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Joe Geranio
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« on: June 25, 2005, 12:52:19 am »

One final aspect of the seated figure of Caligula on the consensv dupondius is worth examining. Could Caligula have been the first living princeps to ever appear radiate on Roman coinage?  B.E. Levy. in her article entitled "Caligula's Radiate Crown," finds traces of a radiate crown on two pieces:  One in the Princeton University Library; the other in a private collection.  Some scholars believe this theory strengthens the argument that the seated figure is Augustus and not Caligula.  H.M. Von Kaenal advanced this interpretation of the dupondii this way:  His first argument is that on some of the reverses you could identify Caligula's features; secondly, that the reverse legend iis suited to certain events of his accesion.  As Dio tells us, the event was altered by an erruption into the senate- house of equites et populus,40 and in Von Kaenal's view it is to this, and not the award of an honorific statue, that the legend CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R must refer.41  H. Kuthmann brings even stronger evidence of the reverse type not being Augustus when he suggests that on pre-Flavian coins the curule chair is the seat of the living princeps, while that of DIVUS Augustus is a throne.42 This is strong evidence that the seated figure is that of Caligula.  (Interestingly, Kuthmann identifies the seated figure as Claudius.)

Levy brings further evidence to light when she suggests that the bronze provincial issues of at least three or four mints show Caluigula with radiate attribution (one from Alexandria, but this issue may represent Helios.)43  Another issue from the province of Asia shows a spikey Hellenistic crown.44 Even stronger evidence that the radiate crown did exist can be seen on consensv dupondii , where the die engraver shortened the vertical bar on the T in ET to accomadate the crown, while the entire letter T is slightly raised in the second Princeton piece.  Levy mentions that the radiate crown is neglected in descriptions which follow illustrations in catalouges.  In specifically looking for the radiated crown on the consensv dupondii, There are at least three issues that have been found via the art trade.45  It has been suggested that the radiate crown is occasionally used on Roman coinage to distinguish a newly elevated Emperor.  Thus, the Roman radiate crown was not a true piece of insignia:  Its meaning was flexible and its use optional.46  

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« Reply #1 on: June 25, 2005, 09:51:43 pm »

      It's been a while since I looked, but I think there are innumerable carefully engraved and well preserved CONSENSV dupondii on which Caligula's statue is clearly bare-headed.  Therefore the original statue must have been bare-headed, and the few dies showing Caligula radiate are anomalies, probably just mistakes of the engravers.
     I would, however, be interested to see the new radiate examples you discovered.  The relevant footnote to your paper does not show on the Caligula website.
     In the course of preparing my Num. Chron. review of von Kaenel's Claudius book, I made a little discovery, not yet published, which proves beyond question that the statue on the CONSENSV dupondii represents Caligula, as the M&M cataloguer and von Kaenel had deduced from its facial features, not Divus Augustus as traditionally described.
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« Reply #2 on: June 26, 2005, 06:42:23 am »

I'd thought that Nero was the first living Roman emperor to use the radiate crown (with the earlier Augustus only shown radiate posthumously). The radiate depiction of Nero makes sense since it echos the copy of the Rhodos Colossus he erected near the hence named Colosseum, which depicted himself as the radiate Helios (as depicted on his Avgvstvs Germanicvs denarius/aureus).

If Caligula, preceding Nero, is shown radiate, then it's hard to see it as a mistake, since there'd have been no precedent, but if deliberate it would seem to demand it's own explanation.

Ben
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« Reply #3 on: June 26, 2005, 11:20:53 am »



See B.E. Levy, Caligula's Radiate Crown-Schweizer Munzblatter  38/152 1988  pp. 101-07.  Very interesting article.  

The theory of the seated figure goes well back to 1828, I Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum VI, 1828 p.126.

Also see H.M. von Kaenel, "Augustus, Caligula oder Claudius", Gazette Numismatique Suisse 28, 1978, pp. 39-44.

I am sure you know about "Die Bildnisse des Caligula" By D. Boschung.

There is an example in the Princeton Universtiy Library?  See Levy's article.  

