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Burnett, A., M. Amandry, et al. Roman Provincial Coinage. (1992 - ).
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Hill, G.F. Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Palestine. (London, 1914).
Hoover, O.D. Handbook of Coins of the Southern Levant: Phoenicia, Southern Koile Syria (Including Judaea), and Arabia, Fifth to First Centuries BC. HGC 10. (Lancaster, 2010).
Houghton, A., C. Lorber & O. Hoover. Seleucid Coins: A Comprehensive Catalog. (Lancaster, 2002-2008).
Kadman, L. The Coins of Aelia Capitolina. (Jerusalem, 1956).
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Kadman, L. The Coinage of Caesarea Maritima. (Jerusalem, 1957).
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Meshorer, Y. Ancient Jewish Coinage. (New York, 1982).
Meshorer, Y. A Treasury of Jewish Coins from the Persian Period to Bar Kokhba. (Jerusalem, 2001).
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Meshorer, Y. "One Hundred Ninety Years of Tyrian Shekels" in Studies Mildenberg.
Meshorer, Y. Jewish Coins of the Second Temple Period. (Tel-Aviv, 1967).
Meshorer, Y. The Coins of Aelia Capitolina. (Jerusalem, 1989).
Meshorer, Y. "The Coins of Caesarea Paneas" in INJ 8 (1984-5).
Meshorer, Y. "The Coins of Dora" in INJ 9 (1986).
Meshorer, Y. "Monnaies de Raphia" in RN 1976.
Meshorer, Y. and S. Qedar. The Coinage of Samaria in the 4th Century BCE. (Jerusalem, 1991).
Meshorer, Y. and S. Qedar. Samarian Coinage. (Jerusalem, 1999).
Mildenberg, L. The Coinage of the Bar Kokhba War. Typos VI. (Aarau, 1984).
Mildenberg, L. Yehud: A Preliminary Study of the Provincial Coinage of Judaea in Essays Thompson. (Wetteren, 1979).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. I: City-Coins of Palestine: Aelia Kapitolina, Akko, Anthedon Antipatirs and Ascalon. (Jerusalm, 1972).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. II: City-Coins of Palestine: Caesarea, Diospolis, Dora, Eleutheropolis, Gaba, Gaza and Joppa. (Jerusalem, 1975).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. III: City-Coins of Palestine: Hipos-Sussita, Neapolis, Nicopolis, Nysa-Scytopolis, Caesarea-Panias, Pelusium, Raphia, Sabaste, Sepphoris-Diocaesarea, Tiberias. (Jerusalem, 1977).
Rosenberger, M. The Rosenberger Israel Collection Vol. IV: The Coinage of Eastern Palestine, and legionary countermarks, Bar-Kochba overstruck. (Jerusalem, 1978).
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van Alfen, P. "A New Athenian "Owl" and Bullion Hoard from the Near East" in AJN 16-17. (2004-2005).
Aelia Capitolina, the ancient Jerusalem, rebuilt by Hadrian, A.D. 136, after the suppression of the second revolt of the Jews under Simon Barcochba. The new temple of Jupiter Capitolinus occupied the site of that of Jehovah. Imperial colonial, Hadrian to Valerian. Inscr., COL. AEL. CAP. or KAP., with addition, under Hadrian, of COND(ita), and after the reign of Commodus, of the title COMM(odiana) P(ia) F(elix). The most interesting types are Astarte, or perhaps the Tyche of the city, standing in her temple; Zeus enthroned in temple (Madden, Coins of the Jews, p. 247); and the Stone of Elagabal in a chariot (Z. f. N., vii. 219). For coins struck at Jerusalem before its destruction see pp. 768 and 806 ff.
Anthedon or Agrippias, a coast-town, the name of which was changed by Augustus to Agrippias, although the old name Anthedon was subsequently restored. The coins with the head of Livia, rev. Prow, formerly attributed to this place under the name of Agrippia, are now assigned to Agrippia Caesareia (= Phanagoria) in Bosporus (see p. 495). Imperial, Elagabalus to Severus Alexander. Inscr., ΑΝΘΗΔΟΝΟC. Types Astarte in temple; Winged Genius wearing short chiton, raising one hand, and holding a wheel over an altar with the other.
Ascalon. This ancient seaport would appear to have been one of the places of mintage of gold staters and tetradrachms of Alexander the Great (Müller Alexander, Cl. III and IV, Nos. 1472-1484). Subsequently it struck Seleucid regal coins from Antiochus II to Antiochus IX. Autonomous silver and bronze from the second century B.C., mostly dated by the Seleucid era; inscr., ΑΣ or ΑΣ. ΙΕΡΑΣ; typesHead of City, rev.
Prow; Head of Goddess, rev. Dove. The city became autonomous in B.C. 104; from this year, or from B.C. 84 (see Svoronos, Νομ. Πτολ., p. 313), are dated both small bronze coins and tetradrachms bearing the portraits of the later Ptolemies, including Cleopatra VII (Fig. 354) , rev. ΑΣΚΑΛΩΝΙΤΩΝ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ, Eagle on fulmen (B. M. Guide, Pl. LXII. 18, 19). Imperial, Augustus to Severus Alexander, consisting in the main of bronze, but silver pieces are known of Claudius, Messalina, and Caracalla (Imhoof, Gr. M., pp. 757, 771). TypesZeus Nikephoros enthroned; Bust of Egyptizing deity (see below). The usual types of the bronze coins areGalley; the goddess Derceto, or perhaps the Tyche of the city, standing holding aplustre and trident, with a dove beside her; Warlike divinity (ΦΑΝΗΒΑΛΟC, see Rev. Arch., 1904, p. 139; Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., pp. 241 f.) standing facing, brandishing harpa above his head, and holding round shield and branch in his left; Divinity of Egyptian aspect, with attributes of Osiris, standing on the backs of three lions (Num. Zeit., 1884, p. 293). For other types and varieties see De Saulcy, Terre-Sainte, pp. 178 sqq. The Imperial coins of Ascalon are dated from the era of its autonomy, B.C. 104. A coin of Augustus has a second date which is reckoned from B.C. 58; regnal years of the Emperors are also given.
Eleutheropolis, about twenty miles south-west of Jerusalem. Imperial, Severus to Elagabalus. Inscr., Λ. CΕΠ. CЄΟΥΗ. ЄΛЄΥΘЄ. (Lucia Septimia Severiana Eleutheropolis). Era begins A.D. 199/200 (Kubitschek, Oesterr. Jahresh., vi. pp. 50 f.). TypeJupiter Heliopolitanus standing between two bulls (cf. Neapolis Samariae).
Gaza, an ancient city about twenty miles south of Ascalon, which Herodotus (iii. