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Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Gaebler, H. Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. III. (Berlin, 1906).
Head, B.V. British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Macedonia, etc. (London, 1879).
Josifovski, P. Roman Mint of Stobi. (Skopje, 2001).
Josifovski, P. Stobi - The Kuzmanoviæ Collection, Vol. I. (Skopje, 2010).
Lindgren, H.C. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints from the Lindgren Collection. (1989).
Lindgren, H.C. Lindgren III: Ancient Greek Bronze Coins from the Lindgren Collection. (1993).
Mionnet, T.E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Macedonine. (Paris, 1824).
MacKay, P.A. "Bronze Coinage in Macedonia, 168-166 B.C." in ANS MN 14 (1968), pp. 5 - 13, pl. III.
Moushmov, N. Ancient Coins of the Balkan Peninsula. (1912).
Prokopov, I. Der Silberprägung der Insel Thasos und die Tetradrachmen des "thasischen Typs" vom 2.-1. Jahrhundert v.Chr. (Berlin, 2006).
Prokopov, I. The Tetradrachms of First Macedonian Region. (Sofia, 1994).
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Austria, Klagenfurt, Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Sammlung Dreer, Part 3: Thracien-Macedonien-Päonien. (Klagenfurt, 1990).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum. Volume 2: Macedonia and Thrace. (New Jersey, 1981).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Part 3: Macedonia. (London, 1976).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain-Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece I, Collection Réna H. Evelpidis, Part 2: Macédoine-Thessalie-Illyrie-Epire-Corcyre. (Athens, 1975).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Greece IV, Numismatic Museum, Athens, The Petros Z. Saroglos Collection, Part 1: Macedonia. (Athens, 2005).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Münzen der Antike. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, USA, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, Part 7: Macedonia 1 (Cities, Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Paeonian kings). (New York, 1987).
Touratsoglou, I. Die Münzstätte von Thessaloniki in der römischen Kaiserzeit. AMUGS XII. (Berlin, 1988).
Varbanov, I. Greek Imperial Coins And Their Values, Volume III: Thrace (from Perinthus to Trajanopolis), Chersonesos Thraciae, Insula Thraciae, Macedonia. (Bourgas, 2007).
von Sallet, A. Beschreibung der antiken Münzen d. k. Museen zu Berlin, Bd. I. and II. (Berlin, 1888 and 1889). (Berlin Catalog)
After the Romans defeated of Perseus, the last king of Macedon, at the battle of Pydna in 168 B.C., Macedonia was divided into four autonomous administrative regions. To weaken the power of the area and increase dependence on the empire, Rome took control of the mines and forests, demanded half of all taxes collected and banned trade between the regions. It was not until ten years later (B.C. 158) that the right of coining silver money was conceded to the regions by the Senate (Mommsen-Blacas, III. p. 281). Between 158 and 148 B.C. the first (PROTES) region minted a large number of tetradrachms at its capital, Amphipolis. The second (DEUTERAS) region minted a small number of very rare tetradrachm at Thessalonica. The third region, its capital at Pella, and the fourth region, its capital at Heraclea Lynci, did not issue silver. These four divisions were dissolved in B.C. 148, when the country was finally constituted a Roman Province. Silver coinage was not struck for another half century, however, bronze coins were issued by governors, praetors, quaestors and individual cities. In 93 B.C., silver coinage resumed, the most prolific issue was that of the quaestor Aesillas. Macedonian cities continued to issue coinage in imperial times, some without the imperial bust.
|Head of Zeus, or perhaps Poseidon, wearing oak-wreath. [Gaebler, Die ant. Münzen Nord-Griechenlands, Bd. iii, Taf. II. 1.]||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Artemis Tauropolos with two torches, riding on bull, with fillet over its head.
