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Home>Catalog>Judean&BiblicalCoins>BiblicalCoins>InThisSign... PAGE 1/2«««12

In This Sign You Will Be The Victor

The Roman, Byzantine, crusader and other coins below carry the symbols of Christ. In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Chi Rho Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO ERIS, meaning "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions' standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor. Click here to read Christian Themes in Byzantine Coinage by Zach Margulies.


Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D., Parium, Mysia
Click for a larger photo Located near Lampsacus, Parium belonged to the Delian League. In the Hellenistic period it was in the domain of Lysimachus and then the Attalid dynasty. Julius Caesar refounded it as a colonia within the province of Asia. After Asia was divided in the 4th century, it was in the province of Hellespontus.
RP70938. Bronze AE 21, SNG Cop 304; SNGvA 1343; BMC Mysia p. 108, 116, VF, perfect centering, struck with a damaged obverse die, weight 4.774 g, maximum diameter 20.7 mm, die axis 180o, Parium mint, obverse IMP VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Capricorn swimming right, holding celestial globe between legs, cornucopia on back, CGIHP below; ex Russian Coins; $450.00 (€391.50)

Aelia Verina, Augusta 7 February 457 - 484 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Verina was the highly ambitious and capable wife of Leo I. After the death of her husband she continued to exercise great influence in the governing of the Empire. She was responsible for inciting two failed rebellions against Zeno, by her brother Basiliscus in 475 - 476 and then by Leontius in 484 - 488. She died while under siege at the fortress of Cherris in Isauria, in 484 A.D.
SH67607. Bronze AE 2, RIC X 655 var, LRBC 2253 var (reverse legend is normally SALVS REI-PVBLICAE), F, open flan crack, weight 3.240 g, maximum diameter 20.2 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, obverse AEL VERINA AVG, draped bust right; reverse SALV REI-PVBLICAE (sic), Victory seated right, holding shield inscribed chi-rho on cippus, CONE in exergue; very rare; $360.00 (€313.20)

Crusaders, Principality of Antioch, Tancred, Regent, March 1101 - May 1103 and Late 1104 - December 1112
Click for a larger photo Tancred, a Norman leader of the 1st Crusade, became Prince of Galilee and regent of the Principality of Antioch when his uncle Bohemund was taken prisoner. He later took the County of Edessa when Baldwin II was captured, but Baldwin was released, defeated him and took it back. Tancred was made regent of Antioch again when Bohemund went to Europe to recruit more Crusaders. Tancred refused to honor a treaty in of fealty to the Byzantine Emperor, making Antioch independent, and ruled until his death in a typhoid epidemic.
CR67639. Bronze follis, Metcalf 63 - 70, Malloy Crusaders 4a, VF, weight 2.652 g, maximum diameter 21.4 mm, die axis 0o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 1104 - 1112 A.D.; obverse bearded facing bust of Tancred, wearing turban and chain armor, sword in right; reverse Cross pommee, fleuronnée at base; IC - XC / NI-KA (May Jesus Christ Conquer) in angles; ex Pecunem & Gitbud & Naumann; $340.00 (€295.80)

Kingdom of Cyprus, 15th Century A.D.
Click for a larger photo Deniers with rampant lion and cross types were struck by many of the Kings of Cyprus and Jerusalem. Types were struck with stars, pellets, or crosslets in the quadrants. Janus struck the type with an S in one quadrant. We do not know of another example with letters in more than one quadrant. Unfortunately we can't read the legends or the letters in the quadrants but it is possible a specialist could improve the attribution.
CR68025. Billon denier, Unpublished(?), Malloy Crusaders -, Metcalf Crusaders -, gF, weight 0.530 g, maximum diameter 13.6 mm, die axis 270o, obverse lion of Cyprus rampant left; reverse cross pattée, a letter in three or four of the quarters; extremely rare; $310.00 (€269.70)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.
SH90100. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII Siscia 286, gVF, a few green deposits, weight 5.632 g, maximum diameter 23.1 mm, die axis 45o, 3rd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 19 Jan - 25 Dec 350; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star before; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing facing, head left, labarum (Chi Rho Christogram standard) in right, transverse spear in left, Victory right standing left crowning him and holding palm, A left, •ΓSIS• in ex; ex CNG auction 233 (26 May 2010), lot 460; $225.00 (€195.75)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 616, the Jews of Jerusalem gained complete control over the city, much of Judea and Galilee became an autonomous Jewish province of the Sasanian Persian Empire. The Jewish Temple was rebuilt by Nehemiah ben Hushiel (exilarch of Jerusalem) who establish a High Priesthood. In September 629 the Byzantines retook Jerusalem after 15 years of Persian occupation. In 630, Heraclius decreed that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre followed around Jerusalem and in Galilee, some survivors fled to the Dara'ah area.

