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FORVM`s Classical Numismatics Discussion Board  |  Numismatic and History Discussions  |  Roman Coins (Moderator: Severus_Alexander)  |  Topic: ROMAN WOLF IN ANONYMOUS CONSTANTINIAN NUMMII 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. « previous next »
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Author Topic: ROMAN WOLF IN ANONYMOUS CONSTANTINIAN NUMMII  (Read 14209 times)
antvwala
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« on: April 09, 2009, 06:47:55 am »

I summarize here a long discussion that is taking place on Italian Fac.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=52734.0

This debate produces many questions still unanswered. I hope that the friends of the FAC to play their part and offer some answers. Thank you very much.




ROMAN WOLF IN ANONYMOUS CONSTANTINIAN NUMMII

The wolf, surprise from the shepherd Faustolo in the act of feeding the twins Romulus and Remus under the ruminal tree, is the theme that appears on the first commemorative republican denarius. This is a mint of money of Sesto Pompeo Fostlus, 137 BC, which he considered to be a descendant of Faustolo. Tradition tells that Faustolo, a shepherd who kept a flock of Amulius, rich patrician, met in a cave on the Palatine the twins Romulus and Remus, sons of Mars and Rhea Silvia, who were suckled by a she-wolf, and put them safely bringing in his home and entrusting it to his wife, Acca Laurenza, where they raised their as her childrens. In this way ensured that Rome had its founders.
The reverse of the Republican denarius offers us a fascinating picture: a beautiful image where the only thing hard is the wolf, whose long tail co designed to separate and put into the background the figure of the pastor, admired and puzzled. Ruminal fig-tree is a barren tree that hardly softened his dryness in the presence of any bird. The liveliness of the representation of the two children is amazing and stands out more for the ferocity of the beast expressive, treated with simplicity and directness. This same theme, but without the presence of the shepherd Fostlus, had already appeared about a century before in a rare sextant of libral series: it was long time recognized as paradigmatic iconography of the founding of Rome.

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antvwala
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« Reply #1 on: April 09, 2009, 06:49:21 am »

When Constantine the Great moved the capital of Constantinople, the foundation of what was seen as a new Rome, of course, was also celebrated in the coinage. Between 330 and 346, Constantine and his sons Constantine II, Constantius II and Costans, mint did two sets of coins, one in the name of Constantinople, with the victory over to the prow of a galley, and the other on behalf of Vrbs Roma, or Vrbs Roma Beata, with in obverse the Capitoline she-wolf and the twins and Romulus and Remus, echoing the Republican kind. Their size is in between AE3 and AE4.
At the stem appears bust of Roma helmated facing left, in its most traditional iconography. The RIC identifies three types of bust: D3, D4 and O; for types D3 and O, there is also a variant, rather rare, facing right, only present from the mint of Rome and Siscia. In fact, this distinction is insufficient, since the variations in the form of helmet, the armor and earrings are many, even within the same brand.
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antvwala
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« Reply #2 on: April 09, 2009, 06:50:18 am »

There is also a similar type, but with the legend ROMA BEATA VRBS: this is a very rare issue, produced by the Mint of Rome (Ric VIII, Roma 55).
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antvwala
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« Reply #3 on: April 09, 2009, 06:51:40 am »

THE ICONOGRAPHY OF THE REVERSE

The element of interest of this bronze coin is to and, especially, in the mystery of its variants.
In simplest form, the image of the reverse suggests that the wolf suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, above which there are two stars. Variants of this subject are of three categories: those iconographic properly, that is the style of drawing of wolf, the twins and the stars, which correspond to the sensitivity and artistic ability of engraver; those generated by the symbols in between the posts two stars, probably of the brands and ticks, and those consisting of symbols placed on the back of the wolf, which are mysterious and poorly analyzed.
The fundamental design of the verse - the wolf with the twins - is made with a plurality of graphics solutions. The Austrian numismatist Guido Bruck in his work Die Spätrömische Kupferprägung, tried to associate the iconographic features of the design for each specific mint. However, there are obvious combinations of style and brand, even if certain performance graphics may appear more frequently in one brand rather than another. In addition to all, is not easy to define archetypes of design because, while it is true that there are obvious differences between a graphic and another, on the other hand it is equally true that there is no solution of continuity between the themselves.