Multa Cum Amicitia,

Joe Geranio
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« Reply #4 on: June 26, 2005, 12:30:14 pm »

       I have never been a member of the San Francisco Coin Club, but Ben Damsky had planned to invite me as a speaker there, if that is what you mean.
       I have read the articles by von Kaenel and Levy, who are both personal friends of mine, and have seen Boschung's book. 
       Eckhel's Doctrina vol. VI was published in 1796; 1828 is just the reprint.  He propounds the traditional view that the CONSENSV coin depicts a statue of Divus Augustus erected, as the legend declares, by common consent of the Senate, Equestrian Order, and Roman People.
       The observation that the statue is actually one of CALIGULA, because the facial features are his, goes back to a sale catalogue description c. 1970, M&M if I am not mistaken, and was taken up by von Kaenel in the article you cite.  My unpublished discovery confirming this identification is of course totally new.
       I know about the radiate example in the Princeton collection and the one other that Brooks L. found, but don't you say in your article that you found three others?
       If virtually every coin die, including the finest and most carefully engraved ones, shows this statue as bare-headed, then I think we have to conclude that this detail was intentional and that the statue depicted was also bare-headed.  The reverse (as I name the sides) showed the radiate head of DIVVS AVGVSTVS between the letters S--C.  Probably this was the reason that at least one engraver erroneously added a radiate crown to the statue on the obverse too.
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« Reply #5 on: June 26, 2005, 01:52:32 pm »

Curtis,

I will dig out the references of the radiate crown (via art trade).  I will get back to you as soon as I can find them.  The specimen of the CONSENSV DUPONDIUS from the Bern Historiches Museum is the finest reverse I have seen of Caligula for the dupondius.  The Getty has a book on some articles by F. Johansen on "The Sculptured Portraits of Caligula" with the Bern piece.  I have looked at many specimens of the CONSENSV dupondii and it is has by far the best facial features. 

Luck with your research,     


Joe

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« Reply #6 on: June 26, 2005, 04:10:41 pm »

Here is a zoom of the seated figure from my Caligula Dupondius, showing visible characteristics of Caligula (bare headed).

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« Reply #7 on: June 26, 2005, 05:02:08 pm »

Remember Jerome,  The radiate crown is the exception, not the rule in Levy's article.  You will not see traces on every dupondius.  I do not have an e-version of the photo with the traces of a radiate crown. 

JG
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« Reply #8 on: December 10, 2005, 10:59:28 am »



Go to this link to see Consensv Dupondii with traces of radiate crown?

A ref. to Caligula wearing a radiate crown: Philo,
/Legatio ad Gaium/ 95. However, I would be careful about the source,
since Philo was a Jewish propagandist and very anti Caligula. This ref.
is in Philo's list of gods that Caligula dressed up as, Philo
intensionally omitting no doubt that these were the costumes Caligula
wore when he performed pantomime in private -- but a great opportunity
for Philo to distort.

The radiate crown he wears on the coinage signifies that he is a
descended from Divus Augustus -- same for Nero, only he could claim
kinship with both Divus Augustus and Divus Claudius.
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« Reply #9 on: April 22, 2006, 08:18:27 pm »

Photos of Spikey or Radiate attribution?

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« Reply #10 on: May 17, 2012, 12:32:56 am »

Here is the finest example of the dupondius proving it is Caligula with his physiognomy (facial agreement) as the princeps seated.
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« Reply #11 on: March 09, 2013, 01:47:33 pm »

Here is another interesting find with the scruffy/attempted radiate attribution?  Look at the "T" in "ET"  use this link from NOMOS to magnify seated figure head area.



  http://www.nomosag.com/default.aspx?page=ucDetailsStock&id=12818



Divus Augustus. Died AD 14. Dupondius (Orichalcum, 16.43 g 7), struck under Caligula, 37-41. DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C Radiate head of Divus Augustus to left. Rev. CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R Statue of Divus Augustus to left: laureate, togate, holding a branch in his right hand and a globe in his left, seated on a curule chair. BMC (Caligula) 88. Cohen 87. RIC (Gaius) 56. Attractive dark, reddish-brown patina. Minor flaw on cheek, otherwise, nearly extremely fine.
Ex Peus 336, 28 April 1993, 1293.


This type is particularly interesting. It appears to show a seated bronze statue of the deified Augustus, which was erected with the help of the Senate, the Equestrians and the People of Rome. One rather striking peculiarity is, even in the depiction found on the coin, that the features of the seated figures are clearly those of Caligula, rather than those of Augustus. This seems to indicate that the statue was made to emphasize Caligula’s dynastic connections to Augustus through the assimilation of their portraits.

