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XXI

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Scarabs and Cylinders

W. M. Flinders Petrie. Scarabs and cylinders with names: illustrated by the Egyptian collection in University College, London (London, 1917)

View Scarabs and Cylinders PDF Online


BRITISH SCHOOL OF ARCHAEOLOGY IN EGYPT AND EGYPTIAN RESEARCH ACCOUNT TWENTY-FIRST YEAR, 1915

SCARABS

AND CYLINDERS

WITH NAMES

ILLUSTRATED BY THE EGYPTIAN COLLECTION IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON

BY

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION (See below)

1. Scope of the volume

2. Extent of the subject

CHAPTER I  RELIGIOUS ASPECT OF THE SCARAB (Link)

3. Veneration for the beetle

4. Ideas connected with it

5. The use of the scarab

6. Literary references to it

7. Amulet and seal

CHAPTER II  THE VARIETIES OF SCARABS (Link)

8. Varieties of treatment

9. Five genera copied

10. Classification of backs

11. Range of types

12. Range of small details

13. Locality of smooth backs

14. System of using the types

CHAPTER III  THE MAKING OF SCARABS

15. Glazing

16. Stones used

17. Glass and paste

18. Cutting soft materials

19. History of wheel cutting

20. History of point graving

CHAPTER IV  THE EARLY CYLINDERS (Link)

21. A corpus provided here

22. Classes of types

23. Primitive concept of writing

CHAPTER V  THE OLD KINGDOM (Link)

24. The first four dynasties

25. The Vth dynasty

26. The VIth dynasty

27. The VIIth - IXth dynasties

28. Hardstone scarabs, Xth and XIth

29. The XIth dynasty

CHAPTER VI  THE EARLIEST AGE OF SCARABS (Link)

30. Little proof of re-issues

31. Characteristics of periods

32. The Antec V group

33. The Ka-nefer-uah group

34. Fixtures between Xth - VIth dynasties

35. The Unas group

36. The Vth - VIIIrd dynasty group

37. Summary

CHAPTER VII  THE MIDDLE KINGDOM (Link)

38. Rise of the XIIth dynasty

39. Re-issuc of Senubcrt III

40. Private scarabs, scrolls

41. Ur res moba title

42. Maot kheru etc

43. Notes on peculiar scarabs

44. Private scarabs, borderless

45. Dating of private scarabs

46. The XIIIth dynasty

47. The XIVth dynasty

48. Doubtful names

49. The XVth dynasty, Hyksos

50. The XVIth dynasty, Hyksos

51. The XVIIth dynasty

CHAPTER VIII  THE NEW KINGDOM (Link)

52. The early XVIIIth dynasty

53. Hotshepsut and Tehutmes III

54. Amenhetep II and Tehutmes IV

55. Amenhetep III

56. The Aten episode

57. Sety I and Ramessu II

58. The close of the XIXth dynasty

59. The XXth dynasty

60. Heart scarabs

61. The XXIst dynasty

62. The XXIInd dynasty Uscr-maot-ra kincrs

CHAPTER IX ETHIOPIANS AND SAITES (Link)

63. Early XXIVth dynasty

64. Vassal kings

65. Later XXVth dynasty

66. Rise of the Saites

67. The XXVIth dynasty

68. The Persian age

69. Close of the scarab

70. Greeks and Romans

71. Late private scarabs and seals

CONTENTS OF PLATES IN HISTORICAL ORDER - List of Kings, and Census of Scarabs (Link)

Summary of museums and of dynasties

Index to text

Index of private names (lithographed) (Link)

Index of titles (lithographed) (Link)

I-LVIII. Plates of scarabs, and pages of Catalogue

LIX-LXXIII. Plates of backs of scarabs


SYSTEM OF THE CATALOGUE

The current description of the plates, and discussion of the materials.

The HISTORICAL Index, and general census of scarabs in the principal collections.

The TEXT Index.

The PRIVATE NAMES Index (lithograph).

The TITLES LNDEX (lithograph).

The CATALOGUE plates and description of all early cylinders accessible, and of all scarabs with names in University College.

The TYPES OF BACKS of scarabs.

