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|Head of Zeus, or perhaps Poseidon, wearing oak-wreath. [Gaebler, AMNG III, Taf. II. 1.]||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Artemis Tauropolos with two torches, riding on bull, with fillet over its head.
AR Attic Tetradrachm
Only two specimens of this earliest coin of the first region of Macedon are known, one in Berlin and the other in Naples.
|Macedonian shield, in center of which, bust of Artemis right, bow
and quiver on shoulder behind; rim ornamented with alternating star in
crescent and groups of three pellets
||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Club in oak-wreath, one, two or three monograms, adjunct symbol in margin left, most commonly a thunderbolt (Fig. 151).|
Group 1A 1 - 143 174/3 - 158 B.C.
1. Dolphin / NK; Prokopov Silver 1 (Rarity: U); HGC 3.1 -; et al. -
2. Dolphin / ΠΦY; Prokopov Silver 2 (Rarity: U); HGC 3.1 -; et al. -
3. Plow / TYM - KAE - EP; Prokopov Silver 3 (Rarity: U); HGC 3.1 -; et al. -
4. Star or Winged Thunderbolt / ΠΩYA; Prokopov Silver 4 (Rarity: U); HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
5. Trident / TYM - KAE - Ξ (5); Prokopov Silver 5 (Rarity: U); HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
6. Winged Thunderbolt / TYM(Ω) - KAE - E; Prokopov Silver 6 - 9 (Rarity: RRR); HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
7. Trident / TYM(Ω) - KAE - E; Prokopov Silver 10 -13 (Rarity: RRR); HGC 3.1 -; et al. -
8. Thunderbolt / TYM - KAE - E; Prokopov Silver 14 (Rarity: RRR); AMNG III.1 p. 57, 175; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
9. Thunderbolt / AΘ - XAE - E; Prokopov Silver 15-22 (Rarity: RRR - RR); SNG Ashmolean 3294; AMNG III.1 p. 56, 168; HGC 3 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
10. Winged Thunderbolt / AΘ - XAE (or KE) - E; Prokopov Silver 23-25, 27 (Rarity: RRR - RR); AMNG III.1 p. 56, 168; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
11. Thunderbolt / AΘ - XAE - E; Prokopov Silver 26, 28-34 (Rarity: RRR - RR); AMNG III.1 p. 56, 168; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -
12. Winged Thunderbolt / ΠΩΣ; Prokopov Silver 35-37 (Rarity RR); AMNG III.1 p. 55, 163; HGC 3.1 1103; SNG Delepierre 1073; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
13. Thunderbolt / ΠΩΣ; Prokopov Silver 38-46 (Rarity: RR); AMNG III.1 p. 55, 163; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
14. Star / ∆A - AI; Prokopov Silver 47-49, 50 (Rarity: RRR); AMNG III p. 54, 157; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
15. Star / AI - ∆A; Prokopov Silver 49, 51-52 (Rarity: RRR); AMNG III p. 53, 156; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
16. Winged Thunderbolt / HP - N, - N; Prokopov Silver 53-69, 72, 76-78, 84 (Rarity: RR - R); BMC Macedonia p. 7, 4; AMNG III.1 p. 56, 167; HGC 3 1103; SNG Cop -; et al. -
17. Thunderbolt / HP - N, - N; Prokopov Silver 70, 73-75, 79-83, 85-89, 91) (Rarity: RR); AMNG III.1 p. 56, 167; McClean 3707; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
18. Thunderbolt / N - HP, N - ; Prokopov Silver 90 (Rarity: RRR+); AMNG III.1 p. 55, 166; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
19. Thunderbolt / HP, ; Prokopov Silver 92-101 (Rarity: RR); SNG Delepierre 1072; AMNG III.1 p. 55, 162; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
20. Thunderbolt / HP - NAK; Prokopov Silver 102-108 (Rarity: RR); AMNG III.1 p. 55, 165; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
21. Thunderbolt / NAK - HP; Prokopov Silver 109-115 (Rarity: RR); AMNG III.1 p. 55, 164; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
22. Thunderbolt / AP - ΣP - HP - - ; Prokopov Silver 116-117, 120-121, 123-124 (Rarity: RRR); SNG Cop 1312; SNG Saroglos 974; SNG Ashmolean 3295; AMNG III.1 p. 56, 170; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
