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Who was Trajan Decius
Seleucus I Nicator, B.C. 312-280, was the founder of the dynasty. He had been one of Alexanderís principal officers, and was appointed satrap of Babylon by the regent Antipater in B.C. 321. Expelled by Antigonus five years later, he fled to Egypt, where Ptolemy gave him command of his fleet. In B.C. 312, after the victory of Gaza, here covered his old satrapy. It was from the autumn of this year that the era of the Seleucidae was subsequently reckoned. Once re-established in Babylon, Seleucus embarked on a succession of campaigns which ultimately left him master of the whole Asiatic empire of Alexander, from the Aegean to the Indus (B.C. 282). In B.C. 306, following the example of the other Diadochi, he had assumed the title βασιλευς. The frequency with which elephants figure on his coins illustrates the drunken jest of Demetrius and his courtiers who dubbed him ελεφανταρχης (Plut., Demetr., 25). Regarding the anchor, which he is said to have used also as his signet, see Justin, xv. 4, and Appian, Syr., 56; and cf. Svoronos, Νομ. των Πτολ. i. p. ρα', and iv. p. 44, where it is suggested that it may be a reminiscence of his service as Ptolemyís admiral. His most characteristic device is, however, the head of a horned horse. The horns, which are probably emblematic of divine strength (cf. Appian, l. c.), reappear on his own head, on his helmet, and very often on the heads of the elephants.
For anonymous coins attributed to Seleucus as satrap see under Babylon (infra, p. 816). Prior to B.C. 306 his currency consisted largely of AV and AR with the name and types of Alexander, his issues being some- times distinguished by an anchor as adjunct symbol (MĀŁller, Nos. 1355-9 and 1491-1514). The following remarkable pieces, with Ptolemaic obverse, seem to be connected with his stay in Egypt :óAV Double- staters, anonymous, obv. Head of Alexander in elephant-skin, and rev. Nike, with head of horned horse in the field; ∆. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Similar types or, sometimes, rev. Anchor (Svoronos, Νομ. των Πτολ., Pl. I. 29-35). The corresponding AR bore Alexanderís name and types (MŁller, No. 1487). Alexandrine types continued to be employed by Seleucus for various denominations, including the obol (N. C., 1900, p. 293), down to the very end of his reign; tetradrachms minted at Pergamum cannot be earlier than circ. B.C. 284 (Imhoof, Dyn. von Pergamon, pp. 15 f.). But after B.C. 306 his own name, generally accompanied by ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, was usually (though not invariably) substituted for that of Alexander. Other innovations appeared. On a good many specimens Zeus holds Nike instead of eagle, while on the Dr. and Ĺ Dr. of one series the figure of Seleucus, wearing horned helmet and mounted on horned horse, replaces the seated Zeus (N. Z., 1895, p. 15). This tendency to modification found more decided expression in completely new types, the Attic weight of Alexander's coinage being maintained. All have inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. The following were probably the earliest :ó
|Head of Apollo. [N. Z., 1895, Pl. II. 6, and 1901, Pl. I. 1.]||Artemis shooting, in car drawn by two horned elephants.|
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. I. 8.]||Athena fighting, in similar car.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. I. 7.]||Similar; car has four horned elephants.|
|Head of Athena. [Imhoof, Zur gr. und rĀŲm. MĀŁnzkunde, Pl. VIII. 21.]||Head of elephant.|
Most of the preceding have symbols, monograms, or letters on the rev. They fall naturally into groups, indicating that they were struck over a considerable length of time and at more than one mint. Thus, the combined evidence of fabric, provenance, and die-position (see Corolla Num., pp. 184 ff.) shows that not a few are of Bactrian or Indian origin, notably those with a monogram on the obv. The same is probably true of others:ó
|Head of Seleucus, with bullís horn. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. I. 6.]||Head of bridled horse, with horns and plume.|
AV Stater and AR Tetradr.