The order of the scarabs under each king is (i) Falcon name; (2) Nebti name;

(3) Hor-nubti name; (4) Throne name with phrases, or with titles, or plain, proceeding from the longest to the simplest ; (5) Personal name in similar order. Other objects with names follow after the scarabs under each person. Private scarabs, etc., are placed as nearly as may be in their historic position. Heart scarabs are all together between the xxth and xxist dynasties.  The system of numbering is not continuous throughout, as that does not indicate the period at sight. Each object has the number of the dynasty, the king, and of the object under that king. Thus i8-6-23 is the xviiith dynasty, 6th king (Tehutmes III), and his 23rd scarab. The drawings of scarabs outside of this collection are only inserted to complete the series, and are not numbered or catalogued. The colour stated is the original colour wherever any part of it can be found, regardless of the general change in such cases.  The letter and number after the colour refer to the types of backs.  In the plates of backs LIX—LXXIII the references below each drawing are the dynasty, king, and number, as above stated. Where there is more than one reference, the underlined reference is the source of the drawing, which the others resemble. The top number of each drawing is that of the type, and is used with the type letter of the class for reference in the Catalogue pages. Occasionally two drawings have the same number when the type is alike, and they only differ in work.

References are made to the following works:

Hall, H. R., Catalogue of Egyptian Scarabs, etc., in the British Museum, 1913.

Newberry, Percy E., Scarab-shaped Seals (Cairo Catalogue), 1907.

Newberry, Percy E. , Scarabs, 1906.

Ward, John, The Sacred Beetle, 1902.

Frazer, George, A Catalogue of Scarabs, 1900 (now in Munich).

The Golenisheff Collection (photographs privately issued).

Petrie, W. M. F., Historical Scarabs, 1889.


ERRATA IN PLATES.

xix, 4th line: I to be under first of Queen Ana.

xxxvi, 6th line : Names of the Aten begin at 45

liv, 3rd line: 13 to be I ; i to be 2 ; 2 to be 3, 4 ; 4 to be 5 ; $ to be 6.


INTRODUCTION

1. Scope of the volume

2. Extent of the subject

1. The little amulets of beetle form, which are the most usual production of Egyptian art, have fascinated the amateur collector for a century past, but have not yet fully received the scientific attention which is due to them. The most obviously interesting class of them are those with names of kings, of the royal family, and of officials. These carry with them in most cases a dating, which fixes their historical position. They stand thus to Egyptian history much as coins stand in relation to Western history. They often add historical matter which is otherwise lost to us; and the style of their art and manufacture serves as an index to the changes which went on in the civilisation. In the present volume we only deal with the scarabs —at University College—which bear names; and to these are added the cylinders, plaques, and other small objects with names, as they are closely similar in work, and stand on the same footing. In another volume the scarabs of other kinds will be dealt with; but their dating must depend mainly on comparison with the styles of those here described.

2. At first sight it might be supposed that the subject was boundless, when looking at the hundreds of scarabs that he in the Cairo shops. But this is far from being the case. The named scarabs are only a small proportion of the whole, and the greater part of those are of Thothmes III. Any one can form a collection of that king's scarabs in a year or two, as readily as of coins of Constantine, and very few of them would be of any interest. To acquire the variety of different periods, and the rarer names, needs a very long search. When I first went to Egypt I used to buy about a hundred name-scarabs each year, and only included those of Thothmes III which were of interest. Latterly about thirty each year is all that I can get that are worth having. So far from the subject being boundless, there are only about 300 different kings and royal relatives who are thus commemorated on scarabs, cylinders, and seals. Of that 300, there are at University College over 240 different royal persons, about 150 at the British Museum, about 90 in Paris, 70 in Cairo, and various minor selections in other museums. Thus the collection here described is by far the most varied in its range; and in order to make the view more complete, drawings are here inserted of the scarabs, cylinders, etc., of persons not represented in this collection.

Turning to the total numbers of scarabs, cylinders, rings, and plaques with royal names, the limits of the subject are also well in view. Apart from the overwhelming commonness of Thothmes Ill's objects, there are rather over 5,000 named objects in all the public collections together. Of these there are over 1,600 in this collection; the same in the British Museum, about 300 in Paris, and fewer in Cairo and elsewhere. Practically a third are here, a third in Bloomsbury, and a third in all the rest of the museums. Thus the subject is quite within reach, and can be dealt with tolerably completely, with this catalogue and that of the British Museum. Of course there are many scattered in private hands, and some collections of note ; but it is seldom that much of importance is seen on going over such gatherings. In stating this, the scarabs and seals with private names are not included, as they are not so fully published for comparison. They form, however, only a small minority of the whole, probably not 5 per cent, of the name-scarabs in most collections, and generally much less. There are about 330 in this collection, and a little over a hundred in the British Museum, but no other collection has more than a few dozen.

A considerable part of the illustrations were prepared, more than a dozen years ago, from photographs by Mr. Nash; this unfortunately has entailed a loss, as the cost of blocks was then double of the present amount. The drawings of backs were also partly done then, and the classification of the types. In the last two years the collection—now largely increased—has been worked up to date, and the text completed, and rearranged to suit the present form of pubhcation. In this manner the illustrations and catalogue are always together, while the advantage of finer paper for the figures is obtained.