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antvwala
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« Reply #4 on: April 09, 2009, 06:57:07 am »

The other key iconographic element is the pair of stars. Replaces the fig-tree ruminal, who had already disappeared at the beginning of the emperor to leave the field open. Does not seem to answer a simple need aesthetic and if the shape is left to the discretion of the artist, his presence, however, is a requirement of the type and hence is a symbol that has an important meaning. Traditionally, the two stars representing the Dioscures, Castor and Pollux, sons of Zeus. But now Christianity has been imposed and, therefore, it is necessary to seek another interpretation for the pair of stars in the field. One possible interpretation is that they represent the two capitals of empire: Rome and Constantinople.
Constantine was very attent to the signs astral. It was a sign astral (a comet?) on the night of October 28 of 312 bC that pushed the emperor to draw on the shields of his soldiers the Chi-Rho symbol. Perhaps it was an astral sign that appeared on the evening of July 3 of 324 bC, before the battle of Adrianople: it was then that Constantine appreciated the strategic importance of Constantinople, by deciding to make the new capital of the empire.
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antvwala
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« Reply #5 on: April 09, 2009, 07:02:03 am »

It is significant there were that emissions without two stars only by oficina V of roman mint, all very rare, the same oficina that coined the type VRBS ROMA BEATA.
Perhaps an initial graphics solution which then was abandoned precisely because it was deemed important, so rich in meaning, insert in the presence of the two stars?
A reference astral, but not more pay, the fate of Rome or good omen appeared in the night that decided the victory of Constantine, but also the creation of the new Rome, Constantinople?
All questions that currently are still not a certain answer.
As to the shape of the star, it sometimes features a specific brand, but in this case we are faced with a choice of engraver its artistic, but the same is put on a special significance.
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antvwala
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« Reply #6 on: April 09, 2009, 07:21:38 am »

Examples of different mints.
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antvwala
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« Reply #7 on: April 09, 2009, 07:25:10 am »

Other examples.
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antvwala
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« Reply #8 on: April 09, 2009, 07:27:50 am »

Other examples.

Please: post your coin of this typologie! Thank you.

Excuse my poor english.

Antvwala
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Robert_Brenchley
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« Reply #9 on: April 09, 2009, 01:14:44 pm »

Constantine's astral sign probably didn't appear just before the Milvian Bridge, but several years earlier. Lactantius records an incident when he saw a sign, and turned aside to pray at the local temple of Apollo. It was then moved by Christian writers to make a better (and more Christian) story.
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Robert Brenchley

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antvwala
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« Reply #10 on: April 09, 2009, 04:00:42 pm »

Thank you, Robert.
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antvwala
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« Reply #11 on: April 09, 2009, 11:58:34 pm »

In the Dirty, this coin appears as mint of Antiochia, Ric 113.
But I don't sure that coin is Ric 113. Legend like as SMANT Greek_Delta Greek_epsilon, or SMANTES. What like you?
If this coin is Antiochia, it is not in ric.
The mark between the stars, appears to see a symbol. a  Chi-Rho? a  Greek_Chi? or  Greek_Upsilon? or it is a flan's defect? What say you?
Thank you

Antvwala
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antvwala
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« Reply #12 on: April 10, 2009, 12:44:15 am »

THE LETTERS IN THE FIELD

In the coins of the mint Aquileia and Arles, we can find the letter M, N, O or X, located between the two stars (only the F for Aquileia’s mint); while in the coinage of Alexandria, may have the letters R and S at the ends of the pair of stars.

What do these letters?
What they want to say R and S in the currencies of the Mint of Alexandria?
Do you have examples of Arles with the letters M, N or O?
Do you know examples of coins with letters between the stars of mints different from Aquileia, Arles and Alexandria?