In all likelihood the types just described were introduced towards the close of the reign of Seleucus; his successor adopted them. On the other hand, a series with rev. recalling the coinage of Agathocles (p. 181) may have begun after the victory of Ipsus (B.C. 301) :ó
|Head of Seleucus, idealized, in helmet ornamented with bullís horn and covered with pantherís skin.||Nike crowning trophy (Fig. 332).|
AR Tetradrachm, Dr., and Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Philip II Coll.]||Id., without ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ.|
The foregoing, which are not distinctively Eastern, seem to represent the Syrian mintage of Seleucus after the transference of his capital to Antioch (cf. N. Z., 1895, p. 17). At the same time they must have been well known beyond the Euphrates, for barbarous imitations come from Baluchistan (see infra under Antiochus I). The remaining AR of Seleucus may have been struck in Central Asia, the head of the horned horse being particularly associated with the East:ó
|Head of bridled horse, with horns. [Babelon Rois, Pl. II. 9.]||Elephant walking.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. II. 1.]||Anchor.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. II. 11.]||Bow and quiver.|
|Tripod. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. II. 2.]||Anchor.|
|Id. [Berlin.]||Bow and quiver.|
Antiochus I (Soter), called βασιλευς in the cuneiform inscriptions of Babylon at least as early as B.C. 289, was associated with his father in the government circ. B.C. 293-281, the provinces beyond the Euphrates being committed to his care. To this period doubtless belong the AR coins with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ.'Antiochus, son of King Seleucus.í They are of Bactrian or Indian provenance, and are either (α) tetradrachms with Alexandrine types (N. C., 1880. Pl. X. 2) or (β) tetradrachms, drachms, and hemidrachms with types of Seleucus; obv. Head of Zeus, rev. Athena in elephant-car (N. C., 1879, Pl. I. 4). The latter are not on the usual Attic standard, but on a form of the light Phoenician, which we know on other grounds to have been used in India in early times (N. C., 1906, p. 9). Rare drachms of class (β) with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ (N. C., 1906, Pl. II. 14) must have been struck after Antiochus actually became βασιλευς.
It is quite possible that among the many coins inscribed ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ there may be some that were issued by Antiochus I as viceroy of the East; this is notably so with those that have his father's head on the obv. The great majority must, however, have been struck during his own tenure of the supreme power, B.C. 281-261. All are of Attic weight. Alexandrine types are found both on AV (Hunter Cat., iii, Pl. LXIII. 21) and on AR (tetradrachms, drachms, and hemidrachms). Nor were the characteristic types of Seleucus abandoned, all the coins on which these appear being seemingly of Central Asian origin :ó
|Head of Seleucus I, with bullís horn.|
[Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXIII. 20.]
|Head of horned horse.|
|Head of Antiochus I.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 15.]
|Helmeted head: barbarous.|
[N. C., 1904, Pl. XVII. 1-7.]
|Nike crowning trophy: barbarous.|
AR Dr., Ĺ Dr., and Obol
|Head of Seleucus I, with bullís horn. [N. C., 1883, Pl. IV. 1.]||Apollo, naked, seated on omphalos, looking along bow.|
|Head of Antiochus I (cf. Fig. 333).||Similar; but Apollo looks along arrow.|
The latter variety of rev. is the one which became conventional, but sometimes Apollo holds two or three arrows, as he does on Fig. 333. Differences of style and fabric prove that coins with this rev. were minted at various widely separated centers. But it is remarkable that
1 The average weight of seven tetradrachms is 212.5 grs., the maximum 214.5.
2 The barbarous imitations of Fig. 332 come from Baluchistan (N. C., 1904, pp. 317 f.) the whole of the AV seems to come from the far East (J. H. S., xxiii. p. 108). The portraits of Antiochus show him at various ages. On rare tetra- drachms with ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ he appears as an old man with sharply-defined features and deep-set eyes (Hunter Cat., iii, Pl. LXIV. 4). These, and ∆ with the same inscr., were issued towards the end of his reign when he assumed the title Soter in honor of a victory over the Galatai (Appian, Syr., 65). The following, which has the usual inscr. and the mint-mark of Cyme in Aeolis, belongs to the same period (J. H. S., xxvii. p. 147) :ó
|Head of Antiochus I.|
[J. H. S., xxvii. Pl. XIII. 5.]
|Herakles seated on rock; in field, one- handled vase.|
Seleucus, son of Antiochus I, appears as βασιλευς in the cuneiform inscriptions of Babylon from B.C. 275 to 269, when he held the vice- royalty of the East. No coins can be identified with certainty as his; see, however, J. H. S., xxiii. p. 110.
Antiochus II (Theos) ruled jointly with Antiochus I, circ. B.C. 266- 261; alone, B.C. 261-246. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. Wt., Attic. A head formerly supposed to be that of Antiochus Hierax or of Antiochus III is apparently that of Antiochus II (J. H. S., xxiii. Pl. I. 3 and 5). Characteristic likenesses, whose identity is absolutely certain, occur also on the better executed among the following, all struck about the beginning of the reign at Cyme, Myrina, or Phocaea (J. H. S., xxvii. pp. 145 ff.):ó
|Head of Antiochus II. [Op. cit., Pl. XIII. 7-14, and Pl. XIV. 4-13.]||Herakles seated on rock; mint-marks.|
Other varieties of portrait attach themselves more or less closely to those already mentioned, while others again have become associated with Antiochus II simply because they obviously do not represent either his father or his grandson. A remarkable AV stater has: obv. Head of Antiochus II, rev. Athena Nikephoros (Babelon Rois, Pl. VI. 1). But the usual types are :ó
|Head of Antiochus II.|
[ 1 ff.]