AR Attic Tetradrachm
Only two specimens of this earliest coin of the first region of Macedon are known, one in Berlin and the other in Naples.
|Macedonian shield, in center of which, bust of Artemis.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ Club in oak-wreath, three monograms, and adjunct symbol in margin (Fig. 151).|
|Id. [Gaebler, op. cit., Taf. II. 4.]||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑΣ Similar|
|Head of Zeus.
[Gaebler, op. cit., Taf. II. 6.]
|ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΤΕΤΑΡΤΗΣ Club in
|Head of Athena. [Ibid., Taf. II. 5.]||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΤΕΤΑΡΤΗΣ The
The capitals of the four Regions of Macedonia were Amphipolis of the First Region, Thessalonica of the Second, Pella of the Third, and Pelagonia of the Fourth.
Macedonia a Roman Province. In B.C. 149 a pretender, by name Andriscus, who claimed to be grandson of Philip V, was, for a short time, successful in raising a revolt against Roman domination, and in defeating the Praetor P. Juventius Thalna. The Praetor, however, in B.C. 149, before his defeat, issued a few coins, through his LEGatus pro quaestore, as follows:—
|Bust of Artemis in center of Macedonian shield (Fig. 152).||LEG, and hand holding olive-branch over club, beneath which is ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, the whole in wreath of oak-leaves and acorns.|
On the defeat of the Romans by Andriscus these coins were restruck with the omission of LEG and of the hand holding the olive-branch, θαλλος, probably the signet of Thalna (Z. f. N., xxiii. p. 150).
Andriscus, B.C. 149-148, now claimed openly the throne of Macedon, adopted the name and title of his presumptive grandfather, and struck tetradrachms distinguishable only by style, and by a youthful instead of a bearded head on the obverse, from those of Philip V (Z. f. N., xxiii. p. 153).
|Macedonian shield with, in center, a head of the young Philip Andriscus without heard, wearing winged helmet of hero Perseus, ending at top in griffin’s head.||ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ Club of thicker and clumsier make than on coins of Philip V. No monograms or symbol. The whole in oak-wreath.|
On the defeat of ‘Philip’ Andriscus and on the reduction of Macedonia to a Roman Province, B.C. 148, all coinage of silver in Macedon ceases for more than half a century. Bronze money was, however, issued for a few years longer, B.C. 148-141, in the names of the following Roman governors, Lucius Fulcinnius and Gaius Publilius, Quaestors of the Praetor Metellus, B.C. 148-146, and by the Praetor, Decimus Junius Silanus, B.C. 142-141, and also by individual cities for local currency.
|Head of Roma in winged helmet like that of the hero Perseus, ending at top in griffin’s head.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, ΤΑΜΙΟΥ ΛΕΥΚΙΟΥ ΦΟΛΚΙΝΝΙΟΥ in oak-wreath
[BMC Macedonia, p. 19.]. |
|Head of Roma in winged helmet like that of the hero Perseus, ending at top in griffins head.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, ΤΑΜΙΟΥ ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΟΠΛΙΛΙΟΥ Similar. [BMC Macedonia, p. 18.] Æ 1.-.85|
|Head of Poseidon.||Similar, but club between lines of inscr.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 17.]. |
|Head of Athena Parthenon.
[Gaebler, op. cit., Taf. XII. 21.]
|ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΟΠΛΙΛΙΟΥ (the last name in monogram) ΤΑΜΙΟΥ Ox feeding. |
|Head of young Dionysos in ivy-wreath.
[Ibid., Taf. II. 9.]
|ΤΑΜΙΟΥ ΓΑΙΟΥ ΠΟΠΛΙΛΙΟΥ Goat
|Head of Pan with pedum at shoulder.
[Ibid., Taf. XII. 20.]
|ΓΑΙΟΥ ΤΑΜΙΟΥ Two goats recumbent. |
These coins seem to have been struck at three mints—Amphipolis without monogram; Thessalonica with monogram of Amphaxitis; and Pella with monogram of Bottiaea.
|Head of Seilenos facing in ivy-wreath. [Z. f. N., xxiii. 158.]||D (for Decreto) above ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ
in ivy-wreath. |
The head of Seilenos is probably a play upon the cognomen of the Praetor. The meaning of the Roman letter, D, on the reverse is explained by Gaebler (op. cit., p. 9).
