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Coins of China

The earliest Chinese proto-coins, as early as 770 - 476 B.C., were imitations of the cowrie shells used in ceremonial exchanges. The first metal coins, also introduced in this period, were not initially round; instead, they were knife shaped or spade shaped. Round metal coins with a round hole, and then later a square hole, in the center were first introduced around 350 B.C. The beginning of the Qin Dynasty (221 - 206 B.C.), the first dynasty to unify China, standardized coinage for the whole Empire. At first, coinage was limited to use around the capital city district but by the beginning of the Han Dynasty, coins were widely used for paying taxes, salaries, and fines. Ancient Chinese coins are markedly different from coins produced in the west. Chinese coins were cast in molds, unlike western coins which were typically struck (hammered) or, in later times, milled. Chinese coins were usually made from bronze, brass, or iron. Precious metals like gold and silver were uncommonly used. The alloys of the coin metals varied considerably. Most Chinese coins were produced with a square hole in the middle. At the mint coins were threaded on a square rod so that the rough edges could be filed smooth on a lathe, after which they were threaded on strings for ease of handling. Official coin production was sometimes spread over many mint locations throughout the country. Aside from officially produced coins, private coining was common during many stages of Chinese history. At times private coining was tolerated, sometimes it was illegal. Some coins were produced in very large numbers. During the Western Han, an average of 220 million coins a year were produced. Some other types were of limited circulation and are extremely rare today.


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86023. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Fu tong bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.349, Schjoth 605, Fisher 1009, VF, earthen deposits, encrustations, weight 8.742 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, 1098 - 1100 A.D.; $34.00 (€28.90)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

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The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86071. Bronze 2 cash, Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, weight 8.987 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, 1127 - 1130; scarce; $30.00 (€25.50)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86072. Bronze 2 cash, Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, weight 6.955 g, maximum diameter 29.5 mm, 1127 - 1130; scarce; $30.00 (€25.50)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86067. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 7.055 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; $28.00 (€23.80)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86070. Bronze 2 cash, Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, weight 6.923 g, maximum diameter 28.8 mm, 1127 - 1130; scarce; $28.00 (€23.80)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The reign title Jian Yan was changed in 1131 because of severe fires in the capital city. The character "yan" contains two "fire" elements -- thought to be unlucky in this case.
CH86073. Bronze 2 cash, Jian Yan tong bao, regular script, long characters; Hartill 17.26, Schjoth 676, Fisher 1148, VF, earthen deposits, weight 5.710 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, 1127 - 1130; scarce; $28.00 (€23.80)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. The Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. The Southern Song Dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, and later the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song Dynasty in 1279. China was once again unified, under the Yuan Dynasty. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_Dynasty
CH86024. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Xing yuan bao, regular script, clockwise, reverse: crescent above, dot below; Hartill 17.47, Schjoth 688, Fischer 1161, VF, weight 6.420 g, maximum diameter 29.0 mm, 1131 - 1162; $26.00 (€22.10)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. Also referred to in English both as running script and by its Mandarin Chinese name, xíngshu, it is derived from clerical script, and was for a long time after its development in the first centuries A.D. the usual style of handwriting.
CH86021. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Fu tong bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.349, Schjoth 605, Fisher 1009, VF, earthen deposits, weight 7.669 g, maximum diameter 31.2 mm, 1098 - 1100 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86066. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 8.317 g, maximum diameter 29.8 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86068. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 8.261 g, maximum diameter 30.0 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Seal script, Zhuan Shu in Mandrin Chinese, is a formal style of Chinese calligraphy, closest to the archaic form of the charicters.
CH86069. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Yu tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.270, Schjoth 575, Fisher 983, VF, weight 7.507 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, 1086 - 1093 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86082. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, VF, weight 8.361 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86083. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, VF, weight 6.349 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86084. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, VF, weight 6.748 g, maximum diameter 29.8 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Zhezong ascended the throne at age 10 under the supervision of Empress Dowager Gao. He was powerless until the Empress' death in 1093. Under Zhenzong the country prospered. But after the Khitan attacked, despite initial successes, he concluded a treaty agreeing to an inferior position and an annual tribute of 100,000 oz. of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The treaty brought over a century of peace, but the admission of inferiority would plague foreign affairs and the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers. Zhezong died in 1100 in Kaifeng and was succeeded by his younger brother. He was only 24.
CH86089. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.319, Schjoth 595, Fisher 996, VF, weight 7.478 g, maximum diameter 30.5 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; very common; $24.00 (€20.40)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86085. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Feng tong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.224, Schjoth 553, weight 7.448 g, maximum diameter 29.7 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; $22.00 (€18.70)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Zhezong ascended the throne at age 10 under the supervision of Empress Dowager Gao. He was powerless until the Empress' death in 1093. Under Zhenzong the country prospered. But after the Khitan attacked, despite initial successes, he concluded a treaty agreeing to an inferior position and an annual tribute of 100,000 oz. of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The treaty brought over a century of peace, but the admission of inferiority would plague foreign affairs and the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers. Zhezong died in 1100 in Kaifeng and was succeeded by his younger brother. He was only 24.
CH86088. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.319, Schjoth 595, Fisher 996, VF, weight 7.093 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; $22.00 (€18.70)
 