23. Thunderbolt / AP - HP - ΣP - - ; Prokopov Silver 118-119, 122 (Rarity: RRR); BMC Macedonia p. 7, 3; AMNG III.1 p. 56, 169; HGC 3.1 1103; SNG Cop -; et al. -
24. Thunderbolt / ΠPE - ΠAP - EP; Prokopov Silver 125-126 (Rarity: RR); AMNG III.1 p. 57, 173; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
25. Thunderbolt / ΠEP or ΠPE - EP - ΠAP; Prokopov Silver 127-143 (Rarity: U - RR); AMNG III.1 p. 56, 171 - 172; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
Group 1B 144 - 212 158 - 148 B.C. All Thunderbolt / AP
26. Thunderbolt / AP, , (144-212); SNG Cop 1310 - 1311; SNG Ashmolean 3290 ff.; AMNG III.1 p. 54, 159-160; BMC Macedonia p. 7, 2; McClean 3706, pl.138, 1; HGC 3.1 1103
Group 2A 213 - 556 158 - 148 B.C. All Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - ___, - - ___
1. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TYOME; Prokopov Silver 213-214; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
2. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TYME, - - ; Prokopov Silver 215-217, 219-228, 230-238, 256, 271, 273, 289, 308, 347, 359, 361-362, 367-369, 372, 391, 419, 534-535; SNG Soutzos 354; AMNG III.1 p. 58, 177 & 179; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
3. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TYPME, - - ; Prokopov Silver 229, 239-253, 255, 258-270, 279, 281-286, 290-296, 300-307, 309-311, 313-328, 330-346, 348-356, 358, 360, 363-366, 370-371, 373-390, 392-418, 420-466, 478-486, 488-495, 506, 531-532, 536-540, 547-555; SNG Ashmolean 3297 - 3298; SNG Saroglos 975 - 976; SNG Delepierre 1069 - 1070; BMC Macedonia p. 8, 7; AMNG III.1 p. 57, 176; McClean 3708, pl. 138, 3; HGC 3.1 1103; SNG Cop -; et al. -
4. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - YME, - - ; Prokopov Silver 218; BMC Macedonia p. 8, 6; HGC 3.1 1103; et al. -
5. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TME , - - ; Prokopov Silver 254, 467-472; BMC Macedonia p. 8, 8; HGC 3.1 1103; SNG Cop -; et al. -
6. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - YPME; Prokopov Silver 257; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
7. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - MYPTE; Prokopov Silver 274-278, 280, 287-288, 297-298, 312, 329, 474, 476-477; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
8. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - MYPE; Prokopov Silver 299; SNG Saroglos 977; SNG Ashmolean 3296; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -, et al. -
9. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - MTE; Prokopov Silver 473, 475, 496, 541, 543, 545; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
10. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - MYTE; Prokopov Silver 498-505, 511-530, 542, 544, 556; AMNG III.1 p. 58, 178 & p. 59, 180; HGC 3.1 1103; BMC Macedonia -; et al. -
11. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TME, - - ; Prokopov Silver 487; SNG Delepierre 1071; AMNG III.1 p. 58, 179.9; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -
12. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - MYΠE; Prokopov Silver 509; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -
13. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - MYE, - - ; Prokopov Silver 510; BMC Macedonia p. 8, 8; HGC 3.1 1103
14. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TYPHME; Prokopov Silver 533; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -
15. Thunderbolt / ΣHY∆P - TKP - TΠME; Prokopov Silver 546; HGC 3.1 1103, BMC Macedonia -
Group 2B 557 - 609 158 - 148 B.C.
16. Thunderbolt / AP ; Prokopov Silver 557-558, 561-609; SNG Ashmolean 3290 - 391; SNG Cop 1310 - 1311; SNG Soutzos 353, AMNG III.1 p. 54, 159 - 160; BMC Macedonia p. 7, 2; HGC 3.1 1103
17. Thunderbolt / AYP ; Prokopov Silver 559-560; BMC Macedonia p. 7, 1; AMNG III.1 p. 55, 161; HGC 3.1 1103
Group 3 610 - 745 149 - 148 B.C.