The minor flan flaw is the result of a plug inserted into the flan prior to striking to increase and achieve the proper weight for the coin.
BZ90640. Silver hexagram, DOC II, part I, 61, Wroth BMC 107; Hahn MIB 134; Morrisson BnF 2, Sommer 11.44; SBCV 795; Ratto 1389; Tolstoi -, VF, uneven strike, flan adjusted with a plug, weight 6.099 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 615 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSTI (or similar), Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine enthroned facing, each holds globus cruciger, cross above; reverse DEUS ADIUTA ROmANIS (May God help the Romans), cross potent on globe above three steps; scarce; $225.00 (€195.75)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 312 A.D., Constantine dreamed he saw a Christogram in the sky and heard the words IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, meaning in Latin "In this sign you will be the victor." He ordered the sign of Christ on his legions standards and shields. He won a great victory and later became the first Christian Roman Emperor.
RL71345. Bronze AE 2, RIC VIII Siscia 286, EF, centered on a tight flan, short open flan crack, weight 5.169 g, maximum diameter 22.6 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind, star before; reverse HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing facing head left, holding labarum (Chi Rho Christogram standard) and spear, Victory right crowning him, A left, •BSIS• in ex; $225.00 (€195.75)

Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 September 365 Procopius revolted and bribed two legions passing by Constantinople. He proclaimed himself Emperor, and took control of Thrace and Bithynia.
SH71595. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 17a, VF, nice portrait, weight 2.913 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, object on ground to left, Christogram above right, CONSΓ in ex; rare; $225.00 (€195.75)

Byzantine Empire, Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 616, the Jews of Jerusalem gained complete control over the city, much of Judea and Galilee became an autonomous Jewish province of the Sasanian Persian Empire. The Jewish Temple was rebuilt by Nehemiah ben Hushiel (exilarch of Jerusalem) who establish a High Priesthood. In September 629 the Byzantines retook Jerusalem after 15 years of Persian occupation. In 630, Heraclius decreed that all Jews must become Christian; a massacre followed around Jerusalem and in Galilee, some survivors fled to the Dara'ah area.

The flan flaw is the result of a plug inserted into the flan prior to striking to increase and achieve the proper weight for the coin.
BZ65918. Silver hexagram, DOC II/I 61, Wroth BMC 107, Hahn MIB 134, Morrisson BnF 2, Sommer 11.44, SBCV 795, Ratto 1389, Tolstoi -, aVF, uneven strike, flan flaw, reverse graffiti, weight 6.455 g, maximum diameter 26.1 mm, die axis 315o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, c. 615 - 625 A.D.; obverse dd NN hERACLIUS ET hERA CONSTI (or similar), Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine enthroned facing, each holds globus cruciger, cross above; reverse dEUS AdIUTA ROmANIS (May God help the Romans), cross potent on globe above three steps; scarce; $200.00 (€174.00)

Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 363, Jovian negotiated a disastrous peace with Persia, surrendering four of the five Roman provinces gained by Galerius in 298, and the cities Nisibis and Singara.
SH90399. Bronze AE 1, RIC VIII Thessalonica 238, VF, green patina, weight 8.537 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 135o, 4th officina, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIAN - VS P F AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIA ROMANORVM, Jovian standing facing, head right, holding Victory on globe and Chi-Rho standard, •TES∆•; rare; $180.00 (€156.60)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Did you read the description and wonder, what is a vexillum and what is a staurogram? If so, note the terms are in blue text. Click on any blue text in our website catalog to open a page or website where you will find a definition, explanation or related information.This type was issued with various Christian symbols on the banner.
RL71441. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Antioch 125, LRBC 2614, Voetter 22, Choice gVF, weight 4.209 g, maximum diameter 21.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor standing left, vexillum with staurogram on flag in right, resting left on grounded shield behind, two kneeling bound captives at feet before him, star left, ANB in ex; $175.00 (€152.25)

Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
Click for a larger photo
RL71574. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 10, LRBC 1928, VF, excellent centering, reverse weak, weight 2.962 g, maximum diameter 19.9 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATIO FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, uncertain object at feet, Chi-Rho in upper right field, SMNB in ex; rare (R3); $160.00 (€139.20)

Eudoxia, Augusta 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo Eudoxia was the strong willed wife of Arcadius. They were married on 27 April 395 A.D. She exercised considerable influence over policy, much to the disgust of many high ranking Romans, notably in the Church. She was mother to five children, including Theodosius II and Pulcheria. She died in childbirth.
SH65424. Copper AE 3, RIC X 104, LRBC 2800, SRCV 4241, gVF, fantastic desert patina, weight 1.854 g, maximum diameter 16.2 mm, die axis 180o, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 401 - 403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned with wreath by the Hand of God above; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, ANT... (obscured) in exergue; truly beautiful in hand; scarce; $150.00 (€130.50)

Crusaders, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Hetoum I, 1226 - 1270 A.D.
Click for a larger photo As the Mongols approached, King Hetoum made a strategic decision to send his brother Smpad to the Mongol court in Karakorum and agree to become a vassal state of the Mongol Empire. In 1254, Hetoum himself traveled to Mongolia to renew the agreement. The account of his travels, "The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back" is still important for its observations of Mongol, Buddhist, and Chinese culture, geography, and wildlife. The Mamluks invaded Armenia in 1266, taking 40,000 Armenians captive, including Hetoum's son, Leo. Hetoum abdicated in 1270 in favor of his son Leo, and lived out the rest of his life in a monastery, as a Franciscan monk.
CR65347. Copper kardez, cf. Nercessian 360, Bedoukian CCA 1376, EF, off center on a tight flan, nice green patina, weight 3.948 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, Sis mint, 1226 - 1270 A.D.; obverse Armenian inscription: + Hetoum King of the Armenians, Hetoum riding right, scepter with fleur-de-lis in right; reverse Armenian inscription: + Struck in the City of Sis, cross pattée, wedge in each angle; $135.00 (€117.45) ON RESERVE

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I
Click for a larger photo The Christogram, a ligature of Chi and Rho, the first two letters of Christ in Greek, was an early symbol for Christianity. The crucifix was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because most people then had personally witnessed its gruesome use for public execution.
RL63886. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX Constantinople 61, SRCV 4194, aEF, weight 1.464 g, maximum diameter 12.1 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, CONE in ex; scarce; $125.00 (€108.75)

Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The reverse legend translates, "Happy Times Restored." Happy times would not last for Constans. This coinage was among his last issues before his general Magnentius rebelled and had him killed.
RL71445. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII Siscia 244, LRBC1136, Voetter 31, Choice EF, weight 1.982 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, 2nd officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Constans standing left in Galley, labarum in left, Phoenix on globe in right hand, Victory steering at stern, BSIS followed by control-mark in ex; $125.00 (€108.75)

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On the obverse at 12:00, Manus Dei, the hand of God, reaches down to crown the Emperor Arcadius.
RL63749. Bronze AE 2, RIC X 22.2, VF, weight 2.370 g, maximum diameter 21.5 mm, die axis 0o, Heraclea (Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N ARCAD-IVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, hand of God above holding wreath; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, seated captive at feet on left, symbol left, SMHB* in ex; $110.00 (€95.70)

Kingdom of Sicily, Frederick II (HRE), 1198 - 1250
Click for a larger photo Frederick II was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages. At two he was crowned King of Sicily, co-ruler with his mother Constance, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily. In 1220, he was made King of the Romans, and as such, King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. He became King of Jerusalem through marriage and the Sixth Crusade. Due to frequent disputes with the Papacy, he was excommunicated four times and Pope Gregory IX called him the Antichrist. An avid patron of science and the arts, he spoke Latin, Sicilian, German, French, Greek and Arabic.
ME66343. Billon denaro, MIR 10 292 (R), MEC Italy III 566, Biaggi 470 (NC), Choice VF, weight 0.951 g, maximum diameter 17.4 mm, die axis 45o, Brindisi mint, 1247 - 1248; obverse + ROM INPERATOR (INP ligate), FR in center, --- above, six pointed star below; reverse + R IERSL' ET SICL', circle upon cross pattée; rare; $110.00 (€95.70)