|Apollo seated on omphalos.|
Regarding the variations of this rev. see Babelon Rois, p. lxii. On one set of tetradrachms (J. H. S., xxiii. Pls. I and II), struck chiefly at Alexandreia Troas, the kingís diadem is winged, a peculiarity which is local, not personal (op. cit., p. 102). On the majority of these, as well as on a certain number of other specimens, the head itself is idealized, perhaps an indication that they were struck after Antiochus was dead; see infra under Antiochus Hierax. All such pieces seem to have been minted in Western Asia Minor (op. cit., p. 116). On the other hand, the whole of the AV with the seated Apollo probably comes from Bactria (op. cit., p. 108), where, however, if iconography can be trusted, the peculiarly Eastern type of Seleucus I also survived :ó
|Head of Antiochus II.|
[N. C., 1881, Pl. II. 5-7.]
|Head of bridled horse, with horns and plume.|
During the reign of Antiochus II Bactria, under Diodotus, revolted against Seleucid rule. Before the revolt the vassal may have placed his own portrait on the obv. of certain AV and AR coins with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Zeus hurling fulmen ( 7). At all events, portrait and type are identical with those that afterwards appear on the independent money of Diodotus. For ∆ of Antiochus II see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 22 f.
Seleucus II (Callinicus, Pogon), B.C. 246-226. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Seleucus II, sometimes with slight whisker.|
[Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXIV. 18.]
|Apollo, naked, standing leaning on bow.|
AV Stater, AR Dr., and ∆
|Head of Athena, in close helmet.||Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. VI. 6].|
AR Dr. and ∆
|Head of Seleucus II, rarely with slight whisker. (Fig. 334.)||Apollo, naked, standing leaning on tripod.|
AR Tetradrachm., Dr., and ∆
|Head of Seleucus II, bearded (Πωγων, cf. Polybius, ii. 71).||Id. [N. C., 1886, Pl. XI. 18, and BMC Seleucid, Pl. VI. 14].|
The exceptional attitude here assumed by Apollo may be due to the conventional type having been usurped by Hierax (Six, N. C., 1898, p. 235). For other varieties, particularly of ∆, see Imhoof-Blumer MG, pp. 426 f., and also London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues.
Antiochus Hierax, B.C. 246-227, revolted from his brother Seleucus II, and declared himself king of Asia Minor. It is probable that some of the tetradrachms with rev. Apollo on omphalos, and inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, were really issued by him. The probability is strongest in the case of those that bear an idealized head of his father, Antiochus II, and the mint-marks of cities like Alexandreia Troas, Cyzicus, Lampsacus, and Abydus (J. H. S., xxiii. p. 116). Various attempts to identify his own portrait have also been made (Bunbury, N. C., 1883, p. 83; Babelon Rois, p. lxxii; Macdonald, J. H. S., xxiii. p. 114).
Seleucus III (Soter, Keraunos), B.C. 226-223, eldest son of Seleucus II. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Seleucus III, with slight whisker. [ 6 f.]||Apollo on omphalos, sometimes with l. elbow on tripod.|
AR Tetradrachm, Dr., and ∆
Other varieties of ∆ are more doubtfully assigned to this king.
Antiochus III (the Great). B.C. 223-187, second son of Seleucus II, regained much of the territory that his predecessors had lost. Owing to the extent of his dominions and the length of his reign, his coins exhibit great differences in style and fabric. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. Wt., Attic. The usual rev. type is the traditional one :ó
|Head of Antiochus III, rarely with slight whisker.|
[Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXV. 6.]
|Apollo on omphalos.|
The AV octadrachms (Fig. 335), which weigh 528.5 grs. max., were issued at two distinct periods (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 30). A standard portrait is furnished by dated ∆ struck in Phoenicia. Many varieties, however, occur on the AR, and identity is sometimes doubtful. On the coins of one well-marked group (cf. Fig. 335) one end of the diadem usually falls forward over the shoulder, while the obv. has a fillet- border. These are probably Syrian (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 31). Others, which show the king with thin, sharp features and elongated neck, are generally classed as Bactrian (N. C., 1883, p. 93, Pl. V. 8 f.). A minority appear to be certainly of Asia Minor (BMC Seleucid, Pl. VIII. 6) or of Phoenicia (Babelon Rois, Nos. 344 f.). On the following, which are much less common, the portrait sometimes approximates to the'Bactrianí model :ó
|Head of Antiochus III.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. X. 1-3.]
The types of the ∆ are very varied (Babelon Rois, Pls. X and XI), and the serrated edge is now first met with. Some numismatists recognize the head of Antiochus III on coins struck at various European mints (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 2-4; Babelon Rois, pp. lxxxii f.).
Molon, B.C. 221-220, satrap of Media, revolted from Antiochus and struck ∆ with inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΟΛΩΝΟΣ.
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 1.]||Apollo Musegetes.|
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 2.]||Nike, crowning name of Molon.|
|Head of Achaeus. [Munich: Imhoof, PortrĀštkĀŲpfe, Pl. III. 19.]||Athena Promachos; in field, head of horse.|
|Id. (?). [Babelon Rois, p. lxxxviii.]||Apollo standing, with arrow.|
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 3.]||Eagle, with palm or wreath.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. X. 4.]||Tripod.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XI. 12.]||Head of horse.|
Seleucus IV (Philopator), B.C. 187-175. Inscr, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic. The AR coins of this king are tetradrachms and drachms, with rev. Apollo on omphalos. The former fall into two groups, a large one with fillet-border on obv.,
and a much smaller one with border of dots. Here again, as in the case
of his father, a standard portrait is furnished by dated ∆ coins of
Phoenicia. The ordinary rev. of these is the stern of a galley (Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXVI. 5), but one very rare variety has a lyre and the title ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. For ∆ with serrated edges see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 39 f. Cf. also Babelon Rois, pp. xci and 64 ff.
|Head of Antiochus IV.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XI. 1-5.]
|Apollo on omphalos.|
AR Tetradr., Dr., ∆
There are other types which never have the simple ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ:ó
|Head of Antiochus IV.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XII. 9 f.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
AV Stater, AR Tetradr., ∆
|Id. [Op. cit., Pl. XII. 7.]||Aegis (cf. Paus. v. 12. 4).|
AR Ĺ Dr., ∆
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XI. 6.]||Tripod-lebes.|
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XI. 9.]||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Head of Apollo.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XII. 12.]
A notable episode in the reign of Antiochus IV was his invasion of Egypt (B.C. 170-168). With this the following are evidently connected :ó unique AR drachm (Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXVI. 19) and five denominations of Ptolemaic ∆ (Svoronos, Νομ. των Πτολ., Pl. XLVIII. 1-5), all with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, Eagle on thunderbolt; also unique ∆ with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Two eagles on thunderbolt (op. cit., Pl. XLVIII. 7). For details as to the ordinary ∆ of Antiochus IV see London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues. The occurrence of value-marks (= 1, 2, or 4 chalkoi) deserves mention; see Imhoof, Z. f. N., iii. pp. 347 ff. Occasionally the mint can be determined by the type. But the most remarkable feature is the inauguration of an extensive system of municipal coinage, with head of king on obv. and city-name on rev. It falls into two classes :ó (α) With royal name: struck at Gebal (Byblus), Laodiceia in Canaan (Berytus), Sidon, Tyre, and Ascalon. The city-name is usually in Phoenician script, but sometimes in Greek and sometimes also in both. [ 14-16.] (β) Without royal name: struck at Aegeae, Alexandreia ad Issum, Antiocheia ad Sarum (Adana), Hieropolis, and Seleuceia ad Pyramum (Mopsus)óall in Cilicia; and also at Hieropolis in Cyrrhestica, Antiocheia ad Daphnen, Antiocheia in Ptolemais (Ace), Tripolis, Antiocheia ad Callirhoen (Edessa), Apameia in Syria, Laodiceia ad Mare, Seleuceia in Pieria, and Antiocheia in Mygdonia (Nisibis, infra, p. 815). [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIII. 1-8.] A coin of Tripolis has jugate heads of king and queen.
Antiochus V (Eupator), B.C. 164-162, had been made βασιλευς in 170 B.C., when his father set out for Egypt. He was then but three years old, and he may well be the child whose head appears on AR tetra- drachms with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Apollo on omphalos (Six, N. C., 1897, pp. 215 f.; MacDonald, J. H. S., xxiii. p. 113). These were formerly attributed to a mythical son of Seleucus II, but seem certainly to belong to the early part of the second century B.C. The ordinary AR of Antiochus consists of Attic tetradrachms and drachms with inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. Rev. either Apollo on omphalos, or Zeus seated (BMC Seleucid, pl. XIII. 11-14). For AV octadrachm with the latter type see Friedlaender and von Sallet, Das KĀŲnigl. MĀŁnzkab., No. 426. The Berlin Museum likewise possesses a highly interesting AR tetradrachm with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ, Ptolemaic eagle upon thunderbolt. Unfortunately it is plated, so that the standard cannot be determined. But in any event it forms an important link between the money struck by Antiochus IV in Egypt and the systematic issue of Seleucid coins on the Phoenician system, afterwards inaugurated by Alexander I (q. v.). The rare ∆ of Antiochus V includes municipal of Gebal (Byblus) and of Tripolis.
1 Is it possible that the very rare AV staters of Antiochus IV form part of the spoils of Egypt? Polybius (xxviii. 17) records that the king presented a gold pieceí to each of the Greek inhabitants of Naucratis.
Demetrius I (Soter), B.C. 162-150, was the son of Seleucus IV. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, either alone or with ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ. AR tetra- drachms, drachms, diobols, and obols have rev. Apollo on omphalos (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIV. 3 and 5). But novel types are more common:ó
|Head of Demetrius I. [||Tyche enthroned, holding sceptre and cornucopia.|
There are other changes. The fillet-border on the obv. is often replaced by a laurel-wreath, while dates (hitherto confined to Phoenician ∆) become frequent. The monograms on the rev. also lend themselves more readily to interpretation as mint-marks, although some of the attributions made on this basis are doubtful. Barbarous imitations of the drachm with rev. Cornucopia are fairly numerous. The weight of the AR is Attic, but there are very rare AV coins (Babelon Rois, p. cxx, Pl. XVII. 1), with obv. Tyche enthroned and rev. Ptolemaic double cornucopia, struck on a different standard, perhaps the Phoenician. Besides municipal ∆ of Tyre and of Sidon (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIV. 6-8), there are several varieties of ordinary ∆. Conspicuous among these are some with heads of animals (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIV. 12-15); the king was a mighty hunter (Polybius, xxxi. 22. 3).
Demetrius married his sister Laodice, widow of Perseus of Macedon, and the heads of king and queen appear jugate on AR tetradrachms with rev. Tyche enthroned (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 1 f.); also on ∆ with rev. Nike (Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 7).
Timarchus, B.C. 162, satrap of Babylon, declined to acknowledge Demetrius, and issued coins in his own name. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΤΙΜΑΡΧΟΥ, an Oriental form of title, used at this time in Parthia and also by Eucratides of Bactria, from whose coins the types of the tetradrachm are borrowed (see infra, p. 839). Wt., Attic.
|Head of Timarchus.|
[Babelon Rois, p. cxv.]
|Nike in galloping quadriga.|
|Helmeted bust. [E. F. Weber, Sale-Cat., Pl. LIII, No. 4078.]||The Dioskuri charging.|
|Head of Timarchus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 6.]||Artemis, with bow and arrow.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 3.]||Nike, with wreath and palm.|
Alexander I (Bala), B.C. 150-145, was a usurper who professed to be the son of Antiochus IV. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, either alone or with ΘΕΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ, ΕΥΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ (Hunter Cat. iii. p. 61, note), or ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ (Babelon Rois, Pl. XVIII. 8), all reminiscent of his pretended parentage. One series is very complete :ó
|Head of Alexander I.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 9 f.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVI. 2.]||Apollo on omphalos.|
|Id., radiate. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVI. 3.]||Apollo standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id.; no rays.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 13.]
|Head of Alexander I.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 6.]
|Zeus enthroned, holding fulmen (Sidon).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XV. 5.]||Athena Nikephoros standing.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XVII. 8.]||Tyche Nikephoros seated.|
|Id. [Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 433.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVI. 1.]||Thunderbolt within wreath (Seleuceia in Pieria).|
Many of the preceding are dated. All are of Attic weight. But the reign of Alexander witnessed a fresh departureóthe systematic striking,
For details as to the abundant and varied ∆ of Alexander I see London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues. Many pieces have the serrated edge. A few are dated, and some have value-marks. Of special interest is the revival of the municipal coinage inaugurated by Antiochus IV (q. v.). Thus, coins of class (α) were struck at Berytus, Gebal (Byblus),
1 Coincidences of date and mint-mark in this and subsequent reigns show they were not intended to supersede the AR of Attic weight. Both kinds of money were issued simultaneously at the same cities. Except on the coins of Tryphon (q.v.) the dates are reckoned from the Seleucid era.Sidon; coins of class (β) at Cyrrhus, Antioch, Apameia, Laodiceia ad Mare, and Seleuceia in Pieria.
Demetrius II (Nicator), B.C. 146-140 (first reign), son of Demetrius I, seized the kingdom with the aid of Ptolemy, who had quarreled with Alexander and who now transferred Cleopatra to the new ruler. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, either alone or with ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, or ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ. For AV double-stater of Phoenician weight, rev. Anchor, said to be of Persian provenance, see Walcher de Molthein, Cat., Pl. XXVII, No. 2979. AR of Phoenician weight, rev. Eagle, were struck at Berytus, Sidon, and Tyre. The types of the Attic AR are very various. The following apparently form a series :ó
|Head of Demetrius II.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVII. 8, 11.]
|Apollo on omphalos.|
|Id. [Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 435.]||Apollo standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XIX. 5.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
A very rare variety of the tetradrachm (Babelon Rois, Pl. XIX. 16) has a laurel-wreath in place of the usual fillet-border on the obv., a reminiscence of the coinage of Demetrius I (q. v.). This is also recalled by the rare tetradrachm with rev. Tyche enthroned (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XVIII. 2), to which belongs a drachm with rev. Zeus enthroned (ibid., 3). Other rev. types areóon tetradrachms (ibid., 1, 11, and 12): Athena Magarsis (Mallus), Zeus Nikephoros enthroned, Athena Nikephoros standing; and on drachms (Babelon Rois, Pl. XIX. 4 and 6): Cornucopia and Anchor. The ∆ coins (not always easily distinguished from those of the second reign) are numerous, and include municipal of Berytus and of Tyre; see London and Hunter Catalogues.