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2nd example, scruffy/radiate attribution with "T" in "ET raised.
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« Reply #12 on: March 09, 2013, 01:58:51 pm »

Of course the Provincial pieces with radiate attribute do not pull the same weight as Imperial, but here they are:

 1.   IONIA, Smyrna. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ 14mm (2.14 g, 12h). Radiate head right; eight-rayed star to right / Crab. RPC I 2474; Klose XXVII B (V7/R15); SNG Copenhagen 1347.

  2.  PHRYGIA, Aezanis. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ (20mm, 5.21 g, 12h). Lollios Klassikos and Lollios Roufos, magistrates. Radiate head right / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter; monogram to left. RPC II 3085; SNG Copenhagen 80.

  3.  LYDIEN MAGNESIA AM SIPYLOS. Caligula (37 - 41) Bronze. 4.25 g. GAION KAISARA SEBASTON. Kopf mit Strahlenkrone rechts. Rs: GERMANIK - ON - KAI AG - RIPPIN - AN. Verschleierter Germanicus mit Phiale und Agrippina als Demeter mit Ähren und Szepter nebeneinander en face stehend. RPC 2454. BMC 49.
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« Reply #13 on: March 09, 2013, 02:11:50 pm »

the other in a private collection. Some scholars believe this theory strengthens the argument that the seated figure is Augustus and not Caligula. H.M. Von Kaenal advanced this interpretation of the dupondii this way: His first argument is that on some of the reverses you could identify Caligula's features; secondly, that the reverse legend iis suited to certain events of his accesion. As Dio tells us, the event was altered by an erruption into the senate- house of equites et populus,40 and in Von Kaenal's view it is to this, and not the award of an honorific statue, that the legend CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R must refer.41 H. Kuthmann brings even stronger evidence of the reverse type not being Augustus when he suggests that on pre-Flavian coins the curule chair is the seat of the living princeps, while that of DIVUS Augustus is a throne.42 This is strong evidence that the seated figure is that of Caligula. (Interestingly, Kuthmann identifies the seated figure as Claudius.) According to Von Kaenel the portraits of Caligula on the aurei and denarii are all in right profile; those on sestertii, dupondii, and asses are all in left profile. Von kaenel concludes that all of the imperial issues reproduce a single official portrait type and that what variations exist are of a stylistic and not of a typological nature. Furthermore, since the two profile views are not mirror images, Von kaenel suggests that they faithfully reproduce the left and right side Respectively of a single model in the round and he believes that comparison with marble replicas of Boschung’s “Haupttypus” confirm the same master “vorbild” lies behind both the sculptured and numismatic replicas. According to von Kaenel, the Roman die engravers were provided with either a single head in the round to serve as a model for their miniature profile portraits or with two separate relief portraits corresponding to the left and right sides of a sculptured head of Caligula’s “Haupttypus.” This is an important observation and it would be interesting to know if it is typical of Roman numismatic portraiture for left- and right facing portraits of the same person to be rendered differently or whether the coinage of Caligula is exceptional in not employing mirror images.43
Caligula the First Living Princeps to Appear Radiate?