Theodosius II, 10 January 402 - 28 July 450 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL70563. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 449, LRBC 2604, SRCV 4279, aVF, ragged flan, weight 1.192 g, maximum diameter 13.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse cross in wreath, SMKB in ex; $95.00 (€82.65)

Kingdom of Naples, Charles II, 1674 - 1700
Click for a larger photo This was the last hammer struck type for Naples.
ME66311. Bronze 3 cavalli, hammer struck, MIR Napoli 309/3, F, irregular tight flan, weight 1.458 g, maximum diameter 19.6 mm, die axis 0o, Naples mint, 1679; obverse CAROLVS II D G REX, Charles' head right, AC/A monogram upper left, crescent moon upper right, 1679 (off flan) below; reverse IN HOC SIGNO VIN (In this sign you will conquer), Foliate cross, leaf in each angle; $90.00 (€78.30)

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I
Click for a larger photo On the throne Aelia Flaccilla was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God." Theodoret in particular exalts her humility, charity and benevolence (Church History V.19, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended the disabled, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Aelia Flaccilla is commemorated as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church; her feast day is 14 September.
RL65868. Bronze AE 2, RIC IX Constantinople 82.2, aVF, some light cleaning scratches, weight 4.002 g, maximum diameter 22.3 mm, die axis 225o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast, cross right, CONSE in ex; scarce; $80.00 (€69.60)

Procopius, 28 September 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The variant with a branch in the left field is considerably scarcer than the usual "indeteminate object" or blank field.
RL59961. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 17b, aF, weight 1.771 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 180o, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 28 Sep 365 - 27 May 366 A.D.; obverse D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; reverse REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head right, labarum in right hand, resting left hand on grounded shield, branch lower left, Christogram above right, CONS[?] in ex; very rare; $70.00 (€60.90)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31347. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 74, aVF, weight 0.818 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 270o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P AChE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, n below; very rare; $60.00 (€52.20)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31348. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 72, F, reverse double struck, weight 0.841 g, maximum diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 315o, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P ACHE, cross pattée, crescent downward in upper right quarter; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois; very rare; $55.00 (€47.85)

Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, Robert of Taranto, 1333 - 1364
Click for a larger photo From the collection of Alex G. Malloy, former dealer for 40 years and co-author of "Coins of the Crusader States." Ex A.J. Seltman Collection.
CR31346. Billon denier tournois, Malloy Crusaders 75, F, weight 0.754 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, Clarentza mint, obverse + ROBT P ACHE, cross pattée; reverse + CLARENCIA, castle tournois, R below; very rare; $50.00 (€43.50)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 March 364, Valens, brother of Valentinian I, was appointed co-emperor (Augustus) in the palace of Hebdomon (Turkey). He soon began the first anti-pagan persecutions.
RL70767. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)ii, Choice VF, weight 2.293 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 225o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left, dragging captive with right, •BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $50.00 (€43.50)

Alexius I, 4 April 1081 - 15 August 1118 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 1104, the Venice Arsenal was founded. It employed some 16,000 people for the mass production of sailing ships in large assembly lines, hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution.
BZ62304. Bronze half tetarteron, DOC IV part 1, 45b; cf. SBCV 1932 (tetarteron), aVF, crudely clipped flan, barbarous style, weight 0.885 g, maximum diameter 14.0 mm, die axis 180o, uncertain Greek mint, obverse patriarchal cross on two steps, A − ∆ / K − Φ flanking in fields; reverse bust facing wearing crown and loros and holding jeweled scepter and globus cruciger; scarce; $45.00 (€39.15)

