The Age of Gallienus
Ancient Coin Collecting 101
Ancient Coin Prices 101
Ancient Coin Dates
Ancient Coin Lesson Plans
Ancient Coins & Modern Fakes
Ancient Oil Lamps
Ancient Wages and Prices
Ancient Weights and Scales
Anonymous Class A Folles
Armenian Numismatics Page
A Cabinet of Greek Coins
Caesarean and Actian Eras
Campgates of Constantine
A Case of Counterfeits
Byzantine Christian Themes
Coins of Pontius Pilate
Conditions of Manufacture
Corinth Coins and Cults
Countermarked in Late Antiquity
Denarii of Otho
Die Alignment 101
Dictionary of Roman Coins
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins
Edict on Prices
ERIC - Rarity Tables
The Evolving Ancient Coin Market
Facing Portrait of Augustus
Fel Temp Reparatio
Fertility Pregnancy and Childbirth
Friend or Foe
The Gallic Empire
Greek Coin Denominations
Greek Mythology Link
Greek Numismatic Dictionary
Hellenistic Names & their Meanings
Helvetica's ID Help Page
The Hexastyle Temple of Caligula
Identifying Ancient Metal Arrowheads
Illustrated Ancient Coin Glossary
Important Collection Auctions
Islamic Rulers and Dynasties
Julian II: The Beard and the Bull
Julius Caesar - The Funeral Speech
People in the Bible Who Issued Coins
Imperial Mints of Philip the Arab
Later Roman Coinage
Library of Ancient Coinage
Life in Ancient Rome
List of Kings of Judea
Maps of the Ancient World
Museum Collections Available Online
The [Not] Cuirassed Elephant
Not in RIC
Numismatic Excellence Award
Pi-Style Athens Tetradrachms
Pricing and Grading Roman Coins
Reading Judean Coins
Representations of Alexander the Great
Roman Coin Attribution 101
Rome and China
Satyrs and Nymphs
The Sign that Changed the World
Silver Content of Parthian Drachms
Star of Bethlehem Coins
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum
Taras Drachms with Owl Left
The Temple Tax
The Temple Tax Hoard
Travels of Paul
Tribute Penny Debate Continued (2015)
Tribute Penny Debate Revisited (2006)
Uncleaned Ancient Coins 101
What I Like About Ancient Coins
Who was Trajan Decius
In addition to the numerous special monographs on the coins of various Macedonian and Thracian cities and kings, which are to be found in the volumes of the Numismatic Chronicle, the Revue numismatique, the Zeitschrift für Numismatik and other periodicals, the following are some of the more important works to which the student of the money of Northern Greece may be referred :—
Allen, D. Catalogue of Celtic Coins in the British Museum, Vol. 1: Silver Coins of the East Celts and Balkan Peoples. (London, 1987).
Anokhin, V.A. Coins of Ancient Cities of North-Western Black Sea Area. (Kiev, 1989).
Anokhin, V.A. The Arrowhead-Money in Olbia and its Vicinity. (Kiev, 1986).
Arnold-Biucchi, C. "The Pergamene Mint under Lysimachos" in Studies Price.
Arslan, M. and C. Lightfoot. Greek Coin Hoards in Turkey. (Ankara, 1999).
Ashton, R., et al. "The Pixodarus Hoard" in Coin Hoards IX (2002).
Babelon, E. Traité des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines. (Paris, 1901-1932).
Bloesch, H. Griechische Münzen In Winterthur, Volume 1: Spain, Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Moesia, Dacia, Sarmatia, Thrace, and Macedonia. (Winterthur, 1987).
Brett, A.B. Catalogue of Greek Coins, Boston Museum of Fine Arts. (Boston, 1955).
Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
Crawford, M. Roman Republican Coinage. (Cambridge, 1974).
Davesne, A. & G. Le Rider. Le trésor de Meydancikkale. (Paris, 1989).
Davis, P. "Dacian Imitations of Roman Republican Denarii" in Apvlvm Number XLIII/1. (2006).
Davis, P. Imitations of Roman Republican Denarii, website: http://rrimitations.ancients.info.
de Callataÿ, F. L 'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies. (Louvain-La-Neuve, 1997).
Dembski, G. Münzen der Kelten. Sammlungskataloge des Kunsthistorischen Museums. (Vienna, 1998).
Dittrich, K. Ancient Coins from Olbia and Panticapaeum. (London, 1961).
Draganov, D. The Coinage of Cabyle. (Sofia, 1993).
Draganov, D. The Coinage of Deultum. (Sofia, 2007).
Draganov, D. "The Bronze Coinage of Dionysopolis" in NumCirc CV/10 (December), 1997, pp. 371-7.
Forrer, L. Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber, Vol. II: Macedon, Thrace, Thessaly, NW, central & S. Greece. (London, 1924).
Frolova, N.A. & M.G. Abramzon. Coins of Olbia in the Collection of the State Historical Museum. (Moscow, 2005).
Frolova, N.A. Die frühe Münzprägung vom Kimmerischen Bosporos (Mitte 6. bis Anfang 4. Jh. v. Chr.): Die Münzen der Städte Pantikapaion...und Phanagoria sowie der Sinder. (Berlin, 2004).
Gaebler, H. Die antiken Münzen von Makedonia und Paionia, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. III. (Berlin, 1935).
Göbl, R. Ostkeltischer Typen Atlas. (Braunschweig, 1973).
Grose, S. W. Catalogue of the McClean Collection of Greek Coins, Fizwilliam Museum, Vol. II: The Greek mainland, the Aegaean islands, Crete. (Cambridge, 1926).
Grueber, H.A. Coins of the Roman Republic in The British Museum. (London, 1910).
Hersh, C. "Additions and Corrections to Martin J. Price 's 'The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus '" in Studies Price.
Hoover, O. Handbook of Coins of the Islands: Adriatic, Ionian, Thracian, Aegean, & Carpathian Seas, 6th to 1st Centuries BC. HGC 6. (Lancaster, PA, 2010).
Houghton, A., Cathy L. and Oliver H. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002 - 2008).
Hristova, H., H.-J. Hoeft, & G. Jekov. The Coins of Moesia Inferior 1st - 3rd Century AD: Nicopolis ad Istrum. (Blagoevgrad, 2014).
Hristova, N. & G. Jekov. The Local Coinage of the Roman Empire - Moesia Inferior, 1st - 3rd Century AD, Marcianopolis. (Blagoevgrad, 2006).
Hristova, N. & G. Jekov. The Local Coinage of the Roman Empire - Moesia Superior, 1st - 3rd Century AD, Viminacium. (Blagoevgrad, 2004).
Hristova, N. & G. Jekov. The Local Coinage of the Roman Empire - Thrace, 1st - 3rd Century AD, Serdica. (Blagoevgrad, 2007).
Imhoof-Blumer, F. Monnaies grecques. (Paris, 1883).
Jekov, G. The Local Coinage of the Roman Empire - Moesia Inferior, I - III c. A.D., Dionysopolis. (Blagoevgrad, 2003).
Jurukova, J. Die Münzprägung von Bizye. (Berlin, 1981).
Jurukova, J. Die Münzprägung von Deultum. Griechisches Münzwerk. Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur der Antike 8. (Berlin, 1973).
Jurukova, Y. The Coinage of the Towns in Moesia Inferior and Thrace, 2nd-3rd centuries AD: Hadrianopolis. (Sophia. 1987).
Klein, D. Sammlung von griechischen Kleinsilbermünzen und Bronzen. Nomismata 3. (Milano, 1999).
Komnick, H. Die Munzpragung von Nicopolis ad Mestum. (Akademie Verlag, 2003).
Kostial, M. Kelten im Osten. Gold und Silber der Kelten in Mittel und Osteuropa. Sammlung Lanz. (München, 1997).
Karayotov, I. The Coinage of Mesambria Vol. I: Silver and Gold Coins of Mesambria. (Sozopol, Bulgaria, 1994).
Karayotov, I. The Coinage of Mesambria. Vol. II. Bronze Coins of Mesambria. (Sozopol, 2009).
Karyshkoviskij, P. Coinage and Monetary Circulation in Olbia (6th century B.C. - 4th century A.D.). (Odessa, 2003).
Kraay, C. Archaic and Classical Greek Coins. (London, 1976).
Le Rider, G. "L 'Atelier séleucide de Lysimachie" in Quaderni Ticinesi XVII (1988).
Le Rider, G. "Les monnaies Thasiennes" in Guide de Thasos. (Paris, 1968).
Liampi, K. "The mint of Phagres" in NK 10 (1991).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins. (Quarryville, 1993).
Lindgren, H. Ancient Greek Bronze Coins: European Mints. (San Mateo, 1989).
Lukanc, I. Les imitations des monnaies d 'Alexandre le grand et de Thasos. (Wetteren, 1996).
May, J. M. F. The Coinage of Abdera (540-345 B.C.). Royal Numismatic Society Special Publication No. 3. (London, 1966).
