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Home>Catalog>Judean&BiblicalCoins>BiblicalCoins>InThisSign... PAGE 1/2«««12»»»

In This Sign You Will Be The Victor

The Roman, Byzantine, crusader and other coins below carry the symbols of Christ. In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Chi Rho Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO ERIS, meaning "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions' standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor. Click here to read Christian Themes in Byzantine Coinage by Zach Margulies.


Byzantine Empire, Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 616, the Jews of Jerusalem gained complete control over the city, much of Judea and Galilee became an autonomous Jewish province of the Sasanian Persian Empire. The Jewish Temple was rebuilt by Nehemiah ben Hushiel (exilarch of Jerusalem) who establish a High Priesthood. In September 629 the Byzantines retook Jerusalem after 15 years of Persian occupation. In 630, Heraclius decreed that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre followed around Jerusalem and in Galilee, some survivors fled to the Dara'ah area.

The flan flaw is the result of a plug inserted into the flan prior to striking to increase and achieve the proper weight for the coin.
BZ65918. Silver hexagram, DOC II/I 61, Wroth BMC 107, Hahn MIB 134, Morrisson BnF 2, Sommer 11.44, SBCV 795, Ratto 1389, Tolstoi -, aVF, uneven strike, flan flaw, reverse graffiti, weight 6.455 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 315o, Constantinople mint, c. 615 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSTI (or similar), Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine enthroned facing, each holds globus cruciger, cross above; reverse DEUS ADIUTA ROMANIS (May God help the Romans), cross potent on globe above three steps; scarce; $400.00 (€300.00)

Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112
Click for a larger photo Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR67639. Bronze follis, Metcalf 63 - 70, Malloy Crusaders 4a, VF, weight 2.652 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, 1104 - 1112 A.D.; obverse bearded facing bust of Tancred, wearing turban and chain armor, sword in right; reverse Cross pommee, fleuronnée at base; IC - XC / NI-KA (May Jesus Christ Conquer) in angles; ex Pecunem & Gitbud & Naumann; $380.00 (€285.00)

Kingdom of Cyprus, 15th Century A.D.
Click for a larger photo Deniers with rampant lion and cross types were struck by many of the Kings of Cyprus and Jerusalem. Types were struck with stars, pellets, or crosslets in the quadrants. Janus struck the type with an S in one quadrant. We do not know of another example with letters in more than one quadrant. Unfortunately we can't read the legends or the letters in the quadrants but it is possible a specialist could improve the attribution.
CR68025. Billon denier, Unpublished(?), Malloy Crusaders -, Metcalf Crusaders -, gF, weight 0.530 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, die axis 270o, obverse lion of Cyprus rampant left; reverse cross pattée, a letter in three or four of the quarters; extremely rare; $310.00 (€232.50)

Vetranio, 1 March - 25 December 350 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 312 A.D., Constantine the Great dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin, "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.
SH59948. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Siscia 287, SRCV 4042, Cohen 4 (25 Fr.), gVF, weight 4.543 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, obverse D N VETRANIO P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star in front; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Vetranio standing left in military dress, labarum (Christogram standard) in right, scepter in left, crowned by Victory behind, A left, •BSIS• in ex; scarce; $240.00 (€180.00)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.
SH90100. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII Siscia 286, gVF, a few green deposits, weight 5.632 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 45o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 19 Jan - 25 Dec 350; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star before; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing facing, head left, labarum (Chi Rho Christogram standard) in right, transverse spear in left, Victory right standing left crowning him and holding palm, A left, •ΓSIS• in ex; ex CNG auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 460; $225.00 (€168.75)

Vetranio, 1 March - 25 December 350 A.D.
Click for a larger photo  
SH59946. Bronze AE 2, RIC VIII Thessalonica 132, VF, weight 5.546 g, maximum diameter 22.9 mm, die axis 0o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, obverse D N VETRAN-IO P F AVG, diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM, emperor holding two standards decorated with Chi-Rho, star above, A in left field, B in right, •TSA• in ex; scarce; $200.00 (€150.00)

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I
Click for a larger photo The Christogram, a ligature of Chi and Rho, the first two letters of Christ in Greek, was an early symbol for Christianity. The crucifix was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because most people then had personally witnessed its gruesome use for public execution.
RL90166. Bronze AE 2, RIC IX 61.3, LRBC 2747 var (T left), SRCV 4194, Vagi 3711, VF, black surfaces, superb portrait, weight 4.777 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 180o, 5th officina, Antioch mint, 25 Aug 383 - 386; obverse AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, T right, ANTE in ex; ex CNG auction 233, lot 482; rare; $165.00 (€123.75)

