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SASANIAN REFERENCES 2

Tracy Aiello

This list of references, crudely divided into “History” and “Numismatics”, is not intended to replace the excellent list compiled by T. K. Mallon, archived on NumisWiki at Sasanian References. Indeed, the list here never could. I have limited myself to articles and books in English, while T. K. Melon’s list is not so restricted. In addition, his list contains numerous articles in English that are not on my list. Thus, the list here is automatically inadequate for the serious numismatist/historian and perhaps even the casual one. Nonetheless I hope that it will be of value to some, if not many. Some of the articles on my list are also on T. K. Melon’s list, but some are not.


Some of the articles listed below can be found online, some for free and some behind various levels of a pay wall (e.g. for print privileges). If I found an article online then I included the URL and added an external hyperlink. On September 15, 2018 I verified that all of the links functioned and would take you to the article referenced.


A note on citations from Encyclopædia Iranica online. At the end of some of the articles is a “cite this entry” section, and when present that is exactly what I have entered (preserving the original style and formatting) on this reference list. Note: these sections contain a “accessed on date”; that date does not correspond to the date that I accessed the article online. If no such section is present then I simply listed “Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition” and provided both the dates of original publication and last update (if present).


A note on the Sylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum series. For those volumes containing sections in various languages I have listed only those sections in English, and I have done so by author in the manner of a bibliographic entry of an article in a book. For volumes that are entirely in English I have listed them as a book according to the author’s last name.


Perhaps the reference list is too weighted toward history, deities, etc. and fails to contain enough numismatic articles and books. I am positive that the list omits some of the most seminal numismatic articles and books. My goal was simply to create a bibliography of articles and books that have caught my eye or peaked my interest.


HISTORY


Alram, Michael. “The Rock Reliefs of Sasanian Iran.” In Mesopotamia and Iran in the Parthian and Sasanian Periods: Rejection and Revival c. 238 BC-AD 642. Proceedings of a Seminar in Memory of Vladimir G. Lukonin, edited by J. E. Curtis. London: British Museum Press, 2000.


Azarpay, Guitty. “Crowns and Some Royal Insignia in Early Iran.” Iranica Antiqua 9 (1972): 108 - 15.


Bier, C, “Anāhīd iv: Anāhitā in the arts”, Encyclopædia Iranica, I/9, pp. 1003-1011, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/anahid (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Boyce, Mary, ed. Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984.


Boyce, Mary, “Ahura Mazdā”, Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, pp. 684-687; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ahura-mazda (accessed on 28 March 2014).


Boyce, Mary, “Anāhīd i: Ardwīsūr Anāhīd”, Encyclopædia Iranica, I/9, pp. 1003-1011, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/anahid (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Boyce, Mary, “AMƎŠA SPƎNTA”, Encyclopædia Iranica, I/9, pp. 933-936, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/amesa-spenta-beneficent-divinity (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Boyce, Mary, “Anāhīd ii: The cult and its diffusion”, Encyclopædia Iranica, I/9, pp. 1003-1011, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/anahid (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Callieri, Pierfrancesco. “At the Roots of the Sasanian Royal Imagery: the Persepolis Graffiti.” Transoxiana Webfestschrift Series I. Webfestschrift Marshak 2003. Ērān ud Anērān. Studies presented to Boris Ilich Marshak on the Occasion of His 70th Birthday. Available online: http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Art/SasanainRoyalImeg.htm


Calmeyer, Peter, “Crown i: In the Median and Achaemenid Periods.” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Originally Published: December 15, 1993. Last Updated: November 2, 2011. Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/crown-i




Canepa, Matthew P. “Technologies of Memory in Early Sasanian Iran: Achaemenid Sites and Sasanian Identity.” American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 114, no. 4, October (2010): 563 – 596. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/349412/Technologies_of_Memory_In_Early_Sasanian_Iran_Achaemenid_Sites_and_Sasanian_Identity


Chaumont, M. L., “Anāhīd iii: Anaitis”, Encyclopædia Iranica, I/9, pp. 1003-1011, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/anahid (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Choksy, Jamsheed K. “Sacral Kingship in Sasanian Iran.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Series, vol. 2 (1988): 35-52. Available online from JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24048209


Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh, Elizabeth Pendleton, Michael Alram, and Touraj Daryaee, eds. The Parthian and Early Sasanian Empires: Adaptation and Expansion. British Institute of Persian Studies. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2016.


Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh and Sarah Stewart, eds. The Sasanian Era (The Idea of Iran, Vol. III). London: I. B. Tauris, 2008.


Daryaee, Touraj. “National History or Kayanid History? The Nature of Sasanid Zoroastrian Historiography.” Iranian Studies, vol. 28, nos. 3 - 4 (1995): 129 - 141. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/953623/National_History_or_Kayanid_History_The_Nature_of_Sasanid_Zoroastrian_Historiography


Daryaee, Touraj. “Sasanian Persia (ca. 224-651 C.E.).” Iranian Studies, vol. 31, no. 3/4, A Review of the "Encyclopaedia Iranica", Summer - Autumn (1998): 431-461. Available online from JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4311180


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Ideal King in the Sasanian World: Ardaxšīr ī Pābagān or Xusrō Anōšag-ruwān?” Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān, The International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, spring and summer (2003): 33 - 45. Available online:  http://www.academia.edu/953621/Ideal_King_in_the_Sasanian_Period_Ardashir_or_Khusro


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Construction of the Past in Late Antique Persia.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Bd. 55, H. 4 (2006): 493 - 503. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4436833


Daryaee, Touraj, “Sasanians and their Ancestors.” In Proceedings of the 5th Conference of the Societas Iranologica Europæa, vol. 1 Ancient and Middle Iranian Studies, edited by Antonio Panaino and Andrea Piras. Milano: Mimesis, 2006. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/953614/Sasanians_and_their_Ancestors


Daryaee, Touraj. Sasanian Iran: The Portrait of a Late Antique Empire. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 2008.


Daryaee, Touraj. Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. London: I. B. Tauris 2009.


Daryaee, Touraj. “Kingship in Early Sasanian Iran.” In The Sasanian Era (The Idea of Iran, Vol. III), edited by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Sarah Stewart. London: I. B. Tauris, 2008. 60 - 70. Available online: https://tourajdaryaee.com/articles/


Daryaee, Touraj. “Ardaxšīr and the Sasanians’ Rise to Power.” Anabasis: Studia Classica Et Orientalia, vol. 1 (2010): 237 - 256. Available online: https://tourajdaryaee.com/articles/


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Sasanian Empire (224-651 CE).” In The Oxford Handbook of Iranian History, edited by Touraj Daryaee. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 187 - 207. Available online: https://tourajdaryaee.com/articles/


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Last Ruling Woman of Ērānšahr: Queen Āzarmīgduxt.” International Journal of the Society of Iranian Archaeologists, vol. 1, no. 1, Winter - Spring (2014): 77 - 81. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/12965365/The_Last_Ruling_Woman_of_Iranshahr_Queen_Azarmigduxt


Daryaee, Touraj and Khodadad Rezakhani. “Sasanian Empire.” In The Encyclopedia of Empire, edited by John M. MacKenzie. John Wiley & Sons, 2016. 1 - 8. Available online: https://tourajdaryaee.com/articles/


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Tripartite Sasanian Vision of the World”. In Sasanian Iran in the Context of Late Antiquity: The Bahari Lecture Series at the University of Oxford, edited by Touraj Daryaee. UCI Jordan Center for Persian Studies: 2018: 65 – 78.

Available online: https://www.academia.edu/37575465/_The_Tripartite_Sasanian_Vision_of_the_World_From_History_to_Epic_in_Late_Antique_Iran_Sasanian_Iran_in_the_Context_of_Late_Antiquity._The_Bahari_Lecture_Series_at_the_University_of_Oxford_ed._T._Daryaee_Jordan_Center_for_Persian_Studies_2018_pp._65-78?fs=rwc

Emrani, Haleh. “Like Father, Like Daughter: Late Sasanian Imperial Ideology & the Rise of Bōrān to Power.” e-Sasanika 5 (2009): 1 - 16. Available online: https://www.sasanika.org/esasanika/like-father-like-daughter-late-sasanian-imperial-ideology-the-rise-of-boran-to-power-2/


Frye, Richard N. “The Charisma of Kingship in Ancient Iran.” Iranica Antiqua 4 (1964): 36 - 54.