MacDonald, D. An Introduction to the History and Coinage of the Kingdom of the Bosporus. Classical Numismatic Studies 5. (Lancaster, 2005).
MacDonald, G. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Hunterian Collection, University of Glascow. (Glascow, 1899).
Marinescu, C. and C. Lorber. "The "Black Sea" Tetradrachm Hoard" in Studies Prokopov.
Martin, F. Kolonial Prägungen aus Moesia Superior und Dacia. (Budapest-Bonn, 1992).
Mildenberg, L. and S. Hurter, eds. The Dewing Collection of Greek Coins. ACNAC 6. (New York, 1985).
Müller, L. Die Münzen Des Thracishen Konigs Lysimacus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d 'Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Mionnet, T.E. Description de Médailles antiques grecques et romaines, Macedonine. (Paris, 1824).
Mørkholm, O. Early Hellenistic Coinage. From the Accession of Alexander to the Peace of Apamea (336-188 BC). (Cambridge, 1991).
Moushmov, N. Ancient Coins of the Balkan Peninsula. (1912).
Müller, L. Die Münzen des thrakischen Königs Lysimachus. (Copenhagen, 1858).
Müller, L. Numismatique d 'Alexandre le Grand; Appendice les monnaies de Philippe II et III, et Lysimaque. (Copenhagen, 1855-58).
Münzer, F. & M. L. Strack. Die antiken Münzen von Thrakien, Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. II. (Berlin, 1912).
Naville Co. Monnaies grecques antiques S. Pozzi. Auction 1. (4 April 1921, Geneva).
Olcay, N., & Seyrig, H. Trésors monétaires séleucides. I: Le trésor de Mektepini en Phrygie. (Paris, 1965).
Peter, U. Die Münzen der Thrakischen Dynasten (5-3. Jahrhundert v. Chr.). (Berlin, 1997).
Pick, B. & K. Regling. Die antiken Münzen von Dacien und Moesien. Die antiken Münzen Nord-Griechenlands Vol. I. (Berlin, 1898 - 1910).
Pink, K. Münzprägung der Ostkelten und Ihrer Nachbarn. (Harrassowitz, 1939).
Poole, R.S. ed. A Catalog of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thrace, etc. (London, 1877).
Price, M. J. The Coinage in the name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. (Zurich - London, 1991).
Prokopov, I. Coin Collections and Coin Hoards From Bulgaria, Vol. I: Numismatic Collections of the Historical Museum Lovech & the Historical Museum Razgrad. (Sofia, 2007).
Prokopov, I. Der Silberprägung der Insel Thasos und die Tetradrachmen des "thasischen Typs" vom 2.-1. Jahrhundert v. Chr. (Berlin, 2006).
RPC Online - http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/
Ruzicka, L. Die Münzen von Pautalia. (Sofia, 1933).
Ruzicka, L. Die Münzen von Serdica, Numismatische Zeitschrift Bd. VIII. (Vienna, 1915).
von Sallet, A. Beschreibung der antiken Münzen d. k. Museen zu Berlin, Bd. I. and II. (Berlin, 1888 and 1889). (Berlin Catalog)
Schönert-Geiss, E. Die Münzprägung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis. (Berlin, 1991).
Schönert-Geiss, E. Die Münzprägung von Bisanthe, Dikaia, Selymbria. (Berlin, 1977).
Schönert-Geiss, E. Die Münzprägung von Byzantion. (Amsterdam, 1970 & 1972).
Schönert-Geiss, E. Die Münzprägung von Maroneia. (Berlin, 1987).
Schönert-Geiss, E. Die Münzprägung von Perinthos. (Berlin, 1965).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 1: Europe. (London, 1978).
Sear, D. Greek Coins and Their Values, Volume 2: Volume 2: Asia and Africa. (London, 1979).
Sear, D. Greek Imperial Coins and Their Values. (London, 1982).
Seyrig, H. "Monnaies Hellénistiques de Byzance et de Calcédoine" in Essays Robinson.
Staal, M.A. The Three Graces and Their Numismatic Mythology. (Santa Clara, 2004).
Svoronos, J. L 'hellénisme primitif de la Macédoine, prouvé par la numismatique et l 'or du Pangée. (Paris/Athens, 1919).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Austria, Klagenfurt, Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Sammlung Dreer, Part 3: Thracien-Macedonien-Päonien. (Klagenfurt, 1990).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Bulgaria I, The Bobokov Bros. Collection, Vol. I: Thrace & Moesia Inferior, Pt. 1: Deultum. (Bulgaria, 2005).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Vol. 2: Macedonia and Thrace. (West Milford, NJ, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 7: Taurische Chersonesos, Sarmatien, Dacia, Moesia superior, Moesia inferior. (Berlin, 1985).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, München Staatlische Münzsammlung, Part 10/11: Makedonien – Könige. (Berlin, 2001).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Münzsammlung Universität Tübingen, Part 2: Taurische Chersones-Korkyra. (Berlin, 1982).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Deutschland, Sammlung Hans Von Aulock, Vol. 3: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, Galatia...Posthumous Lysimachus, Alexander tetradrachms. (Berlin, 1964).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, France, Bibliothèque National, Collection Jean et Marie Delepierre. (Paris, 1983).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain III, R.C. Lockett Collection, Part 2: Sicily - Thrace (gold and silver). (London, 1939).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IV, Fitzwilliam Museum, Leake and General Collections, Part 2: Sicily-Thrace. (London, 1947).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain V, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, Part 9: Bosporus - Aeolis. (London. 2008).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain IX, British Museum, Part 1: The Black Sea. (London, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XI, The William Stancomb Collection of Coins of the Black Sea Region. (Oxford, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain XII, The Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow, Part 1: Roman Provincial Coins: Spain - Kingdoms of Asia Minor. (Oxford, 2004).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Grèce, Collection Réna H. Evelpidis, Pt. 1: Italie. Sicile - Thrace. (Athens, 1970).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Hungary, Budapest, Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, III: Moesia inferior. (Milan, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Italy, Milano, Civiche Raccolte Numismatiche VI: Macedonia-Thracia, Part 3: ...Thracia, Chersonesus Thraciae, Isole della Thracia. (Milan, 2000).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Russia, State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts: Coins of the Black Sea Region. (Leuven, Belgium, 2011).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Schweiz II, Münzen der Antike. Katalog der Sammlung Jean-Pierre Righetti im Bernischen Historischen Museum. (Bern, 1993).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Sweden II, The Collection of the Royal Coin Cabinet, National Museum of Monetary History, Part 2: Thrace-Euboia. (Stockholm, 1980).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, Burton Y. Part 1: Macedonia to Attica. (New York, 1961).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, The Collection of the ANS, Part 7: Macedonia 1 (Cities, Thraco-Macedonian Tribes, Paeonian kings). (New York, 1997).
Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, United States, The Collection of the ANS, Part 8: Macedonia 2 (Alexander I - Philip II). (New York, 1994).
Thompson, M. "The Armenak Hoard (IGCH 1423)" in ANSMN 31 (1986).
Thompson, M. "The Mints of Lysimachus," in Essays Robinson.
Topalov, S. Ancient Thrace: Contributions to the Study of the Early Thracian Tribal Coinage and its Relations to the Coinage of the Odrysians...6th-4th C. B.C. (Sophia, 2003).
Topalov, S. Apollonia Pontica, Contribution to the Study of the Coin Minting of the City 6th - 1st c. B.C. (Sofia, 2007).
Topalov, S. Messambria Pontica: Contribution to the Study the Coin Minting of the City, 5th-1st C. BC. (Sofia, 1995).
Topalov, S. Odesos: Contribution to the Study of the Coin Minting of the City, 4th-1st C. B.C. (Sofia, 1999).
Tzamalis, A.P. "Uncertain Thraco-Macedonian Coins" in NK 16-18 (1997-1999).
Varbanov, Ivan. Greek Imperial Coins And Their Values, (English Edition), Volume I: Dacia, Moesia Superior & Moesia Inferior. (Bourgas, 2005).
Varbanov, I. Greek Imperial Coins And Their Values, Volume II: Thrace (from Abdera to Pautalia), (English Edition). (Bourgas, 2005).
Varbanov, I. Greek Imperial Coins And Their Values, Volume III: Thrace (from Perinthus to Trajanopolis), Chersonesos Thraciae, Insula Thraciae, Macedonia. (Bourgas, 2007).
Waggoner, N.M. Early Greek Coins from the Collection of Jonathan P. Rosen (ANS ACNAC 5). (New York, 1983).
Wartenberg, U. & J. Kagan, "Some Comments on a New Hoard from the Balkan Sea" in Travaux Le Rider.
West, A. Fifth and Fourth Century Gold Coins from the Thracian Coast. ANSNNM 40 (1929).
Youroukova, Y. The Coins of the Ancient Thracians. (Oxford, 1976).
Zograph, A. Ancient Coinage. BAR Supplementary Series 33. (Oxford, 1977).