1. Thunderbolt / AP ; Prokopov Silver 612, 618-711, 723-724, 733-737, 739 - 744 (Rarity: S); SNG Ashmolean 3292; SNG Cop 1310 - 1311; SNG Soutzos 353, AMNG III.1 p. 54, 159 - 160; BMC Macedonia p. 7, 2; HGC 3.1 1103
1. Thunderbolt / AYP ; Prokopov Silver 610-611, 613-617, 712-722, 725-732, 738, 745 (Rarity: S); CCCHBulg II 171; BMC Macedonia p. 7, 1; AMNG III.1 p. 55, 161; HGC 3.1 1103
LEG MACE∆ONΩN, c. 148 - 147 B.C., Prokopov Silver 825 - 843; SNG Saroglos 978 - 979; SNG Delepierre 1074; MacKay 1 - 17; AMNG III.1 pp. 62 - 63, 188 - 194; McClean 3710, pl. 138, 5; HGC 3.1 1105 (S); BMC Macedonia -
On the defeat of the Romans by Andriscus these coins were restruck with the omission of LEG and of the hand holding the olive-branch, θαλλος, probably the signet of Thalna (Z. f. N., xxiii. p. 150).
Andriscus, B.C. 149-148, now claimed openly the throne of Macedon, adopted the name and title of his presumptive grandfather, and struck tetradrachms distinguishable only by style, and by a youthful instead of a bearded head on the obverse, from those of Philip V (Z. f. N., xxiii. p. 153).
|Macedonian shield with, in center, a head of the young Philip Andriscus without heard, wearing winged helmet of hero Perseus, ending at top in griffin's head.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Club of thicker and clumsier make than on coins of Philip V. No monograms or symbol. The whole in oak-wreath.|
MACE∆ONΩN TETAPTHΣ, Bronze, Zeus / club in wreath, c. 167 - 149 B.C.; Prokopov Silver table 74, 1-3; SNG Cop 1316; SNG Soutzos 355; BMC Macedonia, p. 8, 10; AMNG III.1 p. 61, 187 - 188; McClean 3709; HGC 3.1 1109 (R1)
On the defeat of 'Philip' Andriscus and on the reduction of Macedonia to a Roman Province, B.C. 148, all coinage of silver in Macedon ceases for more than half a century. Bronze money was, however, issued for a few years longer, B.C. 148-141, in the names of the following Roman governors, Lucius Fulcinnius and Gaius Publilius, Quaestors of the Praetor Metellus, B.C. 148-146, and by the Praetor, Decimus Junius Silanus, B.C. 142-141, and also by individual cities for local currency.
|Head of Roma in winged helmet like that of the hero Perseus, ending at top in griffin's head.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, ΤΑΜΙΟΥ ΛΕΥΚΙΟΥ ΦΟΛΚΙΝΝΙΟΥ in oak-wreath
[BMC Macedonia, p. 19.]. |
|Head of Roma in winged helmet like that of the hero Perseus, ending at top in griffins head.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, ΤΑΜΙΟΥ ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΟΠΛΙΛΙΟΥ Similar. [BMC Macedonia, p. 18.] Æ 1.-.85|
|Head of Poseidon.||Similar, but club between lines of inscr.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 17.]. |
|Head of Athena Parthenon.
[Gaebler, op. cit., Taf. XII. 21.]
|ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΟΠΛΙΛΙΟΥ (the last name in monogram) ΤΑΜΙΟΥ Ox feeding. |
|Head of young Dionysos in ivy-wreath.
[Ibid., Taf. II. 9.]
|ΤΑΜΙΟΥ ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΟΠΛΙΛΙΟΥ Goat
|Head of Pan with pedum at shoulder.