Eudoxia, Augusta 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo This type with the cross in the left field was struck only at the Constantinople mint. Other mints all had the cross in the right field.
RL70647. Bronze AE 3, RIC X 77 - 78, LRBC 2218 or 2220, F, weight 1.608 g, maximum diameter 15.8 mm, die axis 0o, Constantinopolis (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, 9 Jan 400 - 401 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned by Hand of God; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, hands folded over breast, crowned by the Hand of God, cross left, CON[...] in ex; scarce; $45.00 (€39.15)

Leo I and Verina, 7 February 457 - 18 January 474 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 459 Leo I signed a peace treaty with the Ostrogoths. King Theodemir sent his son Theodoric, age 5, as a child hostage to Constantinople. At court, Theodoric learned Latin, military tactics and religion (until 469).
RL62178. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 713 - 718, aVF, weight 0.969 g, maximum diameter 12.3 mm, die axis 180o, obverse D N LEO (or similar), pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Empress Verina standing facing, cross on globe in right hand, transverse scepter in left, b - E across fields; scarce; $40.00 (€34.80)

Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 24 August 358, a little more than 25 years before this coin was struck, Nicomedia was destroyed by a major earthquake followed by a fire. The city was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.
RL60501. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX 45(b)5, VF, weight 1.082 g, maximum diameter 12.5 mm, die axis 180o, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, dragging captive, cross left, SMNA in ex; very scarce; $40.00 (€34.80)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 367, Valentinian I launched a punitive expedition against the Alamanni due to the crises in Britannia and Gaul. The Alamanni re-crossed the Rhine and plundered Moguntiacum (modern Mainz).
RL70758. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 14(a)xvi, gVF, weight 2.637 g, maximum diameter 17.9 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, M left, * / F right, BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€34.80)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In November 375, Valentinian I concluded a peace treaty with the Alamanni in Germany, then marched into Illyrium to repel an invasion of the Quadi and the Sarmatians on the Danube frontier. On 17 November 375, while negotiating with the Quadi, Valentinian, age 54, became so enraged that he died in a fit of apoplexy at Brigetio (Hungary). Extreme cruelty marked his 11-year reign but he founded schools and provided physicians to serve the poor of Constantinople.
RL70759. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 14(a)xvi, VF, centered, green patina, weight 2.409 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 225o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, M left, * / F right, BSISC in ex; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€34.80)

Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 1 November 365, the Alamanni crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul. Valentinian I moved to Paris to defend the Gallic cities. Large numbers of Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine into the Empire on 2 January 366. Valentinian moved his base to Trier and in 368 defeated the Alamanni near the Rhine.
RL70762. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(a)ii, VF, centered, weight 2.619 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •ΓSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€34.80)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo On 28 March 364, Valens, brother of Valentinian I, was appointed co-emperor (Augustus) in the palace of Hebdomon (Turkey). He soon began the first anti-pagan persecutions.
RL70769. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)vii var (officina), gVF, weight 2.194 g, maximum diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 0o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, star over A right, DASISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $40.00 (€34.80)

Byzantine Empire, Justin I, 10 July 518 - 1 August 527 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Nicomedia had two officinae (workshops) and struck these Christogram type pentanummium with and without the two pellets in the lower field. We believe the type without pellets was struck by the first officina and the type with two pellets was struck by the second officina.
BZ69700. Bronze pentanummium, DOC I 37, Sommer 2.35, Hahn MIB 47, Berk 81, SBCV 93, Morrison BnF -, aF, weight 2.015 g, maximum diameter 13.2 mm, die axis 180o, Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey) mint, 522 - 527 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar, obscure), diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right; reverse large Christogram, N (Nicomedia) left, E (5 nummi) right, two pellets (2nd officina?) in lower inner fields; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $38.00 (€33.06)

Eudoxia, Augusta 9 January 400 - Early October 404 A.D., Wife of Arcadius
Click for a larger photo Manus Dei, the hand of God, reaches down to crown the Empress Eudoxia on both the obverse and reverse.