Zograph, A. Ancient Coinage, Part II: Ancient Coins of the Northern Black Sea Littoral. (Oxford, 1977).
In the following pages, which treat of the coins of Macedon, Thrace, and the north-western and northern coasts of the Euxine, an attempt has been made to present to the student a clearer method of classification by describing the coins of these northern regions in the following seventeen groups (A-H, Macedon and Paeonia, and I-R, Thrace and the northern coast of the Black Sea). The alphabetical arrangement has, therefore, in this section, been abandoned in favor of one which geographically, and to some extent chronologically, seems more instructive, although it may involve an occasional reference to the Index at the end of the volume.
(D.) The Chalcidian District. Orthagoreia; Apollonia (?); Acanthus; Olophyxus; Uranopolis; Terone; Sermyle; Olynthus; the Chalcidian League; Aphytis; Scione; Mende; Capsa; Potidaea; Cassandreia; Bottice; Dicaea; Aeneia.
(F.) Kingdom of Macedonia. Alexander I; Perdiccas II; Archelaus I; Aëropus; Amyntas II; Pausanias; Amyntas III; Perdiccas III; Philip II; Alexander the Great; Philip III; Cassander; Antigonus; Demetrius Poliorcetes; Pyrrhus; Interval; Antigonus Gonatas; Antigonus Doson; Demetrius II; Philip V and contemporary autonomous coins of Macedon; T. Quinctius Flamininus; Perseus; Adaeus (? Dynast).
(H.) Macedon, semi-independent and, later, under the Romans. Revolt of Andriscus; Amphaxitis; Beroea; Bottiaea Emathiae; Dium; Edessa; Heracleia Sintica; Pella; Phila (?); Scotussa; Stobi; Thessalonica.
This mountainous region was inhabited by rude tribes whose chief occupation consisted in working the silver and gold mines with which the hills abounded. It is natural that, among a population whose one staple of trade was gold and silver, a currency should have been adopted at a much earlier period than was the case among agricultural or pastoral peoples.
The earliest Thraco-Macedonian coins date from the earlier half of the sixth century B.C. In style and types they bear a striking resemblance to another series of coins conjecturally assigned to Thasos.
In weight the largest denominations are octadrachms of the Phoenician standard, which was perhaps derived from the important city of Abdera. The staters however follow, for the most part, the Babylonic standard of the coins of Thasos(?). There exists also an uninscribed electrum stater of the Phocaic standard (Fig. 111) which may possibly belong to this region.
Orrescii. Leake (Northern Greece, iii. p. 213) is of opinion that these people were identical with the Satrae and closely connected with the Bessi, or priests of the oracular temple of the Thracian Bacchus on Mt. Pangaeum.
|Centaur bearing a woman in his arms. (Fig. 111).||Deep incuse square quartered.
EL. 252 grs.
Babelon (Traité, II. 133) disputes this conjectural attribution, and, in spite of its characteristically Macedonian type, would assign the coin to one of the coast-towns of Asia Minor. Its specific gravity, however, shows that it contains 64 per cent. of pure gold, which differentiates it from the coins of Chios (Babelon, op. cit., Pl. VIII. 6, 8), with which Babelon compares it.
Inscr. ΟRRΕΚΙΟΝ, ΟRRΗΚΙΟΝ, ΩRΗΣΚΙΟΝ, ΩRΗΣΚΙΩΝ, etc., sometimes retrograde.
|Naked man with two spears or whip
conducting two oxen.
[Cf. N. C., 1897, Pl. XIII. 8.]
|Incuse square quartered (Fig. 112).
AR Octadrachm. (Phoenician) 440 grs.
|Man holding prancing horse by bridle.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 146.]
|Id. (sometimes diagonally divided).
AR Stater (Babylonic) 150 grs.
|Centaur bearing off nymph.
See also Imhoof MG, p. 85.]
AR 157.8 grs.
|Similar. [Montagu Cat., 188.]||Crested helmet in incuse square.
AR 145.5 grs.
|...ΝΑΙΩ ? or ΔΙΟΝΥ... ? Centaur with nymph. [BMC Macedonia, p. 148, and Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLVI.]||Incuse square quartered. |
|ΖΑΙΕΛΕΩΝ Centaur with nymph.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 149.]
|Incuse square quartered (Fig. 113).
Other staters with the same obverse type are inscribed ΕΤΑΙΟΝ, and have on the reverse a helmet in an incuse square (N. C., 1892, Pl. II. 4; Berlin Catalog, II. Pl. IV. 35, and p. 91; cf. also Hunter, I. Pl. XIX. 16).
Neapolis (originally Daton), the modern Kavala, lay on the coast at the foot of Mt. Pangaeum, opposite Thasos. Commercially it must have been a town of some importance, owing to its position at the only point where the great military high road through Thrace touched the sea. It was probably originally a Thasian settlement, subsequently tributary to Athens and partially occupied by Athenians, who derived much profit from the neighboring Pangaean mines. Its silver coinage begins before B.C. 500 and continues in an unbroken series down to the time of Philip, exhibiting in fabric and weight much similarity to the money usually attributed to Thasos. The Gorgon-head as a coin-type appears to have been copied from the earliest coins of Eretria in Euboea (Hill, N. C., 1893, pp. 255 sqq.).
|Gorgon-head (Fig. 114).||Incuse square quartered or diagonally
divided; cf. N. C., 1899, p. 272,
Pl. XV. 5. |
AR Stater 150 grs.
AR Third 55 grs.
AR Ninth 17 grs.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. XXI. 12; cf. Sotheby, Sale Cat., May, 1904; drachm with Dove under chin of goddess on rev.]
|ΝΕΟΠ Head of the Parthenos of Neapolis (Artemis?) bound with laurel wreath or plain cord.|
The two following coins seem also to belong to the latter part of this period :—
|Gorgon-head. [Berlin Catalog,, II. 102.]||ΝΕΟΠΟΛΙΤΕΩΝ Head of the Parthenos of Neapolis (Artemis?) as above.
AR Drachm 55 grs.
|Id. [Ibid., 103.]||ΝΕΑΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ Goddess standing to front, crowned with polos and holding phiale and poppy head (?)
Eïon, at the mouth of the Strymon, appears in early times to have been a prosperous port, but it was afterwards eclipsed, B.C. 437, by its near neighbor, Amphipolis. The attribution to this town of the coins with a duck or goose for type is only due to their having been frequently found in that locality. Aquatic birds in large numbers are said still to haunt the shores and marsh-lands of lake Cercinitis and the mouth of the Strymon. The letters Α, Η, Θ, Λ, and Ν, which occur on these little coins, are unexplained. Isolated letters in the field are also noticeable on coins of Neapolis and Thasos (?).
|Goose with head turned back; in field, lizard. [Berlin Catalog,, II. 84.]||Incuse square. |
El. Hecte 40 grs.
|Id. without lizard.|| „ „ |
El. ½ Hecte 20 grs.
|One or two geese, usually accompanied by lizard, often with letters in field.
[BMC Macedonia, pp. 72 sqq.; Babelon, Traité, Pl. LV.]
|Incuse square. |
AR 69 grs.
AR 20-13 grs.
AR 10 grs.
AR 6 grs.
Lete. This town stood at the issue of a glen leading through the Dysôron ridge of mountains which overlooked the plain of Therma, at a distance of from two to four hours ' journey northwards from that place. (Archives des missions scientifiques et littéraires, Ser. iii. Tom. iii. pp. 276 sqq.) The rich coinage conjecturally attributed to a city so little known historically as Lete may be accounted for by the fact that it occupied a site commanding the route between the Pangaean district and the silver mines (Herod. v. 17) on the one side, and the fertile plain of lower Macedonia on the other (see map in BMC Macedonia).
The coinage here assigned to Lete closely resembles in style, fabric, and weight the money of the Orrescii and the other Pangaean tribes, and illustrates in a remarkable manner the cult of the mountain Bacchus with his following of Satyrs, Centaurs, and Nymphs, which was characteristic of the country of the Satrae (Herod. vii. 111). During these Bacchic festivals, for which coins would be required, rude and primitive dramatic performances may account for the obscenity of the types.
|Naked ithyphallic Satyr with horse 's feet, ears, and tail, seizing by the wrist a Maenad clothed in a sleeveless chiton; pellets in field.||Incuse square divided into four triangular parts (Fig. 115).|
|Satyr squatting or kneeling, sometimes veretrum tenens. [BMC Macedonia, p. 80.]||Incuse square. |
AR 19 grs. (= 1½ Obol).
Inscr. fragmentary, and barely legible, ΕΤΑΙΟ.
Staters with types as above. On this later series the incuse square is usually divided into four quadrilateral parts. For varieties see Babelon, Traité, and Berlin Catalog,, II. p. 92 ff. Cf. also other staters of the Pangaean district (supra, p. 196), some of which belong to Lete. e.g. ΕΤΑΙΟ Centaur carrying off Maenad, rev. Helmet in incuse square (Babelon, Traité, Pl. L. 20, 21).