Frye, Richard N., “History and Sasanian Inscriptions.” In Atti del convegno internazionale sul tema: La Persia nel medioevo, (Roma, 31 marzo - 5 aprile 1970). Roma, 1971. 215 - 224.


Frye, Richard N. “Gestures of Deference to Royalty in Ancient Iran.” Iranica Antiqua 9 (1972): 102 - 107.


Frye, Richard N. The History of Ancient Iran. München: C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1984.


Frye, Richard N. “Religion in Fars under the Achaemenids.” In Acta Iranica 23, Hommages et Opera Minor 9 Orientalia J. Duchesne-Guillemin Emerito Oblata, edited by J. Kellens and P. Lecoq. Leiden, 1984. 171 - 78.


Frye, Richard N.,  “Bābak” [Mid. Pers. Pāpak, Pābag].” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Originally Published: December 15, 1988. Last Updated: August 18, 2011. Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/babak-3rd-cent-ruler


Gignoux, Philippe. “Church - State Relations in the Sasanian Period.” In Monarchies and Socio - Religious Traditions in the Ancient Near East, edited by H. I. H. Prince Takahito Mikasa. Wiesbaden, 1984. 72 - 80.


Gnoli, Gherardo. "On Old Persian Farnah-". In Acta Iranica, 30, vol. 16. Iranica Varia, Papers in Honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990. 83 - 92.


Gnoli, Gherardo, “Farr(ah).” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Originally Published: December 15, 1999.

Last Updated: December 15, 1999. Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/farrah

Grenet, Franz, “Mithra ii: Iconography in Iran and Central Asia”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2016, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/mithra-2-iconography-in-iran-and-central-asia (accessed on 19 May 2016).


Gyselen, Rika. “Vahrām III (293) and the Rock Relief of Naqsh-i Rustam II: A Contribution to the Iconography of Sasanian Crown Princes in the Third Century.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Series, vol. 19, Iranian and Zoroastrian Studies in Honor of Prods Oktor Skjærvø (2005): 29 - 36. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24049202


Harmatta, J. “Royal Power and Immortality. The Myth of the Two Eagles in Iranian Ideology.” Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 27 (1979): 305 - 19.


Jamzadeh, P. “The Winged Ring with Human Bust in Achaemenid Art as a Dynastic Symbol.” Iranica Antiqua 17 (1982): 91 - 99.


Herrmann, G. and Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, “SASANIAN ROCK RELIEFS, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2002, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sasanian-rock-reliefs (accessed on 16 August 2017).


MacKenzie, D. N. A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary. London and New York: Routledge, 1971. Available online: http://www.rabbinics.org/pahlavi/MacKenzie-PahlDict.pdf


Macdermot, B. C. “Roman Emperors in the Sasanian Reliefs.” Journal of Roman Studies 44 (1954): 76 - 80. Available from JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/297558


Miri, Negin. Sasanian Pārs: Historical Geography and Administrative Organization. Costa Mesa: Mazda Publishers, 2012.










Olbrycht, Marek Jan. “Dynastic Connections in the Arsacid Empire and the Origins of the House of Sāsān” In The Parthian and Early Sasanian Empires: Adaptation and Expansion:
Proceedings of a Conference Held in Vienna, 14 – 16 June 2012,
edited by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Elizabeth J. Pendleton, Michael Alram, and Touraj Daryaee. Oxford & Philadelphia: Oxbow, 2016: 23 – 35. Available Online: https://www.academia.edu/26895576/Dynastic_Connections_in_the_Arsacid_Empire_and_the_Origins_of_the_House_of_S%C4%81s%C4%81n


Panaino, Antonio. “The Bayān of the Fratarakas: Gods or ‘divine’ Kings?” In Religious Themes and Texts of pre-Islamic Iran and Central Asia: Studies in Honour of Professor Gherardo Gnoli on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday on 6th December 2002, edited by Carlo G. Cereti, Mauro Maggi, and Elio Provasi. Wiesbaden: Reichert, 2003. 265 - 288.


Panaino, Antonio, “Astral Characters of Kingship in the Sasanian and Byzantine Worlds.” In Convegno Internazionale: La Persia e Bisanzio, Atti dei Convegni Lincei 201, Roma. 555 - 594.