The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL66213. Bronze AE 3, RIC X 83, LRBC 2805, SRCV 4240, aF, weight 2.787 g, maximum diameter 16.1 mm, die axis 0o, 1st officina, Antioch (Antakya, Turkey) mint, 9 Jan 400 - 401 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed and draped bust right, crowned with wreath by the Hand of God above; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, hands folded over breast, crowned by the Hand of God above, cross right, ANTA in ex; ex Seaver Collection; scarce; $36.00 (€31.32)

Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D.
Click for a larger photo In 364 A.D., Valens began the first anti-pagan persecutions.
BB70765. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX Siscia 5(b)ii, VF, weight 2.323 g, maximum diameter 18.4 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 28 Mar 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D.; obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, Valens advancing left, labarum (chi-rho Christogram standard) in left, dragging captive with right, •BSISC in exergue; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren; $35.00 (€30.45)

Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Around 350, Pope Julius I declared that Christ's birth would be celebrated on December 25. This was in Rome, while in Eastern Christianity the birth of Jesus was already celebrated in connection with the Epiphany on January 6. Even in the West, the January 6 celebration of the nativity of Jesus seems to have continued until after 380. The December 25 celebration was imported into the East later: in Antioch by John Chrysostom towards the end of the 4th century, probably in 388, and in Alexandria only in the following century.
RL71497. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII Siscia 244, VF, green patina, earthen encrustation, weight 2.592 g, maximum diameter 18.9 mm, die axis 180o, 4th officina, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Constans standing left in Galley, labarum in left, Phoenix on globe in right hand, at stern Victory steering, ∆SIS and control-mark in ex; $34.00 (€29.58)

Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Constans, Constantine's youngest son, inherited part of the Western Empire. In 340, Constantine II, his brother, invaded his territory but was killed leaving Constans in total control of the West. In 350, however, his general Magnentius rebelled. Constans tried to escape but overtaken and killed.
BB62102. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII Siscia 181, F, weight 1.703 g, maximum diameter 15.9 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 347 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-S P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTOR-IA AVGG, Victory walking left, looking right, holding wreath in each hand, Chi-Rho in right field, *BSIS* in ex; rare type; $30.00 (€26.10)

Leo I and Verina, 7 February 457 - 18 January 474 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Leo I established a new imperial guard at Constantinople, the Excubitors. This elite guard of 300 men was recruited from the warlike Isaurians.
RL62184. Bronze AE 4, RIC X 713 - 718, F, weight 0.932 g, maximum diameter 10.9 mm, die axis 0o, obverse D N LEO (or similar), pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Empress Verina standing facing holding cross on globe and transverse scepter, b - E across fields; scarce; $30.00 (€26.10)

Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Click for a larger photo The cross was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because it symbolized a purposely painful and gruesome method of public execution that most early Christians would have personally witnessed. In 315, Constantine abolished crucifixion as punishment in the Roman Empire. The Ichthys, or fish symbol, was used by early Christians. Constantine adopted the Chi-Rho Christ monogram (Christogram) as his banner (labarum). The use of a cross as the most prevalent symbol of Christianity probably gained momentum after Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, traveled to the Holy Land, c. 326 - 328, and recovered the True Cross.
RL62854. Bronze centenionalis, RIC VIII Cyzicus 84, F, weight 3.292 g, maximum diameter 22.4 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 348 - 350 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor standing left, vexillum with cross on flag in right, resting left on grounded shield behind, two kneeling bound captives at feet before him, star left, SMKA in ex; $30.00 (€26.10)

Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.
Click for a larger photo Arcadius was a weak Emperor dominated by his advisers. His ministers, the clergy, and his wife Aelia Eudoxia, schemed to increase their own influence and marginalize their rivals.
BB62676. Bronze AE 4, RIC IX Cyzicus 26(c), LRBC 2578, VF, weight 0.922 g, maximum diameter 12.7 mm, die axis 180o, 1st officina, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 28 Aug 388 - 15 May 392 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory walking left, dragging captive, staurogram left, SMKA in ex; $28.00 (€24.36)

Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 A.D., Wife of Theodosius I
Click for a larger photo The Christogram, a ligature of Chi and Rho, the first two letters of Christ in Greek, was an early symbol for Christianity. The crucifix was rarely used in early Christian iconography, perhaps because most people then had personally witnessed its gruesome use for public execution.
BB66195. Bronze AE 4, SRCV 4194, aF, weight 1.497 g, maximum diameter 16.4 mm, die axis 180o, obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, mintmark in exergue (off flan); $19.00 (€16.53)



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In This Sign... Biblical Coins