China, Western Han Dynasty, 206 B.C. - 25 A.D.

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Wu-Shu (5 zhu) denomination was issued from 118 B.C. to 220 A.D., with additional varieties perhaps as late as 600 A.D. Dated molds have been found, and the calligraphy and other features changed over time, making it possible to more precisely date some examples.
CH86016. Bronze 5 zhu, Wu Zhu, square top to zhu, filed edges, no rim above hole and half moon mark below on obverse; Hartill 8.10, VF, natural as-found surfaces, weight 4.127 g, maximum diameter 26.2 mm, c. 90 B.C.; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Zhezong ascended the throne at age 10 under the supervision of Empress Dowager Gao. He was powerless until the Empress' death in 1093. Under Zhenzong the country prospered. But after the Khitan attacked, despite initial successes, he concluded a treaty agreeing to an inferior position and an annual tribute of 100,000 oz. of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The treaty brought over a century of peace, but the admission of inferiority would plague foreign affairs and the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers. Zhezong died in 1100 in Kaifeng and was succeeded by his younger brother. He was only 24.
CH86087. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.319, Schjoth 595, Fisher 996, aVF, weight 8.079 g, maximum diameter 30.8 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; $20.00 (€17.00)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
"Round as the heavens, square as the earth," is a Chinese saying used to metaphorically describe the fabric of the coins. On the practical side, it was discovered very early that a square hole fit a square shaft, which enabled a stacked quantity of coins to be turned on a lathe to remove casting irregularities.
CH54355. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, seal script, clockwise, small size; Hartill 16.303, Schjoth 593, Fisher 995, VF, weight 6.810 g, maximum diameter 30.6 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; very common; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
The Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) refers to the period after the Song lost control of northern China to the Jin Dynasty. The Song court retreated south of the Yangtze River and established their capital at Lin'an (now Hangzhou). Although the Song Dynasty had lost control of the traditional birthplace of Chinese civilization along the Yellow River, the Song economy was not in ruins, as the Southern Song Empire contained 60 percent of China's population and a majority of the most productive agricultural land. The Southern Song Dynasty considerably bolstered its naval strength to defend its waters and land borders and to conduct maritime missions abroad. To repel the Jin, and later the Mongols, the Song developed revolutionary new military technology augmented by the use of gunpowder. In 1234, the Jin Dynasty was conquered by the Mongols, who took control of northern China, maintaining uneasy relations with the Southern Song. In 1271, Kublai Khan was proclaimed the Emperor of China. After two decades of sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's armies conquered the Song Dynasty in 1279. China was once again unified, under the Yuan Dynasty. -- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_Dynasty
CH86025. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Xing yuan bao, regular script, clockwise, reverse: crescent above, dot below; Hartill 17.45, Schjoth 685, Fischer 1161, VF, weight 7.517 g, maximum diameter 28.6 mm, 1131 - 1162; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86028. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Feng tong bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.248, Schjoth 556, VF, weight 6.928 g, maximum diameter 29.9 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86032. Bronze 2 cash, Xi Ning zhong bao, seal script, clockwise, round bao; Hartill 16.193, Schjoth 5438, Fisher 955, VF, weight 7.456 g, maximum diameter 30.7 mm, 1071 - 1077 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Shen Zong, 1067 - 1085 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Shenzong implemented Wang Anshi's famous reforms aimed at improving life for the peasantry and unemployed. He was initially successful against the Tangut Empire but Shenzong's forces were defeated at the City of Yongle battle of 1082. As a result, the Xixia forces grew more powerful and would be a thorn on the side of the Song dynasty in the ensuing decades.
CH86033. Bronze 2 cash, Yuan Feng tong bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.248, Schjoth 556, VF, weight 8.023 g, maximum diameter 30.2 mm, 1078 - 1085 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong, 1101 - 1126 A.D.

