Babelon, E. Les Perses Achménides, pp. lxxxix-cxiii, 63-82, 1893.
The coinage of Lycia confirms in a most striking manner the testimony of ancient writers, especially Strabo, with regard to the Federal constitution of the country. Among no other ancient people do we find Federal institutions so wisely framed and so firmly rooted as among the Lycians. Although the majority of the early coins represent individual dynasts, it is clear that there existed some sort of federation between these rulers, more or less under Persian suzerainty. The abundant coinage testifies to the great prosperity of the country in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. The distinctive symbol on the money of the various cities which took part in this Federal coinage is the Triskeles or so-called Triquetra, which sometimes takes the form of a tetraskeles or of a diskeles. Various hypotheses have been advanced as to the intention of this strange symbol (Bab., Tr., ii. 510 f.). The most reasonable is that which has been put forward by L. Müller, that it is a solar emblem symbolizing rotatory motion. In this case it would refer to the worship of the
1 Det saakaldte Hagekors’s Anvendelse og Betydning, Copenhagen, 1877.
689national Lycian deity, Apollo Αυκιος, the God of Light. The animal types—Boars, Winged lions, Griffins, Bulls, &c.—must remain for the most part unexplained. (but the boar was associated with Apollo). The Lycian silver money falls into the following classes. The weight-standard is the Babylonic, but shows considerable irregularity, and a tendency to fall to the Euboïc standard, the staters weighing from about 155 to under 120 grains. The staters are divided into thirds (tetrobols), sixths (diobols), &c., but also occasionally into halves (drachms).
SERIES I. Circ. B.C. 520-480.
AR Staters and diobols. Rev. Inc. sq., at first rude, then decorated with lines, letters, and in one case with bull’s head within radiating pattern (Babelon, Perses Achém, Pl. XI. 6). Obv. types: Boar, Forepart or Head of boar, Forepart of winged boar; on shoulder, sometimes, Greek letters (ΠV, ΜΘ, ΚVΒ), the last of which probably represent Κυ βερνις, son of Kossikas (Hdt. vii. 98). Babelon, Traité, ii. Pl. XXI.
SERIES II. Circ. B.C. 500-460, or later.
AR Staters, tetrobols, diobols. Obv. types: Boar, Forepart of boar, Bull kneeling, Lion standing with head reverted, Sphinx, Winged female figure, Helmeted head. Rev. Inc. sq.; Lion’s head in profile or facing, Eagle’s Head, Tortoise, Forepart of kneeling bull, Head and neck of bull, Bull’s head facing between + +, Ram's head, Crab, Forepart of griffin, Head of Ares, Bearded head. Babelon, Tr., ii. Pl. XXII.
SERIES III. Circ. B.C. 500-450.
AR Staters, tetrobols, diobols. Obv. types: Boar, Forepart of boar, Two foreparts of boars conjoined, Crab. Rev. Inc. sq.; Triskeles, Triskeles on shield, behind which two diskeles crossed. A small triskeles, or Lycian letters (Χ, ΠΟ, &c.) often occur on the animal’s flank or in field. Babelon, Tr., ii. Pl. XXII.
SERIES IV. Circ. B.C. 480-390.
This series includes the remaining coins with the triskeles or its modifications (except those given in Series V), and a series with heads of deities and dynasts. A number of the Lycian inscriptions which now appear have been identified as the names of cities or dynasts. The legends are frequently retrograde. Vol. I of the Tituli Asiae Minoris (ed. Kalinka, Vienna 1901) contains a nearly complete vocabulary and all the latest material for the study of the language; for many of the dynasts mentioned on the coins see especially the account of the Xanthian stele (op. cit., p. 46). Only a selection of the types, without reference to denominations, can be given here. The rev. is, unless otherwise stated, in an incuse square.
Circ. B.C. 480-460.
Dog lying. Rev. Triskeles.
Boar or Forepart of boar. Rev. Triskeles of cocks’ heads; sometimes with letters. (Fig. 315, p. 689.)
Two dolphins and human eye; ΠΡΛ (Prl = Aperlae ?) or uninscribed. Rev. ΑΠΡ or ΠΡΛ Triskeles.
Two dolphins with astragalos and eye, Dolphin and fish with F+ΞΤ↑Ζ (Vahñtäzä̧ = ‘of Antiphellus’) or Dolphin. Rev. ΑΠ or Π Triskeles.