Eudoxia, Augusta 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo Eudoxia was the strong willed wife of Arcadius. They were married on 27 April 395 A.D. She exercised considerable influence over policy, much to the disgust of many high ranking Romans, notably in the Church. She was mother to five children, including Theodosius II and Pulcheria. She died in childbirth.
SH65424. Copper AE 3, RIC X 104, LRBC 2800, SRCV 4241, gVF, fantastic desert patina, weight 1.854 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch mint, 401 - 403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned with wreath by the Hand of God above; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, ANT... (obscured) in exergue; truly beautiful in hand; scarce; $150.00 (€112.50)

Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Hetoum I, 1226 - 1270 A.D.
Click for a larger photo As the Mongols approached, King Hetoum made a strategic decision to send his brother Smpad to the Mongol court in Karakorum and agree to become a vassal state of the Mongol Empire. In 1254, Hetoum himself traveled to Mongolia to renew the agreement. The account of his travels, "The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back" is still important for its observations of Mongol, Buddhist, and Chinese culture, geography, and wildlife. The Mamluks invaded Armenia in 1266, taking 40,000 Armenians captive, including Hetoum's son, Leo. Hetoum abdicated in 1270 in favor of his son Leo, and lived out the rest of his life in a monastery, as a Franciscan monk.
CR65347. Copper kardez, cf. Nercessian 360, Bedoukian CCA 1376, EF, off center on a tight flan, nice green patina, weight 3.948 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Sis mint, 1226 - 1270 A.D.; obverse Armenian inscription: + Hetoum King of the Armenians, Hetoum riding right, scepter with fleur-de-lis in right; reverse Armenian inscription: + Struck in the City of Sis, cross pattée, wedge in each angle; $150.00 (€112.50)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 August 430, Saint Augustine died at age 75 during the Vandal siege of Hippo Regius in North Africa. He left behind his monumental work The City of God and other works that greatly influenced Christianity.
RL70569. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 442, LRBC 2004, SRCV 4279, VF, weight 1.588 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 0o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 425 - 435 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, SMHA in exergue; $140.00 (€105.00)

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL65462. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX 67(d)4, Choice VF, weight 1.133 g, maximum diameter 12.7 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch mint, 383 - 395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory walking left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, cross left, ANTΓ in ex; $135.00 (€101.25)

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I
Click for a larger photo The Christogram, a ligature of Chi and Rho, the first two letters of Christ in Greek, was an early symbol for Christianity. The crucifix was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because most people then had personally witnessed its gruesome use for public execution.
RL63886. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX 61, SRCV 4194, aEF, weight 1.464 g, maximum diameter 12.1 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, CONE in ex; scarce; $125.00 (€93.75)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Around 430, Saint Patrick landed on Ireland for his missionary expedition.
RL69188. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 442, LRBC 2004, SRCV 4279, VF, weight 1.210 g, maximum diameter 13.3 mm, die axis 180o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 425 - 435 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, SMHA in ex, wreath closed at the top with sun cross (cross within a circle); $125.00 (€93.75)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo This peculiar issue combines an obverse of Constantius II and a reverse type of the usurpers Magnentius and Decentius. These coins may have been struck by Poemenius (an enemy of the usurpers) before Constantius II regained control of Treveri, or they may have been struck after Constantius II had retaken the city.
RL90658. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Trier 332, LRBC 67, F, porous, weight 4.668 g, maximum diameter 23.2 mm, die axis 0o, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 352 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS AVG NOSTRI, large chi-rho (Christ monogram), A - W (alpha to omega) across field, TRS* in ex; rare; $120.00 (€90.00)

Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Very clear Manus Dei, the hand of God, reaching down to take Constantine up to heaven.
RL70561. Bronze AE 4, RIC VIII Antioch 37, VF, nice green patina, small edge chip, weight 0.826 g, maximum diameter 15.0 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, posthumous, 9 Sep 337 - April 340 A.D.; obverse DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled bust right; reverse Emperor in quadriga right, veiled, the hand of God reaches down to him; star above, SMANB in ex; $120.00 (€90.00)

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 383, Hadrian's Wall, the northern Roman frontier in Britain, was overrun by the Picts and fell into ruin.
RL90113. Bronze AE 2, RIC IX 53b, LRBC 2153, F, black patina, scratches, weight 5.481 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople mint, 19 Jan - Aug 383 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, transverse spear in right, shield in left, hand of God crowning him from above; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, captive seated at feet on left looking up at emperor, CONΓ* in exergue; ex Roma Numismatics; scarce; $120.00 (€90.00)