[Ibid., Taf. XII. 20.]
|ΓΑΙΟΥ ΤΑΜΙΟΥ Two goats recumbent. |
|Head of Seilenos facing in ivy-wreath. [Z. f. N., xxiii. 158.]||D (for Decreto) above ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ
in ivy-wreath. |
SILVER COINAGE, B.C. 93-88.
The financial reasons which compelled the Roman governors of Macedon to issue silver tetradrachms with the inscription ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ after an interval of more than half a century are explained by Gaebler (Z. f. N., xxiii. 172). These issues, though limited to five or six years, must have been very plentiful if we may judge from the number of still extant specimens:—
|CÆ. ΡR. ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Head of Alexander the Great with flowing hair and Ammon's horn; Θ, mint-mark of Thessalonica, behind head.
[Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. II. 13.]
|AESILLAS Q Club between money chest (fiscus) and Quaestor's chair; the whole in laurel-wreath.|
Tetradrachms similar to preceding, but with SVVRA LEG. PRO Q. on reverse. On some of the above-described tetradrachms the numerals SI appear on the obv. before the head of Alexander. This SI is probably a mark of value (= 16) indicating that the tetradrachm was equivalent to 16 sestertii, or 4 Roman denarii.
The Imperial coinage of the Province of Macedon extends from Claudius to Philip. At first, down to Vespasian's time, the inscription is simply ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ or ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ. After this it is ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, to which Macrinus (A.D. 218) added the title ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC and Elagabalus that of Β ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC. The latter also conferred upon the κοινον the additional privilege of issuing most of its bronze coins without the Imperial bust. From Elagabalus to Philip the usual obverse type is a head or bust of Alexander the Great with legend ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. For some years after the death of Elagabalus the title Νεωκορος on the reverse is omitted, and it is to this period that Gaebler assigns the specimens reading ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ (Z. f. N., xxiv), the types of which point to Thessalonica as the city in alliance with the province.
Severus Alexander seems to have restored the title Νεωκορος probably in A.D. 231. The chief types of the Imperial and Provincial quasi-autonomous coins are Macedonian shield; Ares standing; Fulmen; Athena Nikephoros seated; Lion and Club; Alexander taming Bukeohalos, or on horseback; Macedonia enthroned holding Kabeiros; Cista mystica; two temples or two agonistic crowns on table in allusion to the Second Neokory. The provincial games (κοινα) appear to have been first celebrated under the name of ‘Ολυμπια or ‘Ολυμπια'Αλεξανδρια in 242, and a second time in 246, on which occasion coins were struck reading ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ Β. The first of these festivals was coincident with the visit of Gordian III and seems to have been celebrated with great splendor, if the gold medallions of various types which have come to light are to be referred to this time. Two years later Philip visited Macedon, on which occasion dated coins, both civic and provincial, were struck at Beroea with ΕΟC = A.D. 244, and again gold medallions were issued, on one of which the inscription ΒΑCΙΛΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ is perhaps explicable as referring to the two Philips, senior and junior, though it is more probable that the two figures, represented as bearded warriors, are intended for Alexander's royal ancestors. See Dressel, Gold medallions aus dem Funde von Abukir (1906), p. 53.
The authenticity of the twenty remarkable gold medallions discovered in Egypt (at Abukir?) in 1902 is still questioned by some leading numismatists, notwithstanding the powerful arguments in their favor advanced by Dressel (op. cit.), which no one has as yet been able to refute. They belong to the same class as the three gold medallions of the famous Trésor de Tarse (Rev. Num., 1868, p. 309 ff.). Their types commemorate the national Macedonian hero, Alexander the Great, his mother Olympias, etc., and his exploits. Like the bronze issues of the Macedonian provincial κοινον, and like the municipal issues of Beroea and Thessalonica, with which they have much in common, they must have been struck for successive Macedonian agonistic festivals doubtless as prizes, νικητηρια, in the Games. One of them fortunately furnishes us with a precise date, indicative of the period to which they all belong, although it is probable that some of them may have been struck a few years earlier and others a few years later. The medallion in question (Dressel, op. cit., Pl. III. 3) has on the obv. a helmeted bust of Alexander with cuirass and shield, and on the rev. Athena standing holding spear and helmet, with coiled serpent before her, and behind her an olive tree and a column inscribed ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ ΔΟC (= ‘Ολυμπια 274 of the Actian era = A.D. 242-3). This date corresponds with the first celebration of the ‘Ολυμπια'Αλεξανδρια at Beroea (q. v.) while the emperor Gordian III was visiting the city. Among these gold medallions there is only one specimen with an obv. type, a head of Apollo (Dressel, op. cit., p. 58), which seems to be unconnected with the cultus of Alexander, and Dressel suggests that this specimen may have been struck for the rival games called Πυθια celebrated at the free city of Thessalonica (q. v.). Illustrations of the complete series of these medallions are given in the Journ. Int. d'Arch. Num., 1907, Plates VIII-XIV.