Kubernis (?). Class I. Circ. B.C. 480-450. Inscr. ΚΟΠΡΛΛΕ (Kuprlli) or abbreviations. Obv. types: Dolphin, Boar (inscr. ΡΡ, Marra), Forepart of boar, Facing head of panther, Human eye, Griffin crouching, Forepart or head of griffin, Foreparts of two lions (?) conjoined, &c. Rev. Triskeles (sometimes with cygnets’ or monsters’ heads), ‘Heptaskeles.’ Class II. Circ. B.C. 450-410. Inscr. as on Class I, seldom retrograde. Obv. types: Herakles wielding club, Hermes (?) carrying ram, Nude winged figure, Bearded head of Ammon, Bearded head of Ares on shield (ΜΑ, Ma). Beardless male head, Human eye, Lion (slaying bull, walking, crouching, forepart of), Winged lion (walking, crouching, or on shield), Horse (standing, kneeling), Mule (standing, or licking hind leg), Bull (walking, with inscr. ΑΡΞ = Arñ, ‘Xanthus’), Butting bull, Forepart or head and neck of bull. Foreparts of two bulls conjoined, Foreparts of bull and horse conjoined, Winged man-headed bull, Forepart of winged bull, Cow suckling calf, Goat (standing or kneeling), Sow, Dolphin, Dove between two myrtle-branches, Bird flying, Sphinx, Griffin. Rev. Triskeles, as in Class I; sometimes incuse circle.
Za... Boar, with symbol consisting of ring and two horns. Rev. ΖΑ Triskeles of cygnets’ heads; similar symbol. Inc. circle. (Babelon, P. A., Pl. XV. 6.)
Uvug... Circ. B.C. 470-440. Obv. Forepart of winged man-headed bull, Sphinx. Rev. ΟFΟV; Beardless head (of Apollo, or of sphinx), Head of negro, Sphinx, Gorgoneion.
Tä̧nägurä (‘Αθαναγορας ?). Circ. B.C. 450-420. Obv. ΤΝ↑VΟΡ↑ Winged horned lion; symbol . Rev. Triskeles, sometimes with serpent’s head; same symbol.
Minä̧ñt. Circ. B.C. 450. Obv. Griffin seated on shield. Rev. ΜΕΝΞΤ Triskeles. (Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. X. 1.)
Täththiväibi. Circ. B.C. 480-460. Obv. Forepart of boar, Forepart of cow, Winged lion, Two cocks and (all these on shield), Forepart of boar, Griffin seated, Head of Seilenos facing, Cock, Head of Aphrodite. Rev. Τ↑ΕΓ↑ΕΒΕ (sometimes with one ) Tetraskeles.
Sppñtaza. Circ. B.C. 470-450. Obv. Cow suckling calf, Head of Aphrodite, Head of Athena, Head of bearded Herakles. Rev. SΠΠΞΤΖ or SΠΠΞ Tetraskeles.
Khäriga (Karikas). Circ. B.C. 410.
Xanthus. Circ. B.C. 410-400 Inscr., ΡΞΝ+↑ or ΡΞΝ+, or abbreviations, or none. Obv. Head and leg of lion, Head of Athena. Rev. Heads of Apollo, of Athena, of Artemis (?) (Imhoof, Kl. M., Pl. X. 2), of Dynast, Eagle, Star, usually with diskeles symbol and in inc. circle.
Artum̃para. Circ. B.C. 400-390. Obv. Head of Athena. Rev. Inc. sq. or circle. ΡΤ(Τ)ΟΧΠΡΕ, ↑ΡΤΟΞΠΡΕ, or ΡΤΟΧΠΡ+↑ Heads of bearded Herakles, Hermes, or bearded satrap.
Ddä̧ñtimi. Circ. B.C. 400. Obv. Head of Athena. Rev. ΔΔΞΤΕΜ or ΔΔΧΤΕΜΕ Youthful male head; Head of Hermes, incuse circle.
Patara. (1) Circ. B.C. 440. Obv. Forepart of boar. Rev. ΠΤΤ (?) Tetraskeles, with monoskeles symbol.
Väkhssärä. Circ. B.C. 430-400. Obv. Forepart of winged boar on shield, Herakles wielding club, Beardless head of Kabeiros in wreathed pileus, Lion, Lion’s scalp, Horse kneeling, Head of Athena. Rev. Inc. sq. or circle. F↑↓SS↑Ρ↑ or abbreviations (once F↓SS↑Β↑ ?). Triskeles, Head of Hermes, Forepart of winged man-headed bull, Large .