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Huizong, one of the most famous Song Dynasty emperors, spent most of his life surrounded by luxury, sophistication, and art, but ended in tragedy. An artist, Huizong neglected the army, and Song China became increasingly weak. On Jan 18, 1126, after the forces of the Jin had crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of the Song capital, Kaifeng, Huizong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Qinzong. The Jin entered Kaifeng on Jan 9, 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Huizong and Qinzong were captured and demoted to commoner. Huizong was deported to northern Manchuria, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive.
CH86035. Bronze 2 cash, Zheng He tong bao, seal script, round bao, Hartill 16.437, Schjoth 638, Fisher 1077, VF, weight 7.935 g, maximum diameter 29.4 mm, 1111 - 1117 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Hui Zong, 1101 - 1126 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Huizong, one of the most famous Song Dynasty emperors, spent most of his life surrounded by luxury, sophistication, and art, but ended in tragedy. An artist, Huizong neglected the army, and Song China became increasingly weak. On Jan 18, 1126, after the forces of the Jin had crossed the Yellow River and came in sight of the Song capital, Kaifeng, Huizong abdicated in favor of his son Emperor Qinzong. The Jin entered Kaifeng on Jan 9, 1127, and many days of looting, rapes, and massacre followed. Huizong and Qinzong were captured and demoted to commoner. Huizong was deported to northern Manchuria, where he spent the last eight years of his life as a captive.
CH86036. Bronze 2 cash, Zheng He tong bao, seal script, narrow rims, Hartill 16.436, Schjoth 638, Fisher 1077, VF, weight 5.181 g, maximum diameter 28.62 mm, 1111 - 1117 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Gaozong was a Northern Song regional ruler. When Qinzong and Huizong were captured by the Jurchen, he established Southern Song Empire. After years of fighting, he signed a treaty with the Jurchens. He did not actually want to defeat them because Qinzong might then be restored to the throne. He was a notable poet with significant influence. Gaozong abdicated after reigning more than 35 years.
CH86074. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, seal script, clockwise, moon and star reverse (crescent and dot); Hartill 17.39, Schjoth 684, VF, weight 8.524 g, maximum diameter 29.2 mm, 1131 - 1162 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Southern Song Dynasty, Emperor Gao Zong, 1127 - 1162 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Gaozong was a Northern Song regional ruler. When Qinzong and Huizong were captured by the Jurchen, he established Southern Song Empire. After years of fighting, he signed a treaty with the Jurchens. He did not actually want to defeat them because Qinzong might then be restored to the throne. He was a notable poet with significant influence. Gaozong abdicated after reigning more than 35 years.
CH86075. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, seal script, clockwise, moon and star reverse (crescent and dot); Hartill 17.39, Schjoth 684, VF, weight 7.071 g, maximum diameter 29.3 mm, 1131 - 1162 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Northern Song Dynasty, Emperor Zhe Zong, 1086 - 1100 A.D.