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On the obverse at 12:00, Manus Dei, the hand of God, reaches down to crown the Emperor Arcadius.
RL63749. Bronze AE 2, RIC X 22.2, VF, weight 2.370 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N ARCAD-IVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, hand of God above holding wreath; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, seated captive at feet on left, symbol left, SMHB* in ex; $110.00 (€82.50)

Italy, Kingdom of Naples, Charles II, 1674 - 1700
Click for a larger photo This was the last hammer struck type for Naples.
ME66311. Bronze 3 cavalli, hammer struck, MIR Napoli 309/3, F, irregular tight flan, weight 1.458 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Naples mint, 1679; obverse CAROLVS II D G REX, Charles' head right, AC/A monogram upper left, crescent moon upper right, 1679 (off flan) below; reverse IN HOC SIGNO VIN (In this sign you will conquer), Foliate cross, leaf in each angle; $100.00 (€75.00)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 August 430, Saint Augustine died at age 75 during the Vandal siege of Hippo Regius in North Africa. He left behind his monumental work The City of God and other works that greatly influenced Christianity.
RL70551. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 442, LRBC 2004, SRCV 4279, VF, uneven strike, weight 1.315 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 45o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 425 - 435 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, SMHB in exergue; $100.00 (€75.00)

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Arcadius minted this type for himself, Honorius, and Theodosius II.
RL67625. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 132, VF, weight 0.771 g, maximum diameter 11.1 mm, die axis 225o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 404 - 406 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA AVGGG, cross, SMKA in exergue; $95.00 (€71.25)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL70563. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 449, LRBC 2604, SRCV 4279, aVF, ragged flan, weight 1.192 g, maximum diameter 13.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, SMKB in ex; $95.00 (€71.25)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius, 5 October 610 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 618, a Persian expeditionary force under Shahrbaraz invaded Egypt and after defeating the Byzantine garrisons in the Nile Valley, occupied the province, marched across the Libyan Desert as far as Cyrene and besieged Alexandria. The defence of the city was led by Nicetas, a cousin of emperor Heraclius. Alexandria fell to the Persians in 619. Nicetas and the Chalcedonian patriarch, John V, fled to Cyprus.
BZ90140. Bronze six nummi, DOC II 198, SBCV 862, Sommer 11.98, Wroth BMC 309, Hahn MIB 210, Morrisson BnF 69, Ratto 1326, Tolstoi 118, VF, a little rough, weight 1.850 g, maximum diameter 10.9 mm, die axis 225o, Alexandria mint, 613 - 618 A.D.; obverse dd m hERACUCI (or similar, blundered), cross potent on two steps; reverse large S; ex CNG Auctions,auction 233 lot 552, ex Peter Lee Collection; $95.00 (€71.25)

Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Heraclea, the Greek city of Perinthos, later known as Heraclea Thracica to distinguish it from Heraclea Pontica, is now Marmara Ereglisi in the European part of Turkey. The Roman mint was established by Diocletian shortly before his reform and was in use until the times of Theodosius II. Dates of operation: 291 - 450 A.D. Mint marks: H, HERAC, HT, MHT, SMH, SMHT.
RL50650. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 7, LRBC 1930, F, weight 2.312 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 180o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, labarum in right hand, resting left hand hand on shield, chi-rho Christogram above right, • right, SMHB in ex; rare; $90.00 (€67.50)

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I
Click for a larger photo On the throne Aelia Flaccilla was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God." Theodoret in particular exalts her humility, charity and benevolence (Church History V.19, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended the disabled, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Aelia Flaccilla is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church; her feast day is 14 September.
RL65868. Bronze AE 2, RIC IX 82.2, aVF, some light cleaning scratches, weight 4.002 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 225o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast, cross right, CONSE in ex; scarce; $90.00 (€67.50)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31393. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 74, F, crude as usual, weight 0.822 g, maximum diameter 20.4 mm, die axis 270o, Corinth mint, obverse IOhS P ACh, cross pattée; reverse CLARENCIA, castle tournois, n below; very rare; $85.00 (€63.75)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31347. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 74, aVF, weight 0.818 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 270o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, n below; very rare; $70.00 (€52.50)

Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The variant with a branch in the left field is considerably scarcer than the usual "indeteminate object" or blank field.
RL59961. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 17b, aF, weight 1.771 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, branch lower left, Christogram above right, CONS[?] in ex; very rare; $70.00 (€52.50)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
RL28358. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII Siscia 97, Choice EF, weight 2.052 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 0o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 337 - 340 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTI-VS P F AVG, rosette-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers standing facing, flanking labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard), heads confronted, each holds spear in outer hand and rests inner hand on shield, ΓSIS and dot over crescent in ex; scarce; $60.00 (€45.00)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31348. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 72, F, reverse double struck, weight 0.841 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P ACHE, cross pattée, crescent downward in upper right quarter; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois; very rare; $55.00 (€41.25)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31346. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 75, F, weight 0.754 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P ACHE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, R below; very rare; $50.00 (€37.50)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Valens ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from the Danube to the Persian border. His brother, Valentinian I, ruled the Western Roman Empire from Caledonia (Scotland) to the Rhine frontier.
RL70766. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)ii, Choice VF, weight 2.724 g, maximum diameter 19.0 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left, dragging captive with right, •BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (€37.50)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 March 364, Valens, brother of Valentinian I, was appointed co-emperor (Augustus) in the palace of Hebdomon (Turkey). He soon began the first anti-pagan persecutions.
RL70767. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)ii, Choice VF, weight 2.293 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 225o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left, dragging captive with right, •BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (€37.50)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 1 November 365, the Alamanni crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul. Valentinian I moved to Paris to defend the Gallic cities. Large numbers of Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine into the Empire on 2 January 366. Valentinian moved his base to Trier and in 368 defeated the Alamanni near the Rhine.
BB70768. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)ii, Choice VF, weight 2.228 g, maximum diameter 18.6 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left, dragging captive with right, •BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (€37.50)

Alexius I, 4 April 1081 - 15 August 1118 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 1104, the Venice Arsenal was founded. It employed some 16,000 people for the mass production of sailing ships in large assembly lines, hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution.
BZ62304. Bronze half tetarteron, DOC IV part 1, 45b; cf. SBCV 1932 (tetarteron), aVF, crudely clipped flan, barbarous style, weight 0.885 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Greek mint, obverse patriarchal cross on two steps, A − ∆ / K − Φ flanking in fields; reverse bust facing wearing crown and loros and holding jeweled scepter and globus cruciger; scarce; $45.00 (€33.75)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL69589. Bronze AE 4, SRCV 4279, cf. RIC X 440 ff. (various mints), VF, nice desert patina, pit behind ear, weight 1.356 g, maximum diameter 11.7 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain mint, 425 - 435 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, uncertain mint mark in ex; $45.00 (€33.75)

Eudoxia, Augusta, 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo Manus Dei, the hand of God, reaches down to crown the Empress Eudoxia on both the obverse and reverse.

The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL70645. Bronze AE 3, SRCV 4240, VF, green patina with attractive earthen highlighting, weight 1.596 g, maximum diameter 13.9 mm, die axis 315o, eastern mint, 9 Jan 400 - 401 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned with wreath by the Hand of God above; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, hands folded over breast, crowned by the Hand of God above, cross right, mintmark in exergue (off flan); from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $45.00 (€33.75)

Eudoxia, Augusta 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo This type with the cross in the left field was struck only at the Constantinople mint. Other mints all had the cross in the right field.
RL70647. Bronze AE 3, RIC X 77 - 78, LRBC 2218 or 2220, F, weight 1.608 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 9 Jan 400 - 401 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned by Hand of God; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, hands folded over breast, crowned by the Hand of God, cross left, CON[...] in ex; scarce; $45.00 (€33.75)

Leo I and Verina, 7 February 457 - 18 January 474 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 459 Leo I signed a peace treaty with the Ostrogoths. King Theodemir sent his son Theodoric, age 5, as a child hostage to Constantinople. At court, Theodoric learned Latin, military tactics and religion (until 469).
RL62178. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 713 - 718, aVF, weight 0.969 g, maximum diameter 12.3 mm, die axis 180o, obverse D N LEO (or similar), pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Empress Verina standing facing, cross on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left, b - E across fields; scarce; $40.00 (€30.00)

Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 24 August 358, a little more than 25 years before this coin was struck, Nicomedia was destroyed by a major earthquake followed by a fire. The city was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.
RL60501. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX 45(b)5, VF, weight 1.082 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 180o, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, dragging captive, cross left, SMNA in ex; very scarce; $40.00 (€30.00)