Peck, Elise H., “Crown ii: From the Seleucids to the Islamic Conquest.” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Originally published: December 15, 1993. Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/crown-ii


Rubin, Zeev. “The Roman Empire in the Res Gestae Divi Saporis -- the Mediterranean World in Sāsānian Propaganda.” In Electrum Studies in Ancient History, Vol. 2, Ancient Iran and the Mediterranean World, Proceedings of an International Conference in Honour of Professor Józef Wolski held at the Jagiellonian University, Cracow, in September 1996, edited by Edward Dąbrowa. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press, 1998. 177 - 185.


Rubin, Zeev. “The Sasanid Monarchy.” In The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 14. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors. AD 425 - 600, edited by Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins, and Michael Whitby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 638 - 661.


Rubin, Zeev, “ḴOSROW I ii. REFORMS,” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2016, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kosrow-i-ii-reforms (accessed on 19 May 2016).


Rubin, Zeev. “The Financial Affairs of the Sasanian Empire Under Khusrow II Parvez.” e-Sasanika 17 (2017): 1 - 30. Available online: https://www.sasanika.org/esasanika/financial-affairs-sasanian-empire-khusrow-ii-parvez/


Schlerath, B. and P. O. Skjævø, “AŠA”, Encyclopædia Iranica, II/7, pp. 694-696, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/asa-means-truth-in-avestan (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Schmidt, Hans-Peter, “Mithra i: Mitra in Old Indian and Mithra in Old Iranian”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Originally Published: August 15, 2006. Last Updated: August 15, 2006. Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/mithra-i


Shahbazi, A. Shapur. “An Achaemenid Symbol II. Farnah ‘(God Given) Fortune’ Symbolized.” Archäologische Mitteilungen Aus Iran N.F. 13 (1980): 119 - 47.


Shabazi, A. Shapur. "Early Sasanians' Claim to Achaemenid Heritage." Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān, The International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, (2001): 61 – 74. Available online: https://web.archive.org/web/20120308115605/http://www.humanities.uci.edu/sasanika/pdf/shahbazi.pdf

Shahbazi, A. Shapur, “SASANIAN DYNASTY”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2005, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sasanian-dynasty (accessed on 27 January 2016).


Shavarebi, Ehsan. “Historical Aspects, Iconographical Factors, Numismatic Issues, Technical Elements: How to Obtain a Convincing Chronology for the Rock Reliefs of Ardashīr I.” Anabasis: Studia Classica Et Orientalia, vol. 5 (2014): 108 – 122. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/12201591/Historical_Aspects_Iconographical_Factors_Numismatic_Issues_Technical_Elements_How_to_Obtain_a_Convincing_Chronology_for_the_Rock_Reliefs_of_Ardash%C4%ABr_I_2014_


Shayegan, M. Rahim. “On the Rationale Behind the Roman Wars of Šābuhr II the Great.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute, New Series, vol. 18 (2004): 111-133. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24049144


Skjævø, Prods Oktor, “Kayāniān.” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Parent page last updated: May 8, 2013. Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/kayanian-parent


Sunderman, Werner, “Mithra iii: In Manicheism.” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition. Originally Published: July 20, 2002. Last Updated: July 20, 2002. . Available online: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/mithra-in-manicheism-1


Yarshater, Ehsan, “Were the Sasanians Heirs to the Achaemenids?” In Atti del convegno internazionale sul tema: La Persia nel medioevo, (Roma, 31 marzo - 5 aprile 1970). Roma, 1971. 517 - 533.


Yarshater, Ehsan, ed. The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 3 (1) and (2), The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanian Periods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983 and 1986.


Widengren, Geo, “The Sacral Kingship of Iran.” In The Sacral Kingship. Contributions to the Central Theme of the VIII th International Congress for the History of Religions (Rome, April 1955). Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1959. 242 - 257.


Widengren, Geo, “The Establishment of the Sasanian Dynasty in the Light of New Evidence.” In Atti del convegno internazionale sul tema: La Persia nel medioevo, (Roma, 31 marzo - 5 aprile 1970). Roma, 1971. 711 - 782.


Wiesehöfer, Joseph, “ARDAŠĪR I i. History”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, 1986, II/4, pp. 371-376, available online, at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ardasir-i (accessed online on 08 August 2011).