The financial reasons which compelled the Roman governors of Macedon to issue silver tetradrachms with the inscr. ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ after an interval of more than half a century are explained by Gaebler (Z. f. N., xxiii. 172). These issues, though limited to five or six years, must have been very plentiful if we may judge from the number of still extant specimens:—
|CÆ. ΡR. ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Head of Alexander the Great with flowing hair and Ammon’s horn; Θ, mint-mark of Thessalonica, behind head.
[Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. II. 13.]
|AESILLAS Q Club between money chest (fiscus) and Quaestor’s chair; the whole in laurel-wreath.|
Tetradrachms and drachms similar to preceding, but without Praetor's name, and usually with mint-marks Θ, or Β for Thessalonica and Bottiaea, beside head on obv. (Fig. 153).
Tetradrachms similar to preceding, but with SVVRA LEG. PRO Q. on reverse. On some of the above-described tetradrachms the numerals SI appear on the obv. before the head of Alexander. This SI is probably a mark of value (= 16) indicating that the tetradrachm was equivalent to 16 sestertii, or 4 Roman denarii.
Imperial Times. The Imperial coinage of the Province of Macedon extends from Claudius to Philip. At first, down to Vespasian’s time, the inscr. is simply ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ or ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ. After this it is ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, to which Macrinus (A.D. 218) added the title ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC and Elagabalus that of Β ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC. The latter also conferred upon the κοινον the additional privilege of issuing most of its bronze coins without the Imperial bust. From Elagabalus to Philip the usual obverse type is a head or bust of Alexander the Great with legend ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. For some years after the death of Elagabalus the title Νεωκορος on the reverse is omitted, and it is to this period that Gaebler assigns the specimens reading ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ (Z. f. N., xxiv), the types of which point to Thessalonica as the city in alliance with the province.
Severus Alexander seems to have restored the title Νεωκορος probably in A.D. 231. The chief types of the Imperial and Provincial quasi-autonomous coins are Macedonian shield; Ares standing; Fulmen; Athena Nikephoros seated; Lion and Club; Alexander taming Bukeohalos, or on horseback; Macedonia enthroned holding Kabeiros; Cista mystica; two temples or two agonistic crowns on table in allusion to the Second Neocory. The provincial games (κοινα) appear to have been first celebrated under the name of ‘Ολυμπια or ‘Ολυμπια ‘Αλεξανδρια in 242, and a second time in 246, on which occasion coins were struck reading ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ Β. The first of these festivals was coincident with the visit of Gordian III and seems to have been celebrated with great splendor, if the gold medallions of various types which have come to light are to be referred to this time. Two years later Philip visited Macedon, on which occasion dated coins, both civic and provincial, were struck at Beroea with ΕΟC = A.D. 244, and again gold medallions were issued, on one of which the inscription ΒΑCΙΛΕΩΝ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ is perhaps explicable as referring to the two Philips, senior and junior, though it is more probable that the two figures, represented as bearded warriors, are intended for Alexander’s royal ancestors. See Dressel, Gold medaillons aus dem Funde von Abukir (1906), p. 53.
The authenticity of the twenty remarkable gold medallions discovered in Egypt (at Abukir?) in 1902 is still questioned by some leading numismatists, notwithstanding the powerful arguments in their favor advanced
Amphaxitis. The district through which the Axius flowed into the Thermaic gulf. The coins bearing the name of the Amphaxians can hardly have been struck elsewhere than at Thessalonica (the ancient Therma), which, as the port of Amphaxitis, may have been also known as ‘Αμφαξιον (cf. Steph. Byz.). They belong to the time of Philip V or Perseus.
|Macedonian shield with crescent-rayed wheel in center.