The footing of Demetrius had never been other than precarious. Ultimately he withdrew to Babylon, and was made prisoner in a war with the Parthians.
Antiochus VI (Dionysos), B.C. 145-142, son of Alexander I, was set upon the throne, when a child of seven, by Tryphon, his fatherís minister. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, seldom with ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ, usually with ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΔΙΟΝΥΣΟΥ. Wt., Attic. There are very rare AR tetra- drachms of B.C. 145 with rev. Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (Babelon Rois, Pl. XX. 6). But his ordinary issues do not begin until the next year, when he assumed the title Διονυσος :ó
|Head of Antiochus VI, radiate (Fig. 337).||The Dioskuri, within wreath; dates.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 7.]||Helmet with ibex-horn; no dates.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 3.]||Apollo on omphalos; dates.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 4.]||Apollo standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 5.]||Panther.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XIX. 6.]||Thyrsos.|
The use of the wreath on the rev. of these tetradrachms is an early example of a practice that subsequently became common. They all bear the letters ΤΡΥ, which also appear regularly on the undated drachms. During B.C. 144 ΤΡΥ, which obviously represents Tryphon, is accompanied only by single letters and monograms, which are apparently mint-marks. Thereafter ΣΤΑ is added beneath ΤΡΥ on the larger denomination. Simultaneously it begins to be placed on the dated drachms (on which ΤΡΥ never occurs), while it is also very prominent on the smaller AR with Dionysiac types (undated) and on the ∆. But there are tetradrachms of B.C. 142 struck from a die from which this name has been erased (Regling, Z. f. N., xxiv. p. 135). The inference is that ΣΤΑ was an important minister who fell from power abruptly. For ∆, often with Dionysiac types, see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 74 ff.
Tryphon (Diodotus), B.C. 142-139, killed his ward and declared himself βασιλευς αυτοκρατωρ, a remarkable title, the importance of which is shown by the fact that it is written in full on the Phoenician AR (see supra, p. 765). Tryphon's abandonment of the Seleucid era for dates is also significant. His best-known coins are AR Attic tetradrachms and drachms, and ∆, all having rev. Helmet with ibex-horn (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 1-3). AR Phoenician tetradrachms were struck at Byblos, Ptolemais, and Ascalon: rev. Eagle, with regnal dates (Babelon Rois, Pl. XXI. 4 f.). There are also ∆ of Ascalon (ibid., 6). Inscription, always ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΡΥΦΩΝΟΣ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΟΣ.
Antiochus VII (Sidetes), B.C. 138-129, younger brother of Demetrius, overthrew Tryphon and married Cleopatra. Inscription, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟ- ΧΟΥ, either alone or with ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ. Phoenician AR was struck at Sidon and at Tyre (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 4); rev. Eagle. The types of the Attic AR are as follows :ó
|Head of Antiochus VII.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 6.]
|Athena Nikephoros standing (Tyre, etc.)|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 7.]||Nike (Tyre, &c.).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 8.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Hirsch, Auct. Cat. xiii, No. 4467.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Athena Magarsis (Mallus).|
|Id. [Brit. Mus.]||Tyche seated.|
1 These hemidrachms read simply ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ.Pieria, of Sidon and of Tyre, with or without the royal name. Small pieces with obv. Flowering lily and rev. Anchor were minted at Jerusalem, which Antiochus captured circ. B.C. 132. See London, Paris, and Hunter Catalogues.
Demetrius II (Nicator), B.C. 129-125 (second reign), was liberated by the Parthian king in order to make trouble for Antiochus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, either alone or with ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, ΘΕΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, or ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ. Phoenician AR, rev. Eagle, was struck at Ptolemais, Sidon, and Tyre. The Attic AR was of several varieties :ó
|Head of Demetrius II, bearded.||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (Fig. 338)|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXI. 5.]||Athena Magarsis (Mallus).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXI. 6.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXI. 7.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Berlin.]||Thunderbolt within wreath (Seleuceia in Pieria).|
AR Ĺ Dr.
