1990).
Gorny, N. Northern Song Dynasty Cash Variety Guide 2016. (Morrisville, NC, 2016).
Gorny, N. Northern Song Dynasty Cash Variety Guide, Volume 1: Fugo Senshi. (Portland, 2001).
Hartill, D. Cast Chinese Coins. (Victoria, BC, 2005).
Hartill, D. Qing Cash. RNS Special Publication 37. (London, 2003).
Jorgensen, H. Old Coins of China. (1944).
Kann, E. Illustrated Catalog of Chinese Coins. (Hong Kong, 1954).
Krause, C. & C. Mishler. Standard Catalog of World Coins. (Iola, WI, 2010 - ).
Mitchiner, M. Ancient Trade and Early Coinage. (London, 2004).
Mitchiner, M. Oriental Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: the Ancient and Classical World. (London, 1978).
Mitchiner, M. Oriental Coins and Their Values, Vol. 3: Non-Islamic States & Western Colonies. (London, 1979).
Novak, J. A Working Aid for Collectors of Annamese Coins. (Merced, CA, 1989).
Peng, X. A Monetary History of China (Zhongguo Huobo Shi). Trans. Edward H Kaplan. (Bellingham, WA, 1994).
Schjoth, F. Chinese Currency. (Oslo, 1929).
Scott Semans World Coins, The Daniel K.E. Ching Sale, Seattle, 2 June 1991.
Thierry, F. Monnaies chinoises. I L'Antiquité préimpériale. (Paris, 1997).
Thierry, F. Monnaies chinoises. II Des Qin aux Cinq Dynasties. (Paris, 2003).
Tye, R. Wang Mang. (South Uist, UK, 1993).
Von Glahn, R. Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000-1700. (Berkley, 1996).
Yuanjie, Z., ed. Xinjiang Numismatics. (Hong Kong, 1991).
Yuquan, W. Early Chinese Coinage. (New York, 1951).

Catalog current as of Monday, April 23, 2018.
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