[Rev. Num., 1866, Pl. X. 14.]
|ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΑΜΦΑΞΙΩΝ Club in oak-wreath.|
|Head of Herakles in lion-skin.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 42.]
|ΑΜΦΑ ΞΙΩΝ Id. |
In addition to these there are bronze coins of various types reading ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ (monogram of Amphaxitis). Even after the Roman conquest coins were struck by the Roman Quaestor G. Publilius, doubtless at Thessalonica, with the same monogram (p. 240).
Amphipolis. B.C. 168-148. See above, p. 216.
Beroea in Emathia was in Imperial times the Metropolis of Macedonia. Its coins must be studied in connexion with those of the Macedonia κοινον, which were as a rule struck at Beroea. The few specimens which bear the name of Beroea and which may therefore be regarded as municipal issues as distinct from those of the Province, seem to have been struck on three special occasions, viz.:—
(i) In the reign of Gordian for the first celebration of the Games called ‘Ολυμπια, A.D. 242. Inscr., ΚΟΙ. ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Β or ΔΙC ΝΕΩ. ΒЄΡΟΙЄ.
(ii) In the reign of Philip, when in A.D. 244 he made a stay in the city. Inscr., ΚΟΙΝ. ΜΑΚЄ. Β ΝЄΩ. ΒЄΡΑΙΩΝ with date ЄΟC (= 275 of the Actian era = A.D. 243-244).
(iii) In the reign of Philip two years later, A.D. 246, on the occasion of the second celebration of the ‘Ολυμπια at Beroea. Inscr., ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝΩΝ Β ΝΕΩΚΟ. ΒЄΡΟΙΑΙΩΝ; ΚΟΙ. ΜΑΚЄΔΟΝ. Β ΝЄΩ. ЄΝ ΒЄΡΟΙΑ; or ΚΟΙ. ΜΑΚЄΔΟ. ΟΛΥΝΠΙΑ ЄΝ ΒЄΡΟΙΑ.
The types are—obv. heads of Alexander in lion-skin, diademed or helmeted, inscr. ΑΛЄΞΑΝΔΡΟV: rev. Olympias seated; Ares standing; Rider; two temples; agonistic table; two prize crowns, etc. For details see Gaebler (in Nomisma i. p. 23, 1907).
Bottiaea Emathiae. The district of which Pella was the chief city continued to be known as Bottiaea long after its original inhabitants had been expelled and had made a new home for themselves near Olynthus in Chalcidice, where in the early part of the fourth century they struck autonomous coins reading ΒΟΤΤΙΑΙΩΝ (Bottice supra, p. 213). The coins reading ΒΟΤΤΕΑΤΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ(= monogram of Bottiaea) or only, are to be distinguished from the autonomous coins of the original Bottiaeans. They are merely the coins issued for circulation in the Bottiaean district of Macedon under Philip V and, still later, after the Roman conquest of Macedon.
|Macedonian shield with crescent-rayed wheel in center.
[BMC Macedonia, 64.]
|ΒΟΤΤΕΑΤΩΝ on after-part of ship.
AR Drachm and smaller divisions.
|Head of Athena in helmet adorned with foreparts of horses.||ΒΟΤΤΕΑΤΩΝ Feeding bull. |
|Young head of Pan with pedum at shoulder.|| Two recumbent goats in oak-wreath
|Macedonian shield, as above.||ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ Macedonian helmet
|Head of young Herakles.|| „ „ Horseman. |
|Head of Zeus.|| „ „ Winged fulmen.
The feeding bull is a common type on coins of Pella, and later coins of this type, bearing the name of the Roman Quaestor G. Publilius, ΓΑΙΟΥ ΤΑΜΙΟΥ, 148 to 146, were also struck at Pella with the monogram (p. 240).
Cotusa. See Scotussa, p. 244.