Thank you,

Antvwala
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antvwala
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« Reply #13 on: April 11, 2009, 03:59:06 am »


I think that significance of letters in esergum between R and Q is:

  B is BEATA
  F is FELIX
 wreath2 is CROWNED
 branchright is GRADUATED

Is it?

But what means X between R and Q?

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antvwala
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« Reply #14 on: April 14, 2009, 11:08:17 pm »

There is a significant plurality of symbols in the field.
Present in 15-20% of cases, are placed between the two stars, or, sometimes, to their side. They are typically the prerogative of mint of Arles and Trier, particularly the first, which has a very wide range of graphics solutions. Those of Aquileia, Heraklea and Nicomedia only fit 1 or 3  dots; Rome a garland. Finally, the mints of Alexandria, Antioch, Cizikus, Constantinople, Lyon, Siscia and Thessalonica, however, does not place symbols of any kind in the field.
Symbols can be dots, wreaths, palm branches or laurel, half moons, crowns, or Chi-Rho.
About what they mean, some people assumed that they are images of the constellations in the sky when Constantinople was founded: a suggestive hypothesis, but at present there is still no convincing interpretation to justify their presence and explain why it is limited to some mints.

In the picture attached, the more frequent and characteristic symbols: a) three dots vertically aligned, b) dot to right of stars, c) Chi-Rho, d) unknown symbol, e) garland, f) palm branch; g) branch of laurel.
There is also a pine tree (Mint of Arles) and our friend Sergio has a coin with a rising moon (mint not identified).

Antvwala
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antvwala
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« Reply #15 on: April 16, 2009, 06:34:31 pm »

I hope to receive from readers of the Forum your opinions and some images of your coins Vrbs Roma type. ...
Nothing?  Sad
Or is this not interesting?

Antvwala
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Callimachus
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« Reply #16 on: April 16, 2009, 06:53:23 pm »

Here are two that I have:

The first from Antioch, 3.14 gm, 18 mm, mint mark: SMAN(theta). RIC 91.

The second from Arelate (Constantina), 2.56 gm, 17 mm, mint mark: PCONST with "pine tree" or "arrow head" between stars.  RIC 392.
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antvwala
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« Reply #17 on: April 16, 2009, 07:31:46 pm »

Thank you very much. Preservation of this coins is very extraordinary . Type with pine tree is very rare! Smiley
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antvwala
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« Reply #18 on: April 16, 2009, 07:40:31 pm »

It is not ascertained why in exergue often appear some letters or symbols in addition to those that identify mint and "officina" issuer. It is possible that it was affixed to distinguish the different issues, but we can not exclude the presence of symbols with an esoteric significance. Leaving dot beginning or the end of the legend in exergue, frequent in all Constantine types, should pay attention to other symbols placed at the beginning of the legend, in centre, or to its right.

Antvwala
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antvwala
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« Reply #19 on: April 19, 2009, 01:11:32 am »

Updating atlas mints:

MINT OF ALEXANDRIA
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antvwala
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« Reply #20 on: April 19, 2009, 01:13:40 am »

MINT OF ANTIOKIA
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antvwala
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« Reply #21 on: April 19, 2009, 01:17:57 am »

MINT OF ARLES
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antvwala
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« Reply #22 on: April 19, 2009, 02:32:43 am »

MINT OF AQUILEIA
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antvwala
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« Reply #23 on: April 19, 2009, 02:34:34 am »

MINT OF CYZICUS
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antvwala
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« Reply #24 on: April 19, 2009, 02:35:42 am »

MINT OF CONSTANTINOPLE
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FORVM`s Classical Numismatics Discussion Board  |  Numismatic and History Discussions  |  Roman Coins (Moderator: Severus_Alexander)  |  Topic: ROMAN WOLF IN ANONYMOUS CONSTANTINIAN NUMMII « previous next »
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