Levy brings further evidence to light when she suggests that the bronze provincial issues of at least three or four mints show Caligula with radiate attribution (one from Alexandria, but this issue may represent Helios.)44 Another issue from the province of Asia shows a spikey Hellenistic crown.45 Even stronger evidence that the radiate crown did exist can be seen on consensv dupondii , where the die engraver shortened the vertical bar on the T in ET to accomadate the crown, while the entire letter T is slightly raised in the second Princeton piece. Levy mentions that the radiate crown is neglected in descriptions which follow illustrations in catalouges. In specifically looking for the radiated crown on the consensv dupondii, There are at least three issues that have been found via the art trade.46 It has been suggested that the radiate crown is occasionally used on Roman coinage to distinguish a newly elevated Emperor. Thus, the Roman radiate crown was not a true piece of insignia: Its meaning was flexible and its use optional.47 Fig () of Close up of Princeton piece and smaller dupondius
Conclusion and Evidence
Levy stated in a letter to me: that she would change the last paragraph of her article (Caligula's Radiate Crown), for she now thinks the radiate crown on that coin (and she meant to have said just “rays”) was the sort of thing the occasional die-cutter might have put in, She didn't mean as an error, but a sort of optional detail. I feel as Levy suggests, that a few CONSENSV dupondii with radiate figure on the reverse came at the beginning of the issue, and the design was later modified in deference to public opinion. Then again as Levy suggests, and I disagree; we might set them as late, seeing in them a manifestation of Caligula's gradual self-exaltation, which is well attested in the literary sources but otherwise absent from his coinage.48 (That is, in view of how few have turned up, it is rash to say the rays constituted an official element of the initial issue, later discontinued). I respectfully disagree and see the CONSENSV dupondius and provincial coinage as radiate attributions. Through public opinion the radiate attribution was disbanded. I believe the CONSENSV dupondii was originally meant to have radiate attribution. I hope as time goes on to show more CONSENSV dupondii with radiate atributions.
Levy has communicated with von Kaenel, and he suggested through a letter to Levy that, von Kaenel states "We might suspect this if the Radiate pieces were irregular in other ways, but the style to von kaenel seems perfectly Roman". M. Bergmann on p.129 of her massive “Die Strahlen des Herrscher.” In a long footnote argued the rays on the Princeton dupondius were a modern addition, tooled on by someone who wanted the seated figure to look more like Augustus. Of course she’d only seen the photo in SM. The CONSENSV could not have been tooled as to how many I personally have seen up close and personal.
It has always been recgonized that Nero was the first living Princeps to appear radiate? This in my opinion is a falsehood. In the provinces there are examples of Caligula shown radiate which pre-dates Nero. Fig (IONIA, Smyrna. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ 14mm (2.14 g, 12h). Radiate head right; star behind / Crab. Klose XXVII B (V7/R15); RPC I 2474; SNG Copenhagen 1347; BMC Ionia 279 (same dies). PHRYGIA, Aezanis. Gaius (Caligula). 37-41 AD. Æ 20mm (5.20 gm). Lollios Klassikos and Lollios Roufos, magistrates. Radiate head right / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre. RPC I 3085; SNG Copenhagen 80. Was the radiate crowns of Caligula's Greek coinage routine to verbal flattery at his accession. Nero had the same situation on his coinage, and it may be significant that the first representation of the latter with radiate attribution comes as early as 56/57 A.D. on the reverse of an accesssion issue at Alexandria (Fig Nero) Dattari 12-13 200-203. Eygpt issued no regnal coinage until his third year (56/57 A.D.) This may be considered an accession type. This clearly puts Caligula as the first living Princeps in my opinion to be shown radiate not only on Provincial coinage, but; in my humble and controversial view the CONSENSV dupondii was meant to show a radiate attribution. I have already mentioned the reasons why the radiate CONSENSV was disbanded. The radiate crown he wears on the coinage signifies that he is descended from Divus Augustus -- same for Nero, only he could claim kinship with both Divus Augustus and Divus Claudius.
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« Reply #14 on: March 09, 2013, 02:12:17 pm »