Dium in Pieria was situated near the southern frontier of the Macedonian kingdom. Of this town no coins exist of the times before the Empire, when, having received a Roman colony, it struck coins with Latin inscriptions: COLONIA IVLIA DIENSIS, or COL. IVL. AVG. DIENSIS, D. D. Augustus (?) to Gallienus. See Imhoof MG, p. 74, and Berlin Catalog, II. 76 ff.
Edessa, the later name of Aegae (p. 198). Imperial coins from Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΕΔΕΣΣΑΙΩΝ, ΕΔΕCCΑΙΩΝ or ΕΔΕCCΕΩΝ. Type, Roma Nikephoros seated and crowned by female figure (Edessa); beside them a goat, in allusion to the name of Aegae and the myth of Karanos.
The inscr. ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ on a coin of Philip Sen. implies a Concordia between Edessa and the Macedonian κοινον (see supra, p. 241, on the Imperial coins of the Province) or with Rome itself.
Heracleia Sintica. To this city may belong some small silver coins apparently of Macedonian style. It is, however, somewhat doubtful whether they were struck at Heracleia Sintica or at Heracleia Pontica (Bithyniae). Information as to their provenance would determine their correct attribution.
|Head of bearded Herakles in lion-skin.
[Berlin Catalog, II. p. 89.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΑ written round shallow
incuse square within which smaller quadripartite incuse containing sometimes the
letters ΔΑΜ or ΔΑΣ ?
AR Attic triobol, 28.5 grs.
|Id.||ΗΡΑΚ Similar; no letters.
AR ½ ob., 5.2 grs.
The coins of Adaeus (p. 235, supra), circ. B.C. 200 (?), bearing the monogram Σ have been also attributed to this town (Berlin Catalog, II. p. 90).
The following quasi-autonomous coins probably belong to Trajan’s time.
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕWΤWΝ Macedonian shield.||ΕΠΙ CΤΡVΜΟΝΙ Club. |
Æ .6[Imhoof MG, p. 77.]
|Free horse, walking, r.||ΗΡΑΚΛΕWΤWΝ in laurel wreath.
[Ibid., p. 78.]. |
Pella, between the rivers Axius and Lydias, was promoted by Philip to be the seat of government instead of the old capital Aegae or Edessa. From this time it was probably one of the chief royal mints of the kings of Macedon, but it struck no autonomous coins until shortly before the Roman conquest in B.C. 168. Bronze. Second century B.C. Inscr. ΠΕΛΛΗΣ. Chief types, Head of Perseus, Rx oak-wreath; Head of Athena, as on late AR of Athens, Rx Nike in biga; Id. Rx Bull feeding; Head of Pan, Rx Athena Alkis (cf. Livy xlii. 51); Head of Apollo, Rx Lyre; Head of Poseidon, Rx Bull standing. On some special occasion, in the time of Mark Antony, Pella and Thessalonica struck some larger Æ; the former have ΠΕΛΛΑΙΩΝ Head of Octavia (?) as Nike, Rx Nike with wreath. As a Roman colony under the Empire, the coins of Pella bear the Latin inscr. COL. IVL. AVG. PELLA. Types, Pan, seated on rock; Spes enthroned. See Berlin Catalog, II. p. 107 ff.
Phila ?, near the mouth of the Peneius. The bronze coin of the Roman period,—Obv. Nike, Rev. ΦΙΛΑ Club (Imhoof MG, p. 90),—and another coin,—Obv. Prancing horse, Rev. ΦΙΛ and crescent in wreath of olive (Berlin Catalog, II. 116),—attributed to Phila, are not, in my opinion, Macedonian coins.
Scotussa or Cotusa, on the right bank of the Strymon, not far from Heracleia Sintica. To this town Imhoof-Blumer (Imhoof MG, p. 114)
would attribute the coins struck by the dynast named Adaeus, after circ. B.C. 200 (see above, p. 244), and the following bronze coin which resembles the money of Adaeus:—
|Head of bearded Herakles.||ΚΟΤΟΥΣΑΙΩΝ Club. |
It is, however, quite possible that this coin may belong to the Thessalian Scotussa.