Khin... Circ. B.C. 405-395. Obv. Pegasos (often on shield), Head of Athena, Forepart of winged stag. Rev. Inc. sq. or circle. ↓ΕΝ, monograms, or no inscription Triskeles, Diskeles with ↓ attached.
SERIES V. Circ. B.C. 400-362.
The later style and fabric of the following coins induce me to class them to a more recent period than any of those which I have described above. They are characterized by their flatter and larger flans, and by the gradual disappearance of the well-marked incuse square, which is present on all the earlier Lycian series. The coinage doubtless ended with the acquisition of Lycia by Mausolus in 362 B.C. The silver does not show the degradation towards the Attic weight which is found in Series IV, but conforms more rigidly to the Babylonic standard. Bronze now first appears. The following are the more important varieties :—
(1) Mithrapata. Obv. Lion’s scalp, Forepart of lion-skin with paws, Whelk-shell. Rev. Inc. sq. or circle. ΜΕΡΠΤ or abbreviations. Triskeles (symbols in field), Facing head of Apollo.
(1) Zä̧mu and Trbbänimi. Inscr., ΖΜ, ΖΜΟ+Ο, ΖΤ, Ζ↓Μ, ΤΡΒ, ΤΡΒΒ^ΝΕΜΕ, some coins bearing both names. Types: Obv. Lion's scalp, Head and leg of lion, Head of Artemis nearly facing. Rev. Inc. sq. or circle. Triskeles, Head of Athena. Adjuncts: club, small triskeles or diskeles, letters.
(2) Zakhaba. Obv. Lion’s scalp. Rev. Ζ↓Β+ Facing head of Athena in triple-crested helmet (Babelon, Inv. Wadd., 2985).
(4) Zaga. Obv. Lion’s scalp or head, Forepart of skin with paws. Incuse circle. Ζ, Ζ, Ζ+ or Ζ+Ο Triskeles.
(6) Perikles, probably at first dynast of Limyra, afterwards king of greater part of Lycia, circ. B.C. 380-362 (cf. Theopompus, fr. 111). He struck bronze as well as silver.
Circ. B.C. 330-188.
On his march from Caria into Pisidia Alexander reduced Lycia under his sway, and from this time down to the date of the defeat of Antiochus by the Romans, B.C. 190, the country was subject successively to the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae.
Of coins of Alexander’s types few, if any, seem to have been struck in this district except at Phaselis, q. v. The triskeles is, however, found on bronze coins of the types of Alexander and of the Macedonian interregnum, which provenance shows to be Lycian. Telmessus also issued a bronze coin in the time of Ptolemy I. Coins of Rhodes and of the Ptolemies, &c., circulated (cf. J. H. S., xv, p. 114). After the defeat of Antiochus the Romans in 188 gave Lycia (except Telmessus) to the Rhodians. A few of the cities may have begun to issue small bronze coins early in the second century, but with the exceptions noted no coins were produced in the country during all this period.
Circ. B.C. 168-43 A.D.
In B.C. 168 the Romans restored to the Lycians their full freedom, and the Lycian towns now formed themselves into an independent League under Roman auspices (Livy, xliv. 15; Polyb., xxx. 5), which lasted until the reign of Claudius, A. D. 43, who made the country into a province with Pamphylia.
The coinage of this new Lycian League has much in common with the contemporary coinage of the Achaean League in Peloponnesus. It consists of silver drachms (κιθαρηφοροι) and hemidrachms (?) of degraded Rhodian weight—characterized by the reappearance of a sharply defined incuse square on the reverse—and of several varieties of bronze.