End Notes+ I should like to thank Prof. John Pollini, Dean of the School of Fine Arts at the University of Southern California, for his help in locating many materials on the portraiture of Caligula. I should also like to thank Brooks Levy at the Princeton Umiversity Library for insightful views on Caligula's radiate crown. Many thanks to the Classics Department at the University of California at Berkeley for their scholarly seminars on numismatics, especially Prof. R. Stroud and Prof. R. Knapp. I am also thankful to the San Francisco Ancient Numismatic Society, and thanks to Susan Wood for her help in in finding material on the portraiture of Caligula. Lastly I would like to thank Miriam Griffin for her encouragement and the first book she suggested on the Julio Claudians.
Bibliography1. Suetonius, Cal 8.1: Fasti Vallenses and Fasti Pighiani; also see Dio 59.61. A Barrett, Caligula: The Corruption of Power, Yale University Press, 1989 (Barrett 1989), while not rejecting Suetonius, raises questions, pp.6-7, Also see J.P.V.D. Balsdon, The Emperor Gaius, Oxford, 1934 (Balsdon 1934), p.4. 2. Seneca, De Constantia Sapientis, p.18. See also Suetonius, Calig. p. 50.3. BMC I 160/88-92: RIC I 56; AE dupondius. Obverse: Augustus radiate head left. Reverse: seated figure on curule chair holding branch and globe. Attribution to the reign of Caligula now seems certain. See H. Chantraine, Die Antiken Fundmuzen Von Neuss, Novaesium VIII, 1982. pp. 20-21.4. (supra n. 3 ); The seated figure has been accepted by most scholars as Augustus, the description of it as an honorific statue apparently goes back to I. Eckhel, Doctrina Numorum Veterum VI, 1828, p. 126. Also see B.E. Levy, "Caligula's Radiate Crown,"Schweitzer Munzblatter, 38/152, 1988 (Levy 1988), pp. 101-107, Also see H.M. von Kaenel, "Augustus, Caligula oder Claudius," Gazette Numismatique Suisse 28, 1978, pp. 39-44. As Levy points out a fuller investigation into: 1st century and Hellenistic evidence would be rewarding. E. Kantorowicz, Oriens Augusti, Dumbarton Oaks Paper 17, 1963, 119-133, examines the association of solar imagery with imperial accessions and epiphanies. Unfortunately it starts with the 2nd century A.D. 5. Swift, F.H., "Imagines in Imperial Portraiture," AJA 28, 1923, pp. 286-301. M. Stewart, "How Were Imperial Portraits Distributed Throughout The Roman Empire?" AJA 43, 1939, pp. 601-617. J. Pollini, The Portraiture of Gaius and Lucius Caesar", New York, 1987 (Pollini 1987), pp. 2-3 for a photo of a terracotta head in the Louvre, see Kiss, L'iconographie, figs. 312-13, p. 99.6. Fullerton, M.D., Rev. of Pollini 1987, AJA 92, 1988, pp. 615-17, probably the most difficult of the Julio-Claudians to attribute; an insightful review. Also see R. Brilliant, "An Early Imperial Portrait of Caligula," AAAH 4, 1969, pp. 13-17. Also see J. Pollini, "A Pre-Principate Portrait of Gaius (Caligula)?" JWAG, Vol. 40, 1982 (Pollini 1982), pp.3-4. I believe this portrait that Pollini speaks of is indeed the only pre-principate likeness, which is similiar to the Dresden and La Spezia Portraits.7. DioLX22. Also see M. Bergemann and P. Zanker, "Damnatio Memoriae'-Umgearbeitete Nero und Domitians Portrats: Zur Ikonographie der Flavischen Kaiser und des Nerva," jdI 96, 1981, pp. 317-42. See also J. Pollini, "Damnatio Memoriae in Stone: Two Portraits of Nero Recut to Vespasianin American Museums," AJA 88, 1984, pp. 547-66. For a photo of a mutilated small bronze of Caligula, see F. Johansen, " The Sculpted Portraits of Caligula," Ancient Portraits in the J. Paul Getty Museum, Vol. 1, 1987 (Johansen 1987), figs 19a-19b. For a portrait of Germanicus mutilated in late antiquity, See S. Walker, Roman Art in the British Museum, 1991, fig. 33, p. 31. For the greatest work to date on Caligula in the round. See D. Boschung, Die Bildnisse des Caligula", Das Romische Herrscherbild, Vol. 4, part 1, Berlin 1989 (Boschung 1989), no 30, pls. 27, 1-4, 45.1. 8. Jonas, E., " A Damanatio Memoriae alkalmazasa egyik duponiusan Caligula, Numizm Kozlony, 1937-38, pp. 89-91. 