When Alexander I possessed himself of this region he appears to have monopolized the right of striking money, for none of the coins of Lete can be attributed to a later period than B.C. 480.
Concerning the types see Babelon, op. cit.
The early silver coins conjecturally attributed to it recall, in their type of the kneeling he-goat, the story told of Karanos its founder, a brother of Pheidon, king of Argos, who was directed by an oracle 'to seek an empire by the guidance of goats '. Cf. a similar legend concerning Perdiccas I (Herod. viii. 137).
The standard of these early coins is the Babylonic, which must have penetrated into the highlands of Macedon by way of the Lydias valley through Lete and Ichnae (see map in BMC Macedonia and for coins, Imhoof Münzkab. Karlsruhe, p. 7).
|He-goat kneeling, looking back; above, ΛΑ, , Θ, , lotus flower, or pellets, concerning which see Babelon, Traité, p. 1101.||Quadripartite incuse square (Fig. 116).
AR Staters, 150 grs.[N. C., 1892, Pl. I. 7.]
AR Small coins, 16 grs.
See also Imperial coins with inscr. ΕΔΕΣΣΑΙΩΝ (p. 244).
Ichnae, in lower Macedonia, lay between the Axius and the Lydias, not far from Pella. Herodotus (vii. 123) mentions it as one of the towns in which the army of Xerxes halted before advancing southwards into Greece.
The silver coins of Ichnae follow the Pangaean (Babylonic and Phoenician) standards. The obverse types are similar to those of the coins of the Orrescii and of the Edoni. These two facts show where the earliest silver coinage of Macedon took its rise.
|Ι]ΨΝΑΙ[ΟΝ Naked man walking between two oxen, one of which he holds by the collar.||Wheel in incuse square (Fig. 117).
AR Octadrachm (Phoenician), 430 grs.[Num. Chron., 1885, p. 3.]
|ΙΨΝΑΙΩΝ or ΙΨΝΑΟΝ (retrograde) Warrior restraining a prancing horse.||Wheel. [Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIX.
AR Stater (Babylonic), 142 grs.
Tynteni. Whether there was a city called Tynte or whether the Tynteni were a Thraco-Macedonian tribe occupying scattered villages is uncertain. Babelon (Traité, p. 1109) suggests that Tynte may be identical with Daton. Or the coins, which resemble those of the Orrescii and of the town of Ichnae, may have been struck at Ichnae for the Tynteni (Rev. Num., 1903, 317, and Berlin Catalog II. p. 162, and Pl. VI. 55).
|ΤVΝΤΕΝΟΝ Man holding prancing horse. [Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIX. 14.]||Wheel with axle crossed by two transverse bars, in incuse square; or incuse square of mill-sail pattern without wheel.
AR Stater, wt. 144 grs.
Bisaltae. This tribe occupied the tract of land west of the Strymon, including the metalliferous mountains which separate the valley of the Strymon from Mygdonia. Their coins follow the Phoenician standard. When inscribed they furnish us with several epigraphical peculiarities, such as C and < for Β, etc. When uninscribed they cannot be distinguished from coins of Alexander I of Macedon, who, after the retreat of the Persians, acquired the whole of the Bisaltian territory as far as the Strymon, together with its rich mines, and adopted at the same time the Bisaltian coinage, placing upon it his own name :—
Inscr. CΙΣΑΤΙΚΩΝ, CΙΣΑΛΤΙΚN, CΙΑΤΙΚΟ, <ΙΕ┻.... ΒΙΣΑΛΤΙΚΟΝ, etc., on octadrachms: smaller coins uninscribed.
|Naked warrior, armed with two spears
and wearing kausia, standing beside
horse. Symbol in front sometimes,
, or bearded head.
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLVII. 2.]
|Quadripartite incuse square (Fig. 118).
AR Octadrachm, 448 grs.
AR Drachm, 79-60 grs.
|Horseman with two spears, chlamys, and kausia.||Id. |
AR Tetradrachm, 224 grs.
AR Tetrobol, 37 grs.
Mosses. Perhaps a king of the Bisaltae or of the Edoni. Circ. B.C. 500-480. Known only from his coins.
|Warrior beside horse, as above. Symbol, occasionally, helmet.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 143.]
|ΜΟΣΣΕΩ or ΜΩΣΣΕΟ in square
AR Drachms and Tetrobols.
Docimus (?). From the following coins of the earlier half of the fifth century B.C. it would seem that a dynast of this name may have ruled for a time over one or other of the Thraco-Macedonian tribes.
|ΔΟΚΙ (sometimes retrogr.) Bull, kneeling on one knee and looking back.||Helmet in incuse square|
AR 39-36 grs.[BMC Macedonia, p. 151.]
|No inscr. Similar type.||Wheel with axle-beam crossed by two transverse bars.
AR 60 grs. and smaller divisions.[Ib., p. 154.]
For varieties see Imhoof MG, pp. 98 sqq.
|ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟ Horse walking.
[Hunter, I. Pl. XIX. 19.]
|Male head bound with taenia, in incuse
|Nude figure (Hermes?) guiding two oxen. [BMC Macedonia, p. 144.]||ΓΕΤΑΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣΗΔΩΝΑΝ Written round an incuse square, in center of which a raised quadripartite square.
AR Octadrachm, 427.8 grs.
|Similar (Fig. 119).||ΓΕΤΑΣ ΗΔΟΝΕΟΝ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ Similar. |
AR Octadrachm 417.8 grs.
[Journ. Int., 1898, Pl. I. 4.]
|ΓΕΤΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥ ΗΔΩΝΕΩΝ Similar. |
AR Octadrachm 437 grs.
|Similar. [Ib., Pl. I. 2.]||[ΓΕΤΑΣ Β]ΑΣΙΛ[ΕΥΣ ΗΔΩ]ΝΑΝ ??
Wheel with four spokes in shallow incuse square |
AR Octadrachm 448 grs.
Cf. with this last coin the octadrachm of Ichnae (N. C., 1885, 3).
Most of these coins come from Mesopotamia or Syria, whither, we may presume, they were conveyed by the Persians, to whom the Thraco-Macedonian tribes had been tributary since their conquest by Darius, B.C. 513.
Derrones. H. Gaebler (Z. f. N., xx. 289) has pointed out that the remarkable series of dekadrachms of Euboïc (?) weight, conjecturally attributed in the first edition of this work to an unknown king of the Odomanti, on the borders of the Bisaltian territory, by name Derronikos, belong in reality to a tribe called the Derrones, perhaps the Δερσαιοι (Herod. vii. 110) or Δερραιοι (Steph. Byz.), who, he thinks, may have occupied the central or Sithonian peninsula of Chalcidice, of which the city of Terone was the chief coast town. Th. Reinach, on the other hand (R. N., 1897, 125), would place the Derrones between the Crestones and the Odomanti, in the valleys of Mt. Dysôron, and there can be no doubt that their coins resemble in style those of the Bisaltians more than those of any place in Chalcidice. It is only their apparently Euboïc weight which connects them with the latter district. Reinach 's location of the Derrones is therefore probably correct, and in striking confirmation of it he publishes a unique silver stater of king Lykkeios of Paeonia (B.C. 359-340), on the obverse of which is a beardless laureate head accompanied by the legend ΔΕΡΡΩΝΑΙΟΣ, proving that Paeonians and Derronians worshipped the same god, and that consequently they must have been near neighbors. The fact that the early Derronian coins may be dekadrachms of the Euboïc or Chalcidian standard suggests that this tribe may have occupied the country between Chalcidice and the Pangaean and Bisaltian silver mines, and that the chief source of their wealth may have been the carrying trade between the two. Such an intermediate position might also explain the fluctuating weights of their coins, which range between the Euboïc standard of the Chalcidian coast towns and the Phoenician standard prevalent in the inland districts. They may also have circulated as octadrachms of the Babylonic standard. The car drawn by oxen would also be an appropriate type for the coins of carriers.
Of these coins, ranging in weight from about 640-580 grs. or less, and dating from about B.C. 500, the following are the principal varieties.
|ΔΕRRΟΝΙΚΟS Two oxen yoked to car. In field, two circles (shields ?). [Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIV. 2.]||Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR 580 grs.
|ΔΕΡΡΟ Similar, but Hermes, bearded, with caduceus drives oxen. [Ib., Fig. 3.]|| „ „ |
AR 620 grs.
|ΔΕRRΟΝΙΚΟN or no inscr. Bearded man driving car drawn by pair of oxen. Symbols, above, eagle carrying tortoise; large shield with star on it; Corinthian helmet (Fig. 120), Corinthian helmet and shield. Symbols beneath, apluster, flower, palmette.||Triskeles, sometimes with palmetto
between legs. |
AR 636-619 grs.
The two adjectival forms of the legend, Δερρωνικος and Δερρωνικον, correspond with Βισαλτικος and Βισαλτικον on the coins of the neighboring tribe, the Bisaltae. Reinach (op. cit.) suggests that masculine and neuter nouns (e. g. χαρακτηρ and αργυριον) are to be understood.