Amphaxitis. The district through which the Axius flowed into the Thermaic gulf. The coins bearing the name of the Amphaxians can hardly have been struck elsewhere than at Thessalonica (the ancient Therma), which, as the port of Amphaxitis, may have been also known as ‘Αμφαξιον. They belong to the time of Philip V or Perseus.
|Macedonian shield with crescent-rayed wheel in center.
[Rev. Num., 1866, Pl. X. 14.]
|ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΑΜΦΑΞΙΩΝ Club in oak-wreath.|
|Head of Herakles in lion-skin.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 42.]
|ΑΜΦΑ ΞΙΩΝ Id. |
In addition to these there are bronze coins of various types reading ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ (monogram of Amphaxitis). Even after the Roman conquest coins were struck by the Roman Quaestor G. Publilius, doubtless at Thessalonica, with the same monogram (p. 240).
Amphipolis. B.C. 168-148. See above, p. 216.
Beroea in Emathia was in Imperial times the Metropolis of Macedonia.
Its coins must be studied in connexion with those of the Macedonia
κοινον, which were as a rule struck at Beroea. The few specimens which bear the name of Beroea and which may therefore be regarded as municipal issues as distinct from those of the Province, seem to have
been struck on three special occasions, viz.:—
(i) In the reign of Gordian for the first celebration of the Games called ‘Ολυμπια, A.D. 242. Inscr., ΚΟΙ. ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Β or ΔΙC ΝΕΩ. ΒЄΡΟΙЄ.
(ii) In the reign of Philip, when in A.D. 244 he made a stay in the city. Inscr., ΚΟΙΝ. ΜΑΚЄ. Β ΝЄΩ. ΒЄΡΑΙΩΝ with date ЄΟC (= 275 of the Actian era = A.D. 243-244).
(iii) In the reign of Philip two years later, A.D. 246, on the occasion of the second celebration of the ‘Ολυμπια at Beroea. Inscr., ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝΩΝ Β ΝΕΩΚΟ. ΒЄΡΟΙΑΙΩΝ; ΚΟΙ. ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝ. Β ΝЄΩ. ЄΝ ΒЄΡΟΙΑ; or ΚΟΙ. ΜΑΚЄΔΟ. ΟΛΥΝΠΙΑ ЄΝ ΒЄΡΟΙΑ.
The types are—obv. heads of Alexander in lion-skin, diademed or helmeted, inscr. ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟV: rev. Olympias seated; Ares standing; Rider; two temples; agonistic table; two prize crowns, etc. For details see Gaebler (in Nomisma i. p. 23, 1907).
Bottiaea Emathiae. The district of which Pella was the chief city continued to be known as Bottiaea long after its original inhabitants had been expelled and had made a new home for themselves near Olynthus in Chalcidice, where in the early part of the fourth century they struck autonomous coins reading ΒΟΤΤΙΑΙΩΝ (Bottice supra, p. 213). The coins reading ΒΟΤΤΕΑΤΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ(= monogram of Bottiaea) or only, are to be distinguished from the autonomous coins of the original Bottiaeans. They are merely the coins issued for circulation in the Bottiaean district of Macedon under Philip V and, still later, after the Roman conquest of Macedon.
|Macedonian shield with crescent-rayed wheel in center.