The Federal bronze coinage is more varied than the silver, the prevalent types being, on the obv., Heads of Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, &c.; on rev., Apollo standing, Lyre, Tripod, Stag, Bow and quiver crossed, Quiver, Caduceus, &c. The inscription consists of the initials of the
694city or district, with or without ΛΥΚΙΩΝ. The coins without any indication of mint were probably struck at Xanthus. The two great districts, Cragus and Masicytes, were united for monetary purposes and struck coins for general circulation; the initials of the various cities were also often combined with those of Cragus or Masicytes according to the district to which they belonged. The following 22 cities are known to have taken part in the currency of the League: in the Cragus district, Telmessus, Pinara, Sidyma, Tlos, Xanthus, Patara, Dias; in the Masicytes district, Myra, Cyaneae, Ty(benissus) or Ty(mena), Arycanda, Antiphellus, Phellus, Aperlae, Apollonia; in other districts, Limyra. Gagae, Rhodiapolis, Olympus (?), Trebenna, Oenoanda, Bubon (?). Strabo (xiv. 664) says that there were twenty-three towns in the confederacy. A change in the style of the coins is noticeable about B.C. 81, when Murena reorganized the country, and some new cities were added to the League. The last coinage of the League includes light Rhodian drachms and denarii, with the portraits of Augustus and Claudius; inscr., ΛΥ; types—one or two lyres, Apollo, Artemis, &c.; also bronze of Claudius, without ΛΥ; types—Goddess of Myra in temple, Apollo standing, &c. (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, pp. 21 f., 170). The coinage of denarii was even continued, after the dissolution of the League by Claudius, under Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, with the Emperors’ titles in Greek, ΥΠΑΤΟΥ ΙΖ, ΔΗΜ. ЄΞ. ΥΠΑΤ. Β., &c. The Imperial coinage of the Lycian towns belongs almost exclusively to the reign of Gordian and Tranquillina.
Autonomous (Chiefly Post-Alexandrine), Federal, and Imperial Coinage of the Towns of Lycia.
Acalissus (Giauristan-lik). Imperial of Gordian. Inscr., ΑΚΑΛΙCCЄWΝ, Horseman galloping (Rev. Num., 1853, 90). Helen between Dioskuri; Herakles standing.
Antiphellus (Andifilo), on the coast opposite Megiste. Æ of second century B.C.; inscr., ΑΝΤΙΦΕΛΛΙΤΩΝ or ΑΝΤ; Head of Apollo, Veiled head, Dolphin. Federal Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΑΝ, and Imperial of Gordian, ΑΝΤΙΦЄΛΛЄΙΤΩΝ, Tyche.
Apollonia (Avassari, north of Aperlae ?). Federal Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝΑΠΟ.
Arycanda (Aruf). Æ of second century; inscr., ΑΡ; Radiate head (Sozou ?), Apollo sacrificing. Federal AR (?) and Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΑΡ or ΑΡΥ. Imperial—Gordian, Tranquillina, ΑΡΥΚΑΝΔЄWΝ, Tyche, Herakles, Horseman-deity (Sozon ?), Naked Warrior, Eagle on boar's head, &c.
695bolt; Caduceus; &c. Imperial of Caligula, ΒΑΛΒΟΥΡΕWΝ, Herakles, Hermes.
Cadyanda (Üzümlü). Autonomous Æ. Inscr., ΚΑΔΥ. Xoanon; and federal Æ; ΛΥΚΙ ΚΑ (this may belong to Calynda or Candyba).
Choma in the Milyas. Autonomous Æ of first century B.C., ΧΩ or ΧΩΜ, Head of Zeus and horseman; and Imperial of Gordian, ΧWΜΑΤЄΙΤWΝ, Armed horseman (Sozon ?).
Cragus (District). Federal AR and Æ. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΚΡΑΓ or abbreviations, often combined with initials of Dias (ΔΙ), Patara (ΠΑ), Telmessus (ΤΕΛ), Tlos (ΤΛ or ΤΛW) or Xanthus (ΞΑΝ).
Limyra on the Limyrus (Duden-Su). Æ of early second century, ΛΙ or ΛΙΜΥΡΕΩΝ; Head of Apollo, Thunderbolt. Federal AR and AE ΛΥΚΙΩΝ (or ΛΥΚΙ) ΛΙ. Imperial of Gordian and Tranquillina, ΛΙΜΥΡЄWΝ, Zeus seated, Athena, Tyche, Bull and dog at oracular fountain, ΧΡΗCΜΟC (cf. Plin., N. H., xxxi. 22), River-god ΛΙΜΥΡΟC.
696Myra (Dembre = τα Μυρα) on the Myros, chief town of the Masicytes district. Federal AR and Æ, ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΜΥ, ΜΥΡΑ, ΜΑ ΜΥ, &c.; on Æ, bust of Artemis Eleuthera of Myra, veiled, facing; Nike. Imperial of Gordian, ΜΥΡΕWΝ, Agalma of Artemis Eleuthera or Myrrha in tree attacked by men with axes and defended by snakes (Fig. 316, p. 695), cf. Aphrodisias in Caria; Agalma in temple, sometimes with Nike; Tyche. Alliance coins of Gordian with Patara (see below) and Side (?).
Olympus, on the east coast at the foot of Mount Olympus. Federal (?) AR, ΟΛΥΜ or ΟΛΥΜΠΗ; Æ, Head of Athena and thunderbolt; Imperial of Gordian and Tranquillina, ΟΛΥΜΠΗΝWΝ. Hephaestos forging shield; Apollo resting on column.
Patara (Gelemish). Federal AR and Æ, ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΠΑ, ΠΑ ΚΡ, ΠΑΤΑΡΕΩΝ. Imperial of Gordian and Tranquillina: Nymph seated and Dionysos (?) standing; Apollo shooting; Apollo with eagle and serpent twining round tripod; Herakles and Antaeos, &c. Alliance coins of Gordian with Myra: ΠΑΤΑΡЄWΝ ΜΥΡЄWΝ ΟΜΟΝΟΙΑ, Temple of Apollo and Artemis; or of Tyche.
Phaselis (Tekirova), a town of Dorian origin on the east coast, has a history and coinage distinct from the rest of Lycia. Its chief type, the galley, may be a type parlant (see Forcellini, s. v. phaselus).
Before B.C. 466.
During its membership of the Athenian confederacy, Phaselis appears to have issued no coins.
Circ. B.C. 400-330 or later.
Circ. B.C. 330-276.
Circ. B.C. 276-168.
During the earlier part of this period, until 204, Phaselis belonged to the Ptolemies; towards the end it probably issued the Alexandrine tetradrachms with Φ, dated Α to ΛΑ (Müller, 1178-1195; Imhoof-Blumer KM, p. 308).
After circ. B.C. 168.
During the earliest period of the League, Phaselis, like Olympus, struck coins of Federal types, reading ΦΑΣΗΛΙ, but without ΛΥΚΙΩΝ; it was probably, however, not a member of the League (Strabo, xiv. 667).
To the same period belong the following :—
Imperial of Gordian; inscr., ΦΑCΗΛ(Є)ΙΤWΝ. Types—Female cultus-figure, veil supported by Erotes, with small figure at her feet; Athena; Galley; etc.
Phellus (Baindyr ?). Federal Æ, ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΦΕ, and Imperial of Gordian. ΦЄΛΛЄΙΤWΝ, Female figure holding flower; Aphrodite, veiled, holding apple.
Podalia (in the Milyas). Imperial of Tranquillina, ΠΟΔΑΛΙWΤWΝ, Ares standing.
698Sidyma (Dodurgar-Assari). Federal AR: ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΣΙ [Rev. Num., 1902, p. 81].
Antiochus III possessed the city from about B.C. 196 to 189. To this time belongs the following coin :—
After belonging to Pergamum from B.C. 189 to 133, it became independent, and struck small Æ (size .45) with head of Hermes, rev. ΤΕΛ, Fly in incuse square. It probably joined the League about B.C. 81. Federal AR, inscr., ΛΥ ΤΕ ΚΡ, and Æ, inscr., ΛΥ ΤΕΛ ΚΡ or ΤΕΛ ΛΥ.
Termessus Minor (ad Oenoanda), a colony of the Pisidian Termessus. (See N. Chr., 1897, pp. 25 ff.)
First century B.C. (inscr., ΤΕΡ or ΤΕΡΜΗΣΣΕΩΝ).
Tlos (Duver). Federal AR (ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΤΛ, ΤΛΩ ΚΡ, ΤΛ ΚΡ) and AE (ΤΛΩΕΩΝ, ΤΛ or ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΤΛ, ΛΥ ΚΡ ΤΛΩ). Imperial of Gordian; inscr., ΤΛWЄWΝ. Types—Nike; Tyche; Warrior fighting or sacrificing; Mounted deity.
Xanthus. Æ of second century B.C. Head of Apollo, rev. ΞΑΝΘΙΩΝ Lyre. The federal coins without mint-name were probably struck here : AR kitharephoroi, &c., and Æ Head of Helios facing, rev. ΛΥΚΙΩΝ Chimaera, &c.; also ordinary federal AR and Æ: ΛΥΚΙΩΝ ΞΑ, ΛΥ ΚΡΞΑΝ, ΞΑΝ ΚΡ.