In addition to the above described coins of the Derrones there are several barbarous imitations of them, issued by neighboring tribes, e. g. those with the inscr. ΛΑΙΑΙ on the obv. and a Pegasos in a double linear square on the rev., which are attributed by Svoronos (Ephem., 1889, 94) to the Laeaei, a Paeonian tribe (Thuc. ii. 95, 96). With regard to these see Gaebler (op. cit.), and Babelon (Traité, p. 1048).
For references to illustrations see the above cited works, and BMC Macedonia; Imhoof MG, Pl. D. 1; Ashburnham Cat., Pl. III. 71; Reinach, L 'Histoire par les monnaies, 1902, Pl. V; and Babelon, Traité, Pl. XLIV.
Therma (?), later Thessalonica. The central position of this town (the modern Salonica), at the head of the Thermaic gulf, threw it of necessity into communication both by sea and land with various cities and tribes using money struck on various standards, Babylonic, Euboïc, and Phoenician. No early coins are, however, known which can be with certainty attributed to it, although it is possible that many uninscribed Macedonian coins, which have been found at Salonica, may have been struck there. For some of these see BMC Macedonia, pp. xxv and 135. The only coins which have been, with some probability, assigned to Therma are those with a Pegasos on the obverse, a type which seems especially applicable to Therma, supposing it to have been a colony of Corinth.
|Pegasos standing (symbol, sometimes, apluster) or galloping with hound beneath him.||Flat incuse square, usually quartered.
[BMC Macedonia, 136, 137.]
AR Tetradrachm, 210 grs.
Imhoof MG, p. 105, while accepting the coins with the Pegasos as probably of Therma, gives reasons for rejecting the hypothesis that many other coins marked with the symbol or Θ, and bearing the types of various Macedonian towns, were also struck at Therma.
The Greek towns which studded the coasts of Chalcidice, with its three huge tongues of land extending far into the sea, were for the most part sprung from the two enterprising Euboean cities, Chalcis and Eretria. From Euboea these colonies derived the Euboïc silver standard, which took firm root in those northern regions, and continued in general use until the latter part of the fifth century, when, as will presently be seen, it was in nearly all of them superseded by the Phoenician or Macedonian standard.
Beginning with the eastern shores of the promontory, and taking the towns in order from east to west, the first town we come to of which coins are known is—
Orthagoreia. Eckhel (ii. 73), on the authority of a fragment of the Geographi Minores, identifies Orthagoreia with Stageira, on the Strymonic gulf (but see Pliny iv. 11, 18). In style and weight its coins form an exception to those of the other Chalcidic cities, and correspond with those of the kings of Macedon from Archelaus to Perdiccas III (B.C. 413-359) as well as with the contemporary coins of Abdera and Maroneia.
|Head of Artemis in profile.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 88.]
|ΟΡΘΑΓΟΡΕΩΝ Macedonian helmet
to front, surmounted by star.
AR Persic Stater, 1.68 grs.
|Id. Three-quarter face. [BMC Macedonia, p. 88.]||Id. |
AR Triobol. 42 grs.
|Head of Apollo. [BMC Macedonia, p. 89.]||Id. |
Æ Size .5
Apollonia (?). There were three Macedonian towns of this name, one of which, situated to the south of Lake Bolbe, may, according to Imhoof, have issued the following bronze coins. The attribution is very doubtful. The inscr. ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ occurs elsewhere only on some coins of Tauromenium in Sicily. Imhoof (Imhoof MG, p. 65) would supply the word πολις. In spite of the inscr. the types refer to the cult of Dionysos.
|Young male head crowned with ivy.|
[Hunter, I. 270; Berlin Catalog,, II. 65.]
|ΑΠΟΛ ΛΩΝΟΣ Amphora. |
These uncertain coins may be compared for style with those of the unknown rulers Adaeus and Cavarus, and with the coins reading ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟΣ ΙΑΤΡΟΥ, assigned by Pick to Apollonia Pontica (Jahr. arch. Inst., xiii. 169), and by Svoronos (Journ. int. d 'arch.-num., i. p. 86) to Peparethus (p. 313 infra).
Acanthus was an ancient colony from Andros, situated on the isthmus which connects the peninsula of Acte with the mainland of Chalcidice. It began to coin silver in large quantities about B.C. 500 or earlier. Until the time of the expedition of Brasidas, B.C. 424, the Euboïc standard was used, after that date the Phoenician.
|Lion on the back of a bull, fastening upon him with his teeth and claws (Fig. 121); changing symbols in field or exergue on later specimens.||Quadripartite incuse square. Later
specimens inscribed ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ.
AR Tetradrachm. 270 grs.
Herodotus (vii. 125 sq.) relates that while Xerxes was marching from Acanthus to Therma his camels were set upon by lions, and he proceeds to state that all these northern regions, west of the river Nestus, abounded with lions and wild bulls with gigantic horns. The coin-type may not, however, be derived from local incidents of this kind, as it is of far more ancient and perhaps Anatolian origin in connection with the worship of Kybele (Soph., Philoktetes, 400; cf. J. H. S., xx. 118). There are also similar tetradrachms on which the animal seized by the lion is a boar instead of a bull (Z. f. N., xxiv. 48). This rare uninscribed variety was probably issued by some town in the neighborhood of Acanthus, perhaps Stageira, whose port, north of Acanthus, was called Καπρος (Strab. vii. 35). For other staters, etc. with the type of a boar or a sow see Perdrizet (Rev. Num., 1903, 313).
|Bull kneeling on one knee, head turned back; above or in ex., flower. [B. M.]||Quadripartite incuse square |
AR Drachm 62 grs.
|Forepart of lion or, more rarely, of bull; above, flower, or||Id. [BMC Macedonia, p. 32].
|Head of Athena.||Id. [Ibid., p. 33]. |
|Lion 's head facing, with neck.||Id. [Ibid., p. 34]. |
|Lion seizing bull; often with magistrate 's name, ΑΛΕΞΙΣ, ΑΛΕΞΙΟΣ, ΕΥΚ, ΟΝΟΜΑΣΤΟ, ΠΟ, etc.||ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ around the border of an
incuse square, within which a quadripartite linear square (Fig. 122).
AR Tetradrachm 224 grs.
|Forepart of bull turning round. Various symbols and letters.||Quadripartite incuse square. [B. M.
C., Mac., p. 35.]. |
AR Tetrobol 37 grs.
AR Triobol. 28 grs.
|Head of Athena, helmet wreathed with olive. [Imhoof MG, 61.]||ΑΚΑΝ in the four quarters of a square.
AR Diobol 20 grs.
|Head of Apollo, with short hair. [BMC Macedonia, p. 36.]||ΑΚΑΝΘΙΟΝ Lyre in incuse square.
AR Obol, 9 grs.
The bronze coins of Acanthus are all subsequent to B.C. 400.
|Head of Athena.||ΑΚΑΝ in the four quarters of a wheel
|Id.||ΑΚΑΝ in the four quarters of a linear
Olophyxus. A small town near the summit of Mt. Athos (Herod. vii. 22; Strab. vii. Fr. 33, 35). Its name is mentioned in the Athenian quota-lists, and its weights and measures are alluded to in Aristoph. Av. 1041.
|Female head of fine style in stephane, hair rolled. [B. M.]||ΟΛΟΦΥΞΙΩΝ Eagle standing, wings
closed, in linear sq. |
Æ .6[N. C., 1903, 319.]
Uranopolis, on the peninsula of Acte, probably on Mt. Athos, is said to have been founded by Alexarchus, brother of Cassander (Athen. iii. 20). The silver coins of this city are the only ones in Macedon which adhere to the Phoenician standard in post-Alexandrine times. On the types, which are suggested by the name of the town, see Num. Chron., 1880, p. 58, and Imhoof (Imhoof MG, p. 96).
|Sun, moon, and five stars.
[Zeit. f. Num., v. Pl. I. 2.]
|ΟΥΡΑΝΙΔΩΝ Aphrodite Urania holding sceptre and seated
on globe; in field Λ
AR Tetradrachm 209 grs.
|Radiate globe (the sun).
[BMC Macedonia, p. 133.]
| „ Id. |
AR Didrachm 107 grs.
|The sun as a star of eight rays.||ΟΥΡΑΝΙΔΩΝ ΠΟΛΕΩΣ.
AR Drachm, 56 grs.
|Id.|| „ Id. |
Æ Size .65
|Star and crescent (sun and moon).|| „ „ Id. |
Æ Size .5
Terone or Torone, on the Sithonian peninsula, was one of the most flourishing of the Chalcidian colonies. During the expedition of Xerxes it was one of the towns which furnished ships and men to the Persian armament. The tetradrachms are probably all anterior to B.C. 480. Of the period of the Athenian supremacy tetrobols only are known.
In B.C. 424 Terone opened its gates to Brasidas, but was shortly afterwards recovered for Athens by Cleon.