Click for a larger photo
Zhezong ascended the throne at age 10 under the supervision of Empress Dowager Gao. He was powerless until the Empress' death in 1093. Under Zhenzong the country prospered. But after the Khitan attacked, despite initial successes, he concluded a treaty agreeing to an inferior position and an annual tribute of 100,000 oz. of silver and over 200,000 bolts of silk. The treaty brought over a century of peace, but the admission of inferiority would plague foreign affairs and the payments slowly depleted the empire's coffers. Zhezong died in 1100 in Kaifeng and was succeeded by his younger brother. He was only 24.
CH86086. Bronze 2 cash, Shao Sheng yuan bao, running script, clockwise; Hartill 16.319, Schjoth 595, Fisher 996, VF, weight 9.055 g, maximum diameter 31.1 mm, 1094 - 1097 A.D.; $18.00 (€15.30)
 


China, Western Hahn Dynasty, 175 - 119 B.C.

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The banliang, round with a square hole in the middle, was the first unified currency of China, introduced by the first emperor Qin Shi Huang around 210 B.C. Before that, a variety of coins were used in China, usually in the form of blades (knife money) or other implements, though round coins with square holes were used by the state of Zhou before it was extinguished by Qin in 249 B.C. Banliang coinage was part of a broader Qin standardization plan which also unified weights, measures and axle width. By the time this coin was issued, a full monetary economy had developed, with taxes, salaries and fines paid in coins. An average of 220 million coins were produced each year.
CH85988. Bronze 4 zhu, Ban liang, no rims, bottom of liang like E on its side; Mitchiner ATEC 2 5156, Hartill 7.17, VF, weight 2.781 g, maximum diameter 23.8 mm, 175 - 119 B.C.; $16.00 (€13.60)
 




    



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REFERENCES

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Coole, A., et al. An Encyclopedia of Chinese Coins. (1967 - 1976).
Fisher, G. Fisher's Ding. (1990).
Gorny, N. Northern Song Dynasty Cash Variety Guide, Volume 1: Fugo Senshi. (Portland, 2001).
Hartill, D. Cast Chinese Coins. (Victoria, BC, 2005).
Hartill, D. Qing Cash. RNS Special Publication 37. (London, 2003).
Krause, C. & C. Mishler. Standard Catalog of World Coins. (Iola, WI, 2010 - ).
Mitchiner, M. Ancient Trade and Early Coinage. (London, 2004).
Mitchiner, M. Oriental Coins and Their Values, Vol. 2: the Ancient and Classical World. (London, 1978).
Mitchiner, M. Oriental Coins and Their Values, Vol. 3: Non-Islamic States & Western Colonies. (London, 1979).
Novak, J. A Working Aid for Collectors of Annamese Coins. (Merced, CA, 1989).
Peng, X. A Monetary History of China (Zhongguo Huobo Shi). Trans. Edward H Kaplan. (Bellingham, WA, 1994).
Schjoth, F. Chinese Currency. (Oslo, 1929).
Scott Semans World Coins, The Daniel K.E. Ching Sale, Seattle, 2 June 1991.
Thierry, F. Monnaies chinoises. I L'Antiquité préimpériale. (Paris, 1997).
Thierry, F. Monnaies chinoises. II Des Qin aux Cinq Dynasties. (Paris, 2003).
Tye, R. Wang Mang. (South Uist, UK, 1993).
Von Glahn, R. Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000-1700. (Berkley, 1996).
Yuanjie, Z., ed. Xinjiang Numismatics. (Hong Kong, 1991).
Yuquan, W. Early Chinese Coinage. (New York, 1951).

Catalog current as of Saturday, November 18, 2017.
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