[BMC Macedonia, 64.]
|ΒΟΤΤΕΑΤΩΝ on after-part of ship.
AR Drachm and smaller divisions.
|Head of Athena in helmet adorned with foreparts of horses.||ΒΟΤΤΕΑΤΩΝ Feeding bull. |
|Young head of Pan with pedum at shoulder.|| Two recumbent goats in oak-wreath
|Macedonian shield, as above.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Macedonian helmet
|Head of young Herakles.|| „ „ Horseman. |
|Head of Zeus.|| „ „ Winged fulmen.
The feeding bull is a common type on coins of Pella, and later coins of this type, bearing the name of the Roman Quaestor G. Publilius, ΓΑΙΟΥ ΤΑΜΙΟΥ, 148 to 146, were also struck at Pella with the monogram (p. 240).
Cotusa. See Scotussa, p. 244.
Dium in Pieria was situated near the southern frontier of the Macedonian kingdom. Of this town no coins exist of the times before the Empire, when, having received a Roman colony, it struck coins with Latin inscriptions: COLONIA IVLIA DIENSIS, or COL. IVL. AVG. DIENSIS, D. D. Augustus (?) to Gallienus. See Imhoof MG, p. 74, and Berlin Catalog, II. 76 ff.
Edessa, the later name of Aegae (p. 198). Imperial coins from Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΕΔΕΣΣΑΙΩΝ, ΕΔΕCCΑΙΩΝ or ΕΔΕCCΕΩΝ. Type, Roma Nikephoros seated and crowned by female figure (Edessa); beside them a goat, in allusion to the name of Aegae and the myth of Karanos.
Heracleia Sintica. To this city may belong some small silver coins apparently of Macedonian style. It is, however, somewhat doubtful whether they were struck at Heracleia Sintica or at Heracleia Pontica (Bithyniae). Information as to their provenance would determine their correct attribution.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin.
[Berlin Catalog, II. p. 89.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ written round shallow
incuse square within which smaller quadripartite incuse containing sometimes the
letters ΔΑΜ or ΔΑΣ ?
AR Attic triobol, 28.5 grs.
|Id.||ΗΡΑΚ Similar; no letters.
AR ½ ob., 5.2 grs.
The following quasi-autonomous coins probably belong to Trajan's time.
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕWΤWΝ Macedonian shield.||ΕΠΙ CΤΡVΜΟΝΙ Club. |
Æ .6[Imhoof MG, p. 77.]
|Free horse, walking, r.||ΗΡΑΚΛΕWΤWΝ in laurel wreath.
[Ibid., p. 78.]. |
Pella, between the rivers Axius and Lydias, was promoted by Philip to be the seat of government instead of the old capital Aegae or Edessa. From this time it was probably one of the chief royal mints of the kings of Macedon, but it struck no autonomous coins until shortly before the Roman conquest in B.C. 168. Bronze. Second century B.C. Inscr. ΠΕΛΛΗΣ. Chief types, Head of Perseus, Rx oak-wreath; Head of Athena, as on late AR of Athens, Rx Nike in biga; Id. Rx Bull feeding; Head of Pan, Rx Athena Alkis (cf. Livy xlii. 51); Head of Apollo, Rx Lyre; Head of Poseidon, Rx Bull standing. On some special occasion, in the time of Mark Antony, Pella and Thessalonica struck some larger Æ; the former have ΠΕΛΛΑΙΩΝ Head of Octavia (?) as Nike, Rx Nike with wreath. As a Roman colony under the Empire, the coins of Pella bear the Latin inscription COL. IVL. AVG. PELLA. Types, Pan, seated on rock; Spes enthroned. See Berlin Catalog, II. p. 107 ff.
Phila ?, near the mouth of the Peneius. The bronze coin of the Roman period,—Obv. Nike, Rev. ΦΙΛΑ Club (Imhoof MG, p. 90),—and another coin,—Obv. Prancing horse, Rev. ΦΙΛ and crescent in wreath of olive (Berlin Catalog, II. 116),—attributed to Phila, are not, in my opinion, Macedonian coins.