Here, as elsewhere in Chalcidice, the Euboïc standard appears to have been replaced, circ. B.C. 424, by the Phoenician, but there are no coins of Terone after circ. B.C. 420.
|ΗΕ, or ΤΕ, or no inscription; Amphora, on which one or more bunches of grapes.||Quadripartite shallow incuse square.
(Fig. 123). |
AR Tetradrachm 270 grs.
|ΤΕ Oenochoë.||Id. |
[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 25.]
|Forepart of goat in incuse square.
AR ½ Obol.
|Naked Satyr looking down into an
[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 23.]
|ΤΕ Goat in incuse square; or
ΤΕΡΩΝΑΟΝ, around a quadripartite square. |
|ΤΕ Oenochoë.||Goat 's bead in incuse square.|
|Stork plunging his bill into an oenochoë. [Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 24.]||Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR ½ Obol.
|ΣΕΡΜVΛΙΚΟΝ, ΣΕΡΜVΛΙΑΟΝ, etc. Naked horseman with spear, galloping; hound, sometimes, beneath the horse.||Quadripartite incuse square. (Fig. 124.)
The following coins, which can hardly be later than the end of the sixth century B.C., have been assigned by some numismatists to Chalcis in Euboea. The Chalcidian colony Olynthus appears however to be a far more probable place of mintage. In any case the engravers of these remarkable coins were unrivaled masters of the difficult art of representing in relief a horse and his rider seen from the front. The types, like those of Elis, seem to be agonistic, and to refer to contests at Olympia. Thus the Eagle and Serpent, as at Elis and at Chalcis, is the well-known omen of victory of the Olympian Zeus. The chariot, the horses, and the horse (sometimes standing beside the 'meta ') are equally significant of Olympian contests.
The weight-standard of the early Olynthian coins, like that of the other Chalcidian colonies in Macedon is the Euboïc, which in the fourth century is exchanged for the Phoenician standard.
|Quadriga of walking horses r. driven
by bearded charioteer.
[N. C., 1878, p. 85.]
|incuse square of irregular mill-sail pattern.
AR Tetradrachm 259 grs.
|Quadriga seen from front, in plain
[N. C., 1892, Pl. XV. 8.]
AR Tetradrachm 258.8 grs.
|Man riding horse to front and leading another by bridle : the whole on raised disk. [Ibid., Pl. XV. 9.]||Similar. |
AR Octobol, 86.3 grs.
|Man riding horse to front.
[Ibid., Pl. XV. 10.]
AR Tetrobol, 43.2 grs.
|Horseman r. on raised disk. [B. M.]||Similar. |
AR Tetrobol, 41.5 grs.
|Quadriga r. driven by man holding
whip; above, large disk.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 86.]
|Eagle flying in incuse square in the midst of
a larger incuse square (Fig. 125).
AR Tetradrachm 255.6 grs.
|Beardless male (?) head l. laureate (?); hair
in bunch behind.
[N. C., 1892, Pl. XV. 11.]
|Quadriga seen from front in incuse square. |
AR Tetradrachm, 242.1 grs.
|Man to front, holding horse also to front. [N. C., 1892, p. 191.]||Eagle flying in incuse square. |
AR Tetrobol (?)
|Free horse cantering.
[N. C., 1897, Pl. XIII. 6.]
Κ in four corners of incuse square, within which, flying eagle.
AR Tetrobol, 41 grs.
|Similar. [BMC Macedonia, p. 87.]||ΟΛ|
ΝΛ (=ΟΛΥΝ) Similar.
AR Tetrobol, 36 grs.
|Horse attached by bridle to Ionic column (meta ?). [Ibid.]||Similar. |
AR Tetrobol, 36 grs.
|Forepart of prancing horse. [Ibid.]||No inscr. Eagle with serpent in incuse square. |
AR Diobol, 20.3 grs.
|Young male head in crested Athenian helmet, on which, dolphin. [B. M.]||Similar. |
AR Obol, 8.7 grs.
For other coins with Eagle and Serpent see Sparadocus, Chalcis Eub., and Elis. Although this type, as at Elis, may symbolize the Olympian Zeus, and thus refer to victories at the Olympian games, it may also be considered as affording an instance of a colony adopting the type of the money of its mother-city (Chalcis in Euboea). The coin reading ↓ΑΚ suggests that, even in the earlier half of the fifth century, Olynthus issued money for Olympic festivals in the name of all the Chalcidian colonists who attended the games.
The Chalcidian League. Into this period falls the beautiful federal currency of the Chalcidian League, constituted B.C. 392, of which the head quarters and doubtless the mint were at Olynthus. There is every reason to suppose that this series was continued until Philip made himself master of Chalcidice, B.C. 358. The heads of Apollo on these coins are remarkable for their great variety, no less than for the strength and beauty of their style (see Wroth in N. C., 1897, p. 100 [citing Pl. III. 11 and B. M. Guide, Pl. XXI. 10-11]).
|Head of Apollo laureate. [B. M. Guide, Pl. XXI. 9; Berlin Catalog,, II. Pl. IV. 29.]||ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Lyre. Sometimes with
magistrates ' names,|
These beautiful gold staters were doubtless issued for war expenses shortly before B.C. 358.
|Head of Apollo, laureate (Fig. 126).||ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Lyre; occasionally
with adjunct symbol above it. Magistrates sometimes— ΕΠΙ ΑΝΝΙΚΑ,
ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝΟΣ, ΑΡΧΙΔΑΜΟ, ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΔΩΡΟ and ΚΡΑ, ΕΥΔΩΡΙΔΑ, ΛΕΑΔΕΟΣ, ΟΛΥ[ΜΠΙΧΟΥ], ΠΟΛΥΞΕΝΟΥ, ΣΤΡΑΤΩΝΟΣ, etc. |
AR Tetradrachm 224 grs.
|Id.||ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Lyre, sometimes in
incuse square. |
AR Tetrobols, 37 grs.
|ΟΛΥΝΘ[Ι] Head of Apollo, laureate.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 87.]
|ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Lyre in incuse square.
|Head of Apollo, laureate.||ΧΑΛΚΙΔ Tripod. |
AR Fractions of obol.
|Id.||ΧΑΛΚΙΔΕΩΝ Lyre. |
Aphytis, on the eastern shore of the peninsula of Pallene, was celebrated for its temple of Zeus Ammon (Plut., Lys., xx; Paus. iii. 18. 3 ‘Αφυταιοι δε τιμωσιν Αμμωνα ουδεν ησσον η οι 'Αμμωνιοι Λιβυων). While tributary to Athens, before B.C. 424, it struck no coins (Corp. Inscr. Att., vol. i. p. 229). The following appear to have been issued before its conquest by Philip (B.C. 358).
|Head of Zeus Ammon with ram 's horns facing.||ΑΦΥΤΑΙΩΝ Kantharos. |
Æ .65[BMC Macedonia, p. 61.]
|Id. in profile.||ΑΦΥ Two eagles face to face. |
|Id.||ΑΦΥ One eagle. |
The head of Ammon at Aphytis, as at Cyrene, Tenos, Mytilene, and Lesbos, is represented either bearded or youthful. The kantharos refers to the worship of Dionysos at Aphytis, where, according to Xenophon (Hell. v. 3. 19), there was a temple of that god. The next coins, of later style, were probably issued shortly before the overthrow of the Macedonian kingdom (B.C. 168).
|Head of Zeus Ammon.
[See also Imhoof MG, p. 64.]
|ΑΦΥΤΑΙ Eagle, or two eagles face to
Scione, the chief town on the south coast of Pallene, was probably of Euboean origin, notwithstanding the fact that the inhabitants ascribed the foundation of their city to some one of the Achaean heroes returning from Troy. In B.C. 424 it revolted from Athens, and two years afterwards was captured and its inhabitants put to the sword.
The archaic coins of Scione are more numerous than has been hitherto suspected, although the tetradrachms of Euboïc weight with a bunch of grapes on the obv., and on the rev. a winged genius, a head of bearded Herakles, or a crested helmet, formerly assigned by me (N. C., 1891) to Cyrene, and later by Hill (J. H. S., 1897) conjecturally to a city in Chalcidice (Scione?), have been recently shown by Wroth (J. H. S., 1907) to have been issued in the island of Peparethus (q.v.). The following inscribed specimens, beginning in archaic times, lead us however to suppose that Scione may have previously struck the uninscribed coins figured by Babelon, Traité, Pl. LII. 1-3.
|Young heroic head of archaic style bound with taenia with spike in front. [B. M. and Imhoof MG, Pl. E. 27.]||ΣΚΙΟ in corners of incuse square containing
large human eye. |
AR 33 grs.
AR 5.6 grs.
|Similar. [B. M.]||ΣΚΙΟ in corners of incuse square containing
bunch of grapes. |
AR 9.4 grs.
|Similar. [B. M.]||ΣΚΙΟ in corners of incuse square containing
AR 42.5 grs.
|Similar, of later style.
[N. C., 1891, Pl. IV. 4.]
|ΣΚΙΟ Similar. |
AR 34.8 grs.