9. Barrett 1989, pp. 179-80. D.W. Mcdowall, " THe Economic Context of the Roman Imperial Countermark NCAPR," Acta Numismatica I, 1971, p. 87.10. Callu, J.P. and F. Rosati, "Les Depot monetaire du Posarello," MEFR, 1964, pp. 51-90.11. Carson, R.A.G., "The Bredgar Treasure of Roman Coins", NC, 1959. pp.17-22.12. Seminar held at the University of California-Berkeley. April 1995, Berkeley Classics Department.13. Barrett 1989, p. 180.14. Stewart, M. (supra n. 5), pp. 601-17.15. IGR IV, 1022.16. CIL XII, 1848, 1849.17. Dio LIX.4 IG VII, 2711.18. IG, 2nd ed., vols 2-3, 3266-67. Athens together with Drusilla; Graindor, BCH 38, 1914, no. 18, p. 401. Seyrig, RA, 1929, p. 90. See also T. Pekary, Monumentum Chiloniense, Amsterdam, 1975, p. 107. E. Koberlein, Caligula und die agyptische Kulte, Meisenheim am glau, 1962, p. 54. 19. Poulsen, V., "Portraits of Caligula," A Arch 29, 1958, pp. 175-90. On the Worcester head, Poulsen speaks about "an unmistackable nervous tension," For a description of the so-called "crazy Caligula portrait," see D. Kleiner, Roman Sculpture, New haven, 1992, p. 128. See also J. Pollini, Roman Portraiture: Images of Character and Virtue, Los Angeles 1990, pp. 8-12. 20. For more on the Fulda head, see Johansen 1987, p. 95. Poulsen (supra n. 19), pp. 178-79. See also H. Heintze, Die antiken Portrats in SchloB Fasanerie bei Fulda, Mainz, 1968, no. 21.21. Copenhagen head 637a : Th pupils, eylashes and irises were added in paint; only those on the left of the Copenhagen head are still preserved. See Kleiner (supra n. 19), p. 127. J. Pollini told me in conversation that the Docents at the NY Glyptotek like to scare the children with the so called "Crazy looking Caligula" 22. Pollini 1982, pp. 2-4.23. Poulsen (supra n. 19), p. 186. Johansen 1987, p. 106. Kleiner (supra n. 19), p. 126. All agree that the Worcester head is as possible postumous issue from Neronian times.24. A very controversial issue. See Strabo, 4.3.2; CIL Xiii (supra n. 10), pp. 1820, 1799.25. Mattingly, BMC cxiii-iii.26. C.H.V. Sutherland, " The Mints of Lugdunum and Rome under Caligula: an unsolved problem,"NAC 10, 1981, pp. 297-99.27. Girard, J.B., "les emmisons d'or et d' argent de Caligula dans l'atelier de Lyon," RN, 1976, pp. 69-81. There is a danger that these were forgers's does. See also H.M. von Kaenel, " Die Organasation der Munzparagung Caligulas," SNR 66, 1987, pp. 42-43. H.B. Mattingly, NC 145, 1985, p. 256; Barrett 1989, pp. 244-54. 28. Balsdon 1934, p. 146.29. On the other imagery of Caligula, see locally produced glass medallions thought to bear Caligula's image from the Rhine area, see D. Boschung, Romische Glasphalerae mit Portratbusten," BJ 187, 1987, nos. 2,7, 27. For convincing identification of the seated male figure on a gem in the Vienna Kunsthistoriches Museum, as Caligula and not Augustus, see H. Kyrieleis, "Zu einem Kameo in Wien," Archaologischer Anzeiger, 1970, figs. 1,3, pp. 492-98. Pollini 1982, p. 3. For pre-accession portrait of Caligula on colonial issues from Carthago Nova in Spain (usually crude portraits), see A. Banti and Simonetti, Corpus Nummorum Romanorum 13, Florence, 1977, pp. 141-50.; M Grant, Aspects of the Principate of Tiberius, New York, 1950, 35, 101, pl. 6.3. 30. RIC, 36.31. Breglia, L., Roman Imperial Coins: Their Art and Techniques, 1968, pp. 44-50. Also see Kleiner (supra n. 19), pp. 141-63; Boschung 1989, p. 18.32. RIC I, 110, no.32.33. Ritter, H.W., Adlocutio und Corona Civica unter Caligula und Tiberius," JNG, 1971, pp. 81-96.34. This identification was already made in the auction catalouge, Munzen und Medaillen, AG Basel 43 (12-13.11.1970), no. 289.35. Boschung 1989, pl D, Figs. 1-8.36. Boschung 1989, pp. 24-25; H.M. von Kaenel (supra n. 4), pp.39-44.37. Poulsen, V. (supra n. 19), p. 185; Johansen 1989, p. 104.38. For discussion for the typology in identification of Caligula. See Pollini 1982, pp. 1-12.39. Johansen 1987, p. 97. Probably made shortly after Caligula's accession, this head I have seen personally at the J. Paul Getty Museum. A most impressive head from Asia Minor. See Pollini 1982, p. 6.40. Dio 59.6.1; Suet Calig. 14.1. Also see A Jackobson and H. Cotton, Caligula's Rescusatio Imperii, Historia 34, 1985, pp. 497-503.41. Grenade, P., Essai sur les origines du principat, 1961, p. 283. 42. Kuthmann, H., "Claudius, Germanicus und divus Augustus," JNG 10, 1959/60, pp. 56-57.