Byzantine Empire, Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 542, the Plague of Justinian, the Bubonic plague, spread from Egypt, killed at least 230,000 in Constantinople (before counting stopped) and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the empire. Justinian I contracted the disease but recovered.
BZ69708. Bronze pentanummium, DOC I 269, Wroth BMC 155, Morrisson BnF 87, Sommer 4.110, Hahn MIB 142, Berk 159, SBCV 242, Tolstoi -, Ratto -, aVF, weight 2.144 g, maximum diameter 16.9 mm, die axis 180o, Theoupolis (Antioch) mint, 537 - 551 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTIN-IANVS P P AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse large E with cross at center made with center horizontal; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; rare; $40.00 (€30.00)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 367, Valentinian I launched a punitive expedition against the Alamanni due to the crises in Britannia and Gaul. The Alamanni re-crossed the Rhine and plundered Moguntiacum (modern Mainz).
RL70758. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 14(a)xvi, gVF, weight 2.637 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, M left, * / F right, BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€30.00)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In November 375, Valentinian I concluded a peace treaty with the Alamanni in Germany, then marched into Illyrium to repel an invasion of the Quadi and the Sarmatians on the Danube frontier. On 17 November 375, while negotiating with the Quadi, Valentinian, age 54, became so enraged that he died in a fit of apoplexy at Brigetio (Hungary). Extreme cruelty marked his 11-year reign but he founded schools and provided physicians to serve the poor of Constantinople.
RL70759. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 14(a)xvi, VF, centered, green patina, weight 2.409 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 225o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, M left, * / F right, BSISC in ex; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€30.00)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 1 November 365, the Alamanni crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul. Valentinian I moved to Paris to defend the Gallic cities. Large numbers of Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine into the Empire on 2 January 366. Valentinian moved his base to Trier and in 368 defeated the Alamanni near the Rhine.
RL70762. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(a)ii, VF, centered, weight 2.619 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •ΓSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€30.00)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 March 364, Valens, brother of Valentinian I, was appointed co-emperor (Augustus) in the palace of Hebdomon (Turkey). He soon began the first anti-pagan persecutions.
RL70769. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)vii var (officina), gVF, weight 2.194 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 0o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, star over A right, DASISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€30.00)

Byzantine Empire, Justin I, 10 July 518 - 1 August 527 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Nicomedia had two officinae (workshops) and struck these Christogram type pentanummium with and without the two pellets in the lower field. We believe the type without pellets was struck by the first officina and the type with two pellets was struck by the second officina.
BZ69700. Bronze pentanummium, DOC I 37, Sommer 2.35, Hahn MIB 47, Berk 81, SBCV 93, Morrison BnF -, aF, weight 2.015 g, maximum diameter 13.2 mm, die axis 180o, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 522 - 527 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar, obscure), diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right; reverse large Christogram, N (Nicomedia) left, E (5 nummi) right, two pellets (2nd officina?) in lower inner fields; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $38.00 (€28.50)

Eudoxia, Augusta 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo Manus Dei, the hand of God, reaches down to crown the Empress Eudoxia on both the obverse and reverse.

The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL66213. Bronze AE 3, RIC X 83, LRBC 2805, SRCV 4240, aF, weight 2.787 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 9 Jan 400 - 401 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned with wreath by the Hand of God above; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, hands folded over breast, crowned by the Hand of God above, cross right, ANTA in ex; ex Seaver Collection; scarce; $36.00 (€27.00)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
BB68010. Bronze AE 4, SRCV 4279, cf. RIC X 440 ff. (various mints), F, weight 1.335 g, maximum diameter 12.9 mm, die axis 270o, uncertain mint, 425 - 435 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, uncertain mint mark in ex; $36.00 (€27.00)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL62854. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Cyzicus 84, F, weight 3.292 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor standing left, vexillum with cross on flag in right, resting left on grounded shield behind, two kneeling bound captives at feet before him, star left, SMKA in ex; $35.00 (€26.25)

Constantine the Great, Early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Open civil war between Constantine and Licinius broke in 316 when Constantine invaded Licinius' Balkan provinces. Licinius fled to Adrianople where he collected a second army, under the command of Valerius Valens whom he raised to the rank of Augustus. Constantine defeated Licinius at the Battle of Campus Ardiensis, but the victory was indecisive. A treaty between Constantine and Licinius was concluded at Serdica on 1 March, 317. The peace lasted for about seven years.
RL70694. Bronze AE 3, RIC VII Ticinum 45, F, uneven strike, weight 3.402 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 316 A.D.; obverse IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, radiate, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, globe in left, cross left, star right, PT in ex; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $35.00 (€26.25)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 364, Valentinian was proclaimed Emperor by the army. He settled in Paris and established a militia to defend the region.
RL70760. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(a)ii, gVF, centered, green patina, weight 1.867 g, maximum diameter 18.8 mm, die axis 0o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •ΓSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $35.00 (€26.25)



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In This Sign... Biblical Coins