Scotussa or Cotusa, on the right bank of the Strymon, not far from Heracleia Sintica. To this town Imhoof-Blumer (Imhoof MG, p. 114) would attribute the coins struck by the dynast named Adaeus, after circ. B.C. 200 (see above, p. 244), and the following bronze coin which resembles the money of Adaeus:—
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΚΟΤΟΥΣΑΙΩΝ Club. |
It is, however, quite possible that this coin may belong to the Thessalian Scotussa.
Inscr., MVNICPIVM STOBENSIVM. The most frequent type is Victory with wreath and palm, accompanied sometimes by a wheel, the attribute of Nemesis; but the most interesting shows the City standing between the two river-gods Axius and Erigon (BMC Macedonia, p. 106, 18; Imhoof MG, p. 91). The letters GS after both obv. and rev. inscriptions on coins of Marcus Aurelius are of doubtful import. Von Sallet suggests that they may stand for 'Germanicus Sarmaticus', titles of Marcus Aurelius (Berlin Catalog, II. 127).
Thessalonica (Salonica, the ancient Therma) was so named by Cassander (B.C. 315) in honor of his wife. No autonomous coins were struck there until shortly before the fall of the Macedonian monarchy in B.C. 168. Thessalonica was made by the Romans the capital of the second Region, and the silver coins reading ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑΣ were issued from its mint, B.C. 158-149; as were also, at a later date, the tetradrachms of the Quaestor Aesillas, and of the Legatus pro quaestore L. Bruttius Sura, B.C. 92-88, if, as I think, the Θ behind the head on the obverses of these coins is to be interpreted as a mint-letter. The bronze coins of Thessalonica reading ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ or ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ range apparently from the time of Philip V down to Imperial times. Chief Types, Head of Apollo, Rx Tripod; Head of Perseus or Roma, Rx Oak wreath; Head of Dionysos, Rx Grapes or goat standing; Head of Hermes, Rx Pan standing; Head of young Herakles, Rx Club; Head of Zeus, Rx Two goats on their hind legs face to face; Head of Athena, Rx Bull feeding; Head of Poseidon, Rx Prow; Head of Artemis, Rx Quiver and Bow; with many others (BMC Macedonia, 108 ff.; Berlin Catalog, 132 ff.). Most of these coins have one or more monograms which may conceal the names of Roman or of municipal officials. There are also Asses after circ. B.C. 88; Head of Janus and mark of value Ι, Rx the Dioskuri or two Centaurs (BMC Macedonia, p. 112).
Imperial. Time of Mark Antony to Gallienus. Inscr., ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΑΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, ΑΓΩΝΟΘΕΣΙΑ, accompanying a head personifying the Presidency of the municipal games, ΘΕCCΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ, etc. As a Civitas Libera and the residence of the. Roman governor, Thessalonica was of greater importance commercially than its rival Beroea, although the latter succeeded in obtaining Imperial recognition as Νεωκορος as early as the reign of Nerva. Thessalonica, as a free city, was not a member of the Macedonian Κοινον, and the 'common' games were celebrated at Beroea. Thessalonica, however, received the title ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC under Gordian. On coins of Decius she is styled ΚΟ[ΛΩΝΙΑ] ΜΗ[ΤΡΟΠΟΛΙC] and Δ ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC, and on those of Gallienus, once more Β ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC. The local Games were called ΠΥΘΙΑ, often with the addition of the special epithets επινικια, Κεσαρεια, or Καβιρεια. One of the Kabeiri is a frequent coin-type either standing, with name ΚΑΒΕΙΡΟC, or as a small figure carried by Apollo or Nike. The ΠΥΘΙΑ at Thessalonica rivaled the ‘Ολυμπια'Αλεξανδρια at Beroea. They were first celebrated under the name of Πυθια in 242. The coins reading ΠΥΘΙΑΔΙ Β were struck on the occasion of the second Pythiad in 246, and correspond with those reading ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ Β issued in the same year by the Κοινον at Beroea (Gaebler, Z. f. N., xxiv. 315). One of the remarkable gold medallions (νικητηρια) mentioned above (p. 242) may have been struck at Thessalonica.