Wiesehöfer, Joseph. Ancient Persia. Revised edition. London: I. B. Tauris, 2014.


Wiesehöfer, Joseph. “Fars under the Seleucid and Parthian Rule.” In The Age of the Parthians (The Idea of Iran, Vol. II), edited by Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis and Sarah Stewart. London: I. B. Tauris, 2007. 37 - 49.


NUMISMATICS


Album, Stephen, Michael L. Bates, and Willem Floor, “Coins and Coinage”, Encyclopaedia Iranica, VI/1, pp. 14-41, available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/coins-and-coinage- (accessed on 30 December 2012).


Akbarzadeh, Daryoosh and Nikolaus Schindel. Sylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum Iran A Late Sasanian Hoard from Orumiyeh. Wien: Österreichischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften, 2017.


Alram, Michael. “The Beginning of Sasanian Coinage.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute, vol. 13 (1999): 67 - 76. Available from JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24048958


Alram, Michael. “Numismatic and History - An Outline, a. Aradashir I (after 205/206 as King of Fars, as King of Kings 224 - 240).” In Michael Alram and Rika Gyselen. Sylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum Paris - Berlin - Wien, Band I: Ardashir I - Shapur I. Wien: Österreichischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften, 2003. 21 - 31.


Alram, Michael and Rika Gyselen. “Introduction: Numismatics and History - An Outline.” In Michael Alram and Rika Gyselen. Sylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum Paris - Berlin - Wien, Band II: Ohrmazd I. - Ohrmazd II. Wien: Österreichischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften, 2012. 13 - 64.


Bellinger, A. R. “A Note on Sassanian mint monograms.” Numismatic Review 10 (1946).


Carter, Martha. “A Numismatic Reconstruction of Kushano-Sasanian History.” Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 30 (1985): 215-281. Available from JSTOR: https://www.jstor.org/stable/43573702


Cereti, Carlo G., “Some Notes on the Sasanian Coinage of Esfahān.” In Convegno Internazionale: La Persia e Bisanzio, Atti dei Convegni Lincei 201, Roma. 309 - 26.


Cereti, Carlo G. and Gianfilippo Tettibili. “The Paikuli Monument.” In Michael Alram and Rika Gyselen. Sylloge Nummorum Sasanidarum Paris - Berlin - Wien, Band II: Ohrmazd I. - Ohrmazd II. Wien: Österreichischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften, 2012. 74 - 87.


Choksy, Jamsheed K. “A Sāsānian Monarch, His Queen, Crown Prince, and Deities: The Coinage of Wahrām II.” American Journal of Numismatics (1989-), vol. 1 (1989): 117 - 135. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/43580158


Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh. “Some Observations on Coins of Peroz and Kavad I” in Coins, Art & Chronology I. Pre-Islamic History of Indo-Iranian Borderlands edited by Michael Alram and
Deborah E. Klimburg-Salter. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1999. 303 – 313. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/6187749/Some_observations_on_coins_of_Peroz_and_Kavad_I


Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh, “Religious Iconography on Ancient Iranian Coins.” In Proceedings of the British Academy, vol. 133. The British Academy: 2007: 413 – 434. Available online: https://www.academia.edu/6186849/Religious_iconography_on_ancient_Iranian_coins


Cribb, Joe. “Numismatic Evidence For Kushano-Sasanian Chronology.” Studia Iranica 19 (1990): 151 - 193.


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Effect of Civil War on Mint Production in the Sasanian Empire.” Oriental Numismatic Society 150 (Autumn 1996).


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Use of Religio-Political Propaganda on Coins of Xusrō II.” The Journal of the American Numismatics (1989-), vol. 9 (1997): 41-53. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/43580405


Daryaee, Touraj. “The Coinage of Queen Bōrān and Its Significance for Late Sāsānian Imperial Ideology.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute, vol. 13 (1999): 77 - 82. Available online: https://www.jstor.org/stable/24048959


Daryaee, Touraj. “History, Epic, and Numismatics: On the Title of Yazdgerd I (Rāmšahr).” American Journal of Numismatics (1989), vol. 14 (2002): 89-95. Available online: https://tourajdaryaee.com/articles/


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