[B. M.]. AR 5.7 grs.
|Similar. [B. M.]||ΣΚΙΩΝΑΙΩΝ Helmet. |
AR 30.5 grs.
|Similar. [B. M.]||ΣΚΙΩ Helmet. |
Æ Size .8
|Female head. [B. M.]||ΣΚΙΩ Two doves billing. |
Æ Size .6
The large Eye on some of the archaic specimens is probably 'shorthand ' for a prow, of which the eye was the most conspicuous feature.
Mende was an ancient colony of Eretria, situate on the south-west side of Cape Poseidion in Pallene. The types of its coins illustrate some forgotten myth of Dionysos and his companion Seilenos (Maonald, Coin Types, p. 108). The wine of Mende was famous and is frequently mentioned by ancient writers. It may be doubted whether any coins were struck at Mende after its first capture by Philip, B.C. 358. Here, as at Acanthus, etc., the Euboïc standard gives place to the Phoenician about B.C. 424. For the earliest uninscribed coins, apparently of the sixth century B.C., see Babelon, Traité, pp. 1130 sqq.
|ΜΙΝ or ΜΕΝ, ΜΙΝΔΑΟΝ, ΜΙΝΔΑΙΟΝ, or no inscription. Ass (ithyphallic) standing usually before vine; on his back a crow pecking at his tail. Symbol, sometimes crescent moon, cock, or bunch of grapes.||Four or more incuse triangles in mill-sail pattern; in center sometimes Θ.
[B. M. Guide, Pl. IV. 8, etc.; Zeit.
f. Num., x. Taf. III. 3.].
AR Euboïc tetradrachm.
AR Tetradrachm and divisions.
|Head of Ass.||Id. |
|Seilenos reclining on back of ass. He holds a kantharos. In front a crow seated on an ivy-tree, and beneath ass, sometimes a dog.||ΜΕΝΔΑΙΟΝ Vine in incuse square
(Fig. 127). |
|Seilenos standing beside ass and holding it by the ears.|| „ Crow in incuse square.
AR Tetrobol.[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 19, 20.]
|Forepart of ass.||Kantharos.|
|Head of young Dionysos crowned with ivy. [Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 21.]||ΜΕΝΔΑΙΩΝ Ass standing; on his
back a crow pecking at his tail; incuse circle.
AR Tetradrachm (Phoenician), 190 grs.
[Imhoof, op. cit., p. 83, No. 89.]
|ΜΕΝΔΑΙΩΝ Amphora between two
branches of ivy. |
|Seilenos reclining on ass.||ΜΕΝΔΑΙΗ or ΜΕΝΔΑΙΩΝ Amphora in shallow incuse square.
|Head of young Dionysos.||ΜΕΝΔΑ One or two amphorae
accompanied by ivy-sprays.
|Ass; above, vase (kylix).
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. LI. 23.]
|Κ Α in two of four incuse triangles.
AR Tetrobol, 45 grs.
Potidaea, a colony of Corinth on the Thermaic gulf, began to coin money about B.C. 500. Its name is clearly derived from Poseidon (cf. Poseidonia). The type of the tetradrachm was doubtless suggested by the sacred image of Poseidon, which Herodotus (viii. 129) mentions as standing in front of the city, εν τω προαστειω. Millingen (Syll., p. 48) thinks that the female head on the tetrobol may represent Pallene, from whom the peninsula received its name. With the celebrated blockade of Potidaea by the Athenians, B.C. 432-429, the silver coinage comes to an end. The bronze coins belong to the fourth century, but they are no doubt earlier than B.C. 358, when Philip of Macedon seized the city and handed it over to the Olynthians.
|Π Poseidon Hippios on horseback. He holds trident; under horse, star.||Incuse square, diagonally divided
(Fig. 128). |
AR Euboïc tetradrachm
[BMC Macedonia; cf. N. C., 1900, Pl. XIII. 4.]
|Incuse square quartered. Fleur-de-lis
in two quarters. |
|ΠΟ or Π Id.||Female head of archaic style in spiked
leather cap covered with dots, all in
incuse square. |
|Π Naked horseman on forepart of prancing horse.||Similar. |
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.||ΠΟΤ Pegasos or Trident. |
|Female head with ear-ring.||ΠΟΤΕΙ Bull butting. |
Cassandreia. This town was founded by Cassander on the site of Potidaea. No coins are known until after the time of Augustus, when the city received a Roman colony, and struck bronze coins with Latin legends between the reigns of Claudius and Philippus.
In the Molthe in Cat. (971) an earlier coin is ascribed to Cassandreia, but cf. 1141. Both are probably coins of Cassander.
Bottice. The Bottiaeans originally occupied the fertile plains between the lower courses of the Axius, Lydias, and Haliacmon, a district of Emathia which retained the name of Bottiaea until after the Roman conquest. The original Bottiaeans were however expelled at an early date and settled near Olynthus in the district called after them Bottice. Their chief city was Spartolus (BMC Macedonia, p. xl).
|Head of Demeter in low stephanos wreathed with corn. [Imhoof, Choix, Pl. I. 16; BMC Macedonia, 63.]||ΒΟΤΤΙΑΙΩΝ Forepart of bull in
AR Phoenician Tetrobol 36 grs.
|Head of Apollo laureate.
[BMC Macedonia, 63; Berlin Catalog,, 69.]
|ΒΟΤΤΙΑΙΩΝ Lyre. |
|Head of Artemis.|| „ Id. |
|Female head.|| „ Bull butting. |
Dicaea, on the Thermaic gulf, was a colony of Eretria, from which its oldest coin-types are borrowed. On the distinction between the coins of this town and those of Dicaea in Thrace, see J. P. Six (Num. Chron., N. S., Vol. xv. p. 97). In the Athenian Quota-lists (Corp. Inscr. Att., Vol. i. p. 230) it is called Δικαια 'Ερετρι[ων], and the inhabitants Δικαιοπολιται 'Ερετριων αποικοι.
|Cow scratching herself, with bird on
back; beneath and ΔΙ.
[Imhoof GM, Pl. I. 9.]
|Octopus in incuse square.|
AR Euboïc tetradrachm 264 grs.
|Cow scratching herself; inscr. sometimes
[Babelon, Traité, Pl. LI. 1-3.]
|incuse square quartered or divided into
several triangular sinkings.
AR Tetrobol 44 grs.
|Cock. [Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 14.]||Octopus in incuse square.
AR Tetrobol 41 grs.
|Cock; above, (solar ?) disk containing elaborate stellate pattern; in front, volute. [N. C., 1893, Pl. I. 1.]||Id. |
AR Tetrobol 36.4 grs.
[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 15.]
|Scallop shell in incuse square.
AR Diobol 13 grs.
|Horse standing; in field, : [B. M.]||Δ in incuse square. |
AR Diobol 12.6 grs.
|ΔΙΚΑ Bull standing.
[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 16.]
|Octopus in incuse square.
AR Diobol 13 grs.
|ΔΙ Forepart of bull.
[Ibid., Pl. C. 17.]
AR Obol, 6 grs.
|Head of Athena. [Ibid., p. 73.]||ΔΙ Bull 's head facing. |
Æ Size .4
|Female head crowned with corn.
|ΔΙΚΑΙ ΟΠΟΛ Bull standing.
|ΑΙΝΕΑΣ Aeneas carrying Anchises, preceded by his wife Kreusa carrying Ascanius: in field,||Quadripartite incuse square.
[Zeit. f. Num., vii. 221].
AR Euboïc tetradrachm.
Concerning this remarkable coin, which affords the oldest representation of a Trojan myth which has come down to us, see Friedlander (l. c.). The smaller silver coins are of two periods.
|Head of bearded Aeneas, helmeted, of archaic style.||Quadripartite incuse square.
AR Euboïc tetrobol, 39 grs.,
and Diobol, 21 grs.
|Head of Aeneas of more recent style.||ΑΙΝΕΑΣ Quadripartite incuse square.
AR Phoenician tetrobol, 35 grs.
|Head of Athena in Athenian helmet
bound with olive.
[Imhoof MG, Pl. C. 12.]
| „ Bull looking back, in incuse square. |
AR Phoenician tetrobol 36 grs.
|Head of Ascanius in Phrygian cap.