43. Kleiner, F.American Journal of Numismatics 3-4 New York (1992): Review of D. Boschung's 'Die Bildnisse des Caligula' Gerbruder-Mann (1989)44. Smallwood, E.M., Documents illustrating the reigns of Gaius, Claudius and Nero, 1967, no. 126. Also see M. Charlesworth, CAH X, 1952, p. 654, nt. 1; G.J.D Aalders,"Helios Gaios," Mnemosyne 13, 1960, pp. 242-43.45. BMC 145/ 49-51.46. First, I have come across at least (as of 5/15/06) 9 known examples of Caligula radiate?(I hope you realize it is caligula). Here is part of the theory: The Die-Cutter for some reason has shortened the "T" in ET' for some reason. Could it have been that this was to make room for the rays? For one piece where the crown is quite evident see: Catalog of the Vierordt sale Shuluman 5.3 1923, no. 573. A. Banti and L. Simonetti has considerable samples in CNR VI (1974) 65-72. It's strange when you are not aware to look for something you don't see it! My eyes now scan the Consensv dupondii very closely. Sometime the "T" is delibretaly raised, but it always seems to be raised to a certain degree. The point regarding Caligula being the seated figure is obvious, since the curule chair is the seat of the living Princeps before the Flavian era. The best portrait, which I have is a photo of Caligula (iconographically) in the Bern historical Museum. We can't assume becasue the die-cutters abberations . When we look at provincial coinage we clearly find Caligula radiate during his principate. Did the proposed radiate crown = divine election? Could this attribute come at the beginning of the issue and then pressure from Rome discontinued it? Or was the radiate added later with Caligula's self exaltation? ON THE EMBASSY TO GAIUS THE FIRST PART OF THE TREATISE ON VIRTUES (De Virtutibus Prima Pars, Quod Est De Legatione Ad Gaium) Philo (95) Afterwards, when he thought fit to do so, he laid aside these ornaments, and metamorphosed and transformed himself into Apollo, crowning his head with garlands, in the form of rays, and holding a bow and arrows in his left hand, and holding forth graces in his right, as if it became him to proffer blessings to all men from his ready store, and to display the best arrangement possible on his right hand, but to contract the punishments which he had it in his power to inflict, and to allot to them a more confined space on his left. There is a very similar case in Flavian coinage, a sestertius issued for Titus at the beginning of his reign (BMC 178-81). The reverse shows V. and T. holding a globe between them; the head of one figure, on some but not all preserved examples, has very small rays. It’s always been thought this was Vespasian, but for numerous reasons must be Titus. As with Caligula, this detail defines him as the emperor-elect. The radiate crown he wears on the coinage signifies that he is a descended from Divus Augustus -- same for Nero, only he could claim kinship with both Divus Augustus and Divus Claudius.
47. Levy, B.E., " Portraits of the Heir Apparent: Geta or Caracalla," AJA, 1992, p. 350; B.E. Levy, Calpurnius Siculus/ I 84-88: The Iconograhy of Imperial Succession," APA, 1989, p. 15.
48. R. Fears, ANRW II.17 (1981)72, note 347. See also Zanker, Paul, Provinzielle Kaiserporträts: Zur Rezeption derSelbstdarstellung des Princeps, Munich: Bayerische Akade-mie der Wissenschaften, 1983Boschung, Dietrich, “Die Bildnistypen der iulisch-claudischenKaiserfamilie: ein kritischer Forschungsbericht,” Journal ofRoman Archaeology 6 (1993)
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Joe Geranio
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Joe and Caligula at the Getty


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« Reply #15 on: June 26, 2014, 01:42:20 am »

Here are some interesting thoughts and photos on Caligula's spikey attribution in numiswiki.  Updated 6/24/14,

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Caligulas%20Spikey%20Attribution-%20Joe%20Geranio
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