With rare exceptions (N. C., 1883, Pl. VI. 7) the coins of Phoenician weight retain the beardless portrait of Demetrius which they had borne during his first reign. On all others belonging to the second reign he is represented with a beard. If he began to grow his beard after his return, as is perhaps indicated by N. C., 1883, Pl. VI. 4, then the earliest of his new Attic tetradrachms had rev. Apollo on omphalos (Babelon, Rois, Pl. XIX. 15). But for the most part this once familiar type figures only on the ∆ of his second reign: see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 87 ff., where other types of ∆ are recorded, the most interesting being that with a figure in Parthian dress (op. cit., Pl. LXVII. 22). There are municipal coins of Sidon and Tyre, the former without the royal name.
Alexander II (Zebina), B.C. 128-123, was set up by Ptolemy Physcon as a rival to Demetrius. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. On the unique AV stater in the British Museum, rev. Zeus Nikephoros enthroned, he adds ΘΕΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΗΦΟΡΟΥ, a reminder that he claimed to have been adopted by Alexander I, the pretended son of Epiphanes. This piece is perhaps to be connected with the kingís plundering of the golden Nike held by the statue of Zeus at Antioch (Wroth, N. C., 1897, p. 115 [citing Pl. V. 8]). Phoenician AR, rev. Eagle, was struck at Ascalon (Babelon, Rois, p. cl). But the great mass of the AR is Attic:ó
|Head of Alexander II.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 2.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 3.]||Double cornucopia.|
|Id. Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXIX. 9.]||Single cornucopia.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 5.]||Nike.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIII. 8.]||Anchor.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXII. 4.]||Athena Nikephoros standing.|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIII. 6.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
Cleopatra, B.C. 125-121, was successively the wife of Alexander Bala, of Demetrius Nicator, and of Antiochus Sidetes. The eldest of her sons by Demetrius assumed the diadem as Seleucus V upon his fatherís death. His mother straightway had him murdered, and took the supreme power into her own hands. The British Museum possesses an AR tetradrachm of Attic weight, dated ΖΠΡ (= B.C. 125), and reading ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ ΘΕΑΣ ΕΥΕΤΗΡΙΑΣ. The rev. type is Egyptian:ó
|Head of Cleopatra (Fig. 339).||Double cornucopia, filleted.|
The queen soon associated with her in the government a younger son of Demetrius, Antiochus VIII (Grypus). Their jugate heads appear on Phoenician AR struck at Sidon: rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Eagle. Inscr. on their Attic AR, ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΚΛΕΟΠΑΤΡΑΣ (ΘΕΑΣ) ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ:ó
|Heads jugate of Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIII. 3.]||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (Sidon, &c.)|
|Id. [N. C., 1900, Pl. I. 14.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
For ∆ with the joint names see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 97 ff.
Antiochus VIII (Grypus), B.C. 121-96, finally compelled his mother to drink poison which she had prepared for himself. His nickname is
1 ΘΕΑΣ is usually omitted on the ∆, and occasionally on the AR. A few of the tetradrachms have a border of dots, instead of a fillet-border, on the obv. The group so formed stands alone in the later coinage of the Seleucidae (see supra, p. 762) well illustrated by his later coins, which show him as a middle-aged man with an extremely hooked nose. Phoenician AR coins, struck at Ascalon and Sidon, have rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. Eagle. On the Attic AR ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ is added:ó
|Head of Antiochus VIII [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 1.]||Zeus Ouranios standing (Sidon, &c.)|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 2.]||Athena Nikephoros standing (Seleuceia ad Calycadnum, &c.).|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 3.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXV. 6.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Tyche standing (Tripolis).|
|Head of Antiochus VIII (Fig. 340).||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVI. 4.]||Tripod.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XX. 8, and XXVI. 5.]||Nike.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 436.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
The ∆ coins are numerous, but none of the types are noteworthy. One group, however, is remarkable for the inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟ- ΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΜΗΤΟΡΟΣ (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 103). There are ∆ of Sidon without the royal name (Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIV. 16.).
Antiochus IX (Cyzicenus), B.C. 114-95, son of Antiochus VII and Cleopatra, after a struggle divided the kingdom with his half-brother Grypus (B.C. 111), taking as his share Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. His Phoenician AR, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Eagle, is fairly common (Sidon, Ascalon, &c.). But he was the last Seleucid king to strike coins of this class. The title ΦΙΛΟΠΛΤΟΡΟΣ is used on his Attic AR, the obol having ΒΑ ΑΝ ΦΙ:ó
|Head of Antiochus IX (Fig. 341).||Athena Nikephoros standing (Sidon, &c.)|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVI. 11.]||Nike.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
|Id. [Petrowicz Coll.]||Athena Nikephoros standing.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXV. 1.]||Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVI. 5 f.]||Tyche standing (Tripolis).|
AR Tetr., Dr.