Stobi was situate at the confluence of the rivers Axius and Erigon. No coins are known to have been struck there before it became a Roman Municipium. Imperial. Titus and Domitian to Geta.
Inscr., MVNICPIVM STOBENSIVM. The most frequent type is Victory with wreath and palm, accompanied sometimes by a wheel, the attribute of Nemesis; but the most interesting shows the City standing between the two river-gods Axius and Erigon (BMC Macedonia, p. 106, 18; Imhoof MG, p. 91). The letters GS after both obv. and rev. inscriptions on coins of Marcus Aurelius are of doubtful import. Von Sallet suggests that they may stand for ‘Germanicus Sarmaticus’, titles of Marcus Aurelius (Berlin Catalog, II. 127).
Thessalonica (Salonica, the ancient Therma) was so named by Cassander (B.C. 315) in honor of his wife. No autonomous coins were struck there until shortly before the fall of the Macedonian monarchy in B.C. 168. Thessalonica was made by the Romans the capital of the second Region, and the silver coins reading ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑΣ were issued from its mint, B.C. 158-149; as were also, at a later date, the tetradrachms of the Quaestor Aesillas, and of the Legatus pro quaestore L. Bruttius Sura, B.C. 92-88, if, as I think, the Θ behind the head on the obverses of these coins is to be interpreted as a mint-letter. The bronze coins of Thessalonica reading ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΗΣ or ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ range apparently from the time of Philip V down to Imperial times. Chief Types, Head of Apollo, Rx Tripod; Head of Perseus or Roma, Rx Oak wreath; Head of Dionysos, Rx Grapes or goat standing; Head of Hermes, Rx Pan standing; Head of young Herakles, Rx Club; Head of Zeus, Rx Two goats on their hind legs face to face; Head of Athena, Rx Bull feeding; Head of Poseidon, Rx Prow; Head of Artemis, Rx Quiver and Bow; with many others (BMC Macedonia, 108 ff.; Berlin Catalog, 132 ff.). Most of these coins have one or more monograms which may conceal the names of Roman or of municipal officials. There are also Asses after circ. B.C. 88; Head of Janus and mark of value Ι, Rx the Dioskuri or two Centaurs (BMC Macedonia, p. 112).
Imperial. Time of Mark Antony to Gallienus. Inscr., ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΑΣ ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, ΑΓΩΝΟΘΕΣΙΑ, accompanying a head personifying the Presidency of the municipal games, ΘΕCCΑΛΟΝΙΚΗ, etc. As a Civitas Libera and the residence of the. Roman governor, Thessalonica was of greater importance commercially than its rival Beroea, although the latter succeeded in obtaining Imperial recognition as Νεωκορος as early as the reign of Nerva. Thessalonica, as a free city, was not a member of the Macedonian Κοινον, and the ‘common’ games were celebrated at Beroea. Thessalonica, however, received the title ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC under Gordian. On coins of Decius she is styled ΚΟ[ΛΩΝΙΑ] ΜΗ[ΤΡΟΠΟΛΙC] and Δ ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC, and on those of Gallienus, once more Β ΝΕΩΚΟΡΟC. The local Games were called ΠΥΘΙΑ, often with the addition of the special epithets επινικια, Κεσαρεια, or Καβιρεια. One of the Kabeiri is a frequent coin-type either standing, with name ΚΑΒΕΙΡΟC, or as a small figure carried by Apollo or Nike. The ΠΥΘΙΑ at Thessalonica rivalled the ‘Ολυμπια ‘Αλεξανδρια at Beroea. They were first celebrated under the name of Πυθια in 242. The coins reading ΠΥΘΙΑΔΙ Β were struck on the occasion of the second Pythiad in 246, and correspond with those reading ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ Β issued in the same year by the Κοινον at Beroea (Gaebler, Z. f. N., xxiv. 315). One of the remarkable gold medallions (νικητηρια) mentioned above (p. 242) may have been struck at Thessalonica.