[Imhoof, Choix, Pl. I. 15.]
|ΑΙΝΕΙΑΤΩΝ Bull rushing. |
Amphipolis, on the Strymon, although founded B.C. 437 by the Athenians, does not seem to have struck money until some years after its capture by Brasidas B.C. 424, from which time until it was taken by Philip in B.C. 357 it remained practically free. The magnificent series of full-face heads of Apollo on the coins of Amphipolis, as works of art, perhaps excel the types of any other city of Northern Greece. Kimon of Syracuse was probably the first die-engraver who successfully mastered the difficulty of worthily representing a full-face head on coins. His wonderful Arethusa-head with flowing hair seems to have roused the emulation of the die-engravers of many cities, Catana, Croton, and Pandosia in the west, Larissa and Thebes in Central Greece, Aenus and Amphipolis in the north, Rhodes and Clazomenae in the east, among others. But none of all these has left us such a rich and varied series of full-face heads as Amphipolis. The fashion, however, was found to be unsuitable for current coins, and it prevailed only during the period of finest art, circ. B.C. 410-360. The Race-torch, the usual reverse-type of the coins of Amphipolis, reminds us of the worship of Artemis Tauropolos or Brauronia, who was especially revered at Amphipolis, and in whose honor Torch-races, Lampadephoria, were held (Leake, Num. Hell., p. 11). The weight-standard is the Phoenician.
|Head of Apollo, three-quarter face; various symbols in field : Bee, tripod, Boeotian shield, plant, or ear of corn, crab, dog, etc. [B. M. Guide, Pl. 21. 7, 8; Berlin Catalog,, II. 34. ]||ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΕΩΝ (rarely, and on the
earlier (?) issues, ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ)
written on a raised frame in an incuse square. In the midst, a race torch and various symbols or letters.
(Fig. 129). |
AR Tetradrachm 224 grs., Drachm, and Triobol.
|Similar.||ΑΜΦΙ Race-torch in wreath.
AR Tetradrachm. and Tetrobol.
|Young head, r., wearing taenia.||„ Dolphin in incuse square|
|Head of Apollo, or young head, bound with taenia.||ΑΜΦΙ Race-torch in linear square
[BMC Macedonia, p. 45]. |
To this period (circ. B.C. 400) the following rare gold coin also belongs :—
|Young male head l. bound with taenia. (Cf. contemporary coins of Macedonian kings.) [Sotheby, Sale Cat., May, 1904, Lot 44.]||ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΕΩΝ on raised frame containing race-torch; symbol, grapes.
AV ½ stater 63.5 grs.
During this period Amphipolis was one of the principal places of mintage of the kings of Macedon, and, from about B.C. 185 down to the Roman conquest in 168, of numerous coins reading ΜΑΚΕ, ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ, etc. (see infra, under Philip V). After the defeat of Perseus the issue of silver coins in Macedon was prohibited by the Romans, and it was not until ten years later, B.C. 158, that it was again permitted.
At Amphipolis as the Capital of the First Region the coins reading ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ were struck, B.C. 158-149; see also below (p. 239) for coins issued in the following year, 149-148, during the revolt of Andriscus-tetradrachms of the Roman Legatus reading LEG., which, on the victory of Andriscus, were restruck, some merely without the letters LEG, and others with the types of Philip V, presumptive grandfather of the pretender, and the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ.
For the coins struck at Amphipolis and at Thessalonica by the Quaestors L. Fulcinnius and G. Publilius (148-146), and, later, by the Praetor L. Julius Caesar (93-92), by the Quaestor Aesillas, and the Legatus pro quaestore L. Bruttius Sura (92-88), see below under Macedonia, a Roman Province (p. 239). None of these coins bear the name of Amphipolis as they were issued for the whole Province of Macedonia. The local or municipal bronze coins reading ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ or ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ are of various types, but afford few indications of date. In style they seem to range from the Roman conquest, or even earlier, down to the time of Augustus. The following types are of more or less frequent occurrence :—
|Head of Herakles.||Centaur [BMC Macedonia, p. 46]. |
|Id. [Hunter Cat., Pl. XX. 2.]||Lion standing. |
|Macedonian shield.||Scorpion. |
|Head of hero Perseus (or Roma ?).||Wreath. |
|Head of Poseidon.||Club in oak wreath. |
|Head of Strymon crowned with reeds.||Dolphin in wreath, or Trident. |
|Head of Artemis Tauropolos.||Bull butting. |
|Id.||Two goats on their hind legs. |
|Head of young Dionysos.||Goat. |
|Head of Medusa.||Athena Nikephoros. |
|Head of Poseidon.||Horse. |
|Head of Apollo (?).||Ear of corn. |
|Head of Artemis.||Id. |
|Bust of Artemis.||Artemis Tauropolos with inflated veil,
riding on bull. |
|Head of Janus. Mark of value Ι||Two Centaurs back to back.
Æ 1., wt. 290 grs.
|Head of Zeus. „ S||S Prow. |
Semis Æ .9, wt. 101 grs.
Most of the remaining types, even when without the name of the Emperor, belong to Imperial times.
Augustus to Salonina. Chief types. Head of ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙC; ΡWΜΗ standing; ΤΑΥΡΟΠΟΛΟC Artemis standing; CΤΡΥΜWΝ River recumbent; Artemis Tauropolos, standing or riding on bull; Tyche-Artemis standing or enthroned; Head of Poseidon, etc. (BMC Macedonia, 50 sqq.; Berlin Catalog,, 47 sqq.; Hunter Cat., I. 278 sqq.).
Tragilus. The site of this town is fixed, almost certainly, by Perdrizet (Congrès int. de Num., 1900, p. 149 ff.) near the modern Aëdonochori, three hours NW. of Amphipolis. The small silver coins of Tragilus belong evidently to the period before Amphipolis began to coin money. The bronze coinage is somewhat later in style, but it can hardly be brought down much below B.C. 400.
The form of the inscr. ΤΡΑΙΛΙΟΝ (= Τρα(γ)ιλιων or Τρα(γ)ιλιον) is an example of the omission of γ between two vowels.
|Ear of corn. [BMC Macedonia, p. 130.]||ΤRΑΙ or ΤΡΑΙ in the four quarters of
an incuse square. |
AR 5.6 grs.
|Bunch of grapes.||Id. |
AR 3 grs.
|Head of Hermes in petasos.||ΤΡΑΙ between the four spokes of
a wheel. |
|Id.||ΤΡΑΙΛΙΟΝ Rose. |
Philippi. As early as the sixth century B.C. the Thasians possessed a mining settlement on the mainland of Thrace, called Daton, a district which extended inland as far as the springs called Crenides. Subsequently the Pangaean tribes expelled the Thasians, but in B.C. 361 the Athenian orator Callistratus refounded the colony of Daton at Crenides with the assistance of a number of Thasians.
Gold and bronze coins were now issued at the revived colony with the inscription ΘΑΣΙΟΝ ΗΠΕΙΡΟ, obv. Head of Herakles, rev. Tripod (Mion. I. 433, and Suppl. II. Pl. VIII. 5; Berlin Catalog,, II. 120). In B.C. 358 Philip made himself master of the district with its rich mines, renamed the town after himself, Philippi, and allowed it the privilege of striking money identical in type with the Thasian coins above described, but with the legend ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ, AV Staters 133 grs., AR Phoenician tetradrachms, 215 grs.; drachms, hemidrachms, and Æ Size .7-.65 (BMC Macedonia, p. 96 f.; Berlin Catalog,, II. 118; Sotheby, Sale Cat., May, 1904, Lot 47). Before the end of Philip 's reign Philippi was deprived of the right of striking money in its own name, but it remained a royal mint under Philip and his successors, if the tripod, which is a common symbol on the coins of the kings of Macedon, may be accepted as a mint-mark of Philippi.
From the Roman conquest to the time of Augustus no coins appear to have been struck at Philippi with the legend ΦΙΛΙΠΠΩΝ. It was not until after the battle of Philippi that the right of coinage was conferred upon the veterans of the Praetorian cohort whom Augustus settled at Philippi. The legends of the coins of this series are in Latin, COHOR. PRAE. PHIL.; COL. AVG. IVL. PHIL. IVSSV. AVG.; COL. AVG. IVL. PHILIP; COL. PHILIP; COL. AVG. IVL. V. PHILIPP.; A. I. C. V. P., etc. 'Colonia Augusta Iulia Victrix Philippensium. ' For the types see BMC Macedonia, pp. xlvi and 98, and Berlin Catalog,, II. p. 121 f.
|Female head. [R. N., 1870, Pl. VI. 4.]||ΜΕΘΩ Lion breaking spear. |
See also another coin with inscr. ΜΕΘΟ in Margaritis Cat., p. 9 (Paris, 1874).
Pydna was originally a Greek city established on the Macedonian coast, on the western side of the Thermaic gulf. It subsequently fell into the hands of the kings of Macedon. Amyntas III, however, found himself compelled to hand over the maritime district of Macedon to the Olynthians, and it is to this interval that the bronze coins of Pydna, identical in type with those of Amyntas, belong.
|Head of young Herakles.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 101.]
|ΠΥΔΝΑΙΩΝ Eagle devouring serpent.
Another interval of autonomy occurred during the reign of Perdiccas III. Pydna at this time again struck bronze coins, the reverse type of which, the Owl, betrays Athenian influence. Pydna is indeed said to have been subject to Athens B.C. 364-358, but we may infer that it enjoyed free institutions under Athenian control, for it was by no means eager to be handed over again to the kings of Macedon (Theopomp., Fragm. 189).
|Female head with hair in sphendone.
[BMC Macedonia, p. 101.]
|ΠΥΔΝΑΙΩΝ Owl in olive wreath.