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVI. 12.]||Pyre of Sandan (Tarsus).|
|Id. [Ibid., 13.]||Sandan on lion (Tarsus).|
Seleucus VI (Epiphanes Nicator), B.C. 96-95, succeeded his father Grypus, and renewed the war with Cyzicenus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΕΛΕΥΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΝΙΚΑΤΟΡΟΣ, with occasional omission of ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ For ∆ see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 109 f. His AR coins (Attic weight) are:ó
|Head of Seleucus VI.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVIII. 11.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVII. 3.]||Nike.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXV. 13.]||Double cornucopia.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
|Id. Imhoof-Blumer MG, p. 437.]||Ear of corn on stalk.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXV. 12; cf. Imhoof-Blumer KM, ii. p. 482.]||Athena Nikephoros standing (Seleuceia ad Calycadnum).|
Antiochus X (Eusebes Philopator), B.C. 95-83, son of Cyzicenus, spent his reign in warfare first with Seleucus VI, and then with the other sons of Grypus. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΣΕΒΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟ- ΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Antiochus X.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVI. 1.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [Hunter Cat., iii. Pl. LXX. 12.]||Tyche standing (Tripolis).|
|Id. [Berlin.]||Nike standing.|
AR Ĺ Dr.
Antiochus XI (Philadelphus), B.C. 92, second or third son of Grypus, struck AR Attic tetradrachms with rev. Zeus Nikephoros enthroned; also ∆ with rev. Athena Nikephoros standing: see Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVII. 11 f. Inscr. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, ΕΠΙ- ΦΑΝΟΥΣ being usually omitted on the AR. Other coins sometimes attributed to this king belong more probably to his father (op. cit., p. clxvii). But there are very rare tetradrachms (Attic) which show his head jugate with that of his brother Philippus: rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (op. cit., Pl. XXVII. 13).
Philippus (Philadelphus), B.C. 92-83, another son of Grypus, struck AR Attic tetradrachms with rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦΟΥ, Zeus Nikephoros enthroned (BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXIV. 9). Some are dated from an era beginning in B.C. 111, when Grypus re- turned from exile in Aspendus, and divided the kingdom with Cyzicenus (cf. Wilcken, Hermes, xxix. pp. 436 ff.).
Demetrius III (Philopator), B.C. 95-88, fourth son of Grypus, also took the field against Antiochus X, and proclaimed himself king. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ, with either ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩ- ΤΗΡΟΣ or ΦΙΛΟΜΗΤΟΡΟΣ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ. Wt., Attic.
|Head of Demetrius III.|
[Babelon Rois, Pl. XXVIII. 4.]
|Zeus Nikephoros enthroned.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVI. 10.]||Archaic simulacrum of Asiatic goddess, facing.|
The last type probably represents Atargatis (Dea Syra) of Damascus: see Rev. archĀťol., 1904, p. 250. This city was the capital of Demetrius. It seems to have temporarily borne the name of'Demetriasí (Wroth, BMC Galatia, pp. lxxv f.), and to have issued municipal ∆: obv. Head of Demetrius III, and rev. ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ. For this and ordinary ∆ see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 114 f.
Antiochus XII (Dionysos), circ. B.C. 87-84, the youngest of the five sons of Grypus, aspired to succeed Demetrius III as king of Coele-Syria. His very rare AR Attic tetradrachms have rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ, Bearded divinity standing, facing, on a base between two recumbent bulls (N. Z., 1902, Pl. I. 3, 4). This is probably Hadad of Damascus (see Journ. Asiat., 1904, p. 200). Antiochus, too, made Damascus his capital, and his head appears on municipal ∆ of'Demetriasí (cf. Demetrius III, supra), for which, as well as for other varieties of ∆, see Hunter Cat., iii. pp. 115 ff.
Tigranes, B.C. 83-69, King of Armenia (B.C. 97-56), was invited to put an end to the internecine strife in Syria. This he did, and ruled the country peaceably till his defeat by Lucullus. His coins, Attic AR and ∆, fall into three classes (N. C., 1902, pp. 193 ff.):ó
|Head of Tigranes, wearing lofty Armenian tiara (Fig. 342).||Tyche of Antioch seated; river-god swimming at her feet.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 9; Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIX. 13.]||Nike, or Palm.|
|Head of Tigranes as above; less good work. [Babelon Rois, Pl. XXIX. 15.]||Tyche with river-god, as above; less good work.|
AR Tetradrachm, Dr.
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 10 f.]||Id., or Herakles standing.|
|Head of Tigranes as above; poor work.|
[BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 5.]
|Tyche with river-god, as above, but l.; poor work.|
|Id. [BMC Seleucid, Pl. XXVII. 7; Babelon, Pl. XXIX. 14.]||Id., or Tyche standing.|
The rev. of Fig. 342 represents the famous statue of the Tyche of Antioch by Eutychides of Sicyon (Paus. vi. 2). The corresponding type on coins of class (iii) is rather the Tyche of Damascus; cf. the Imperial coins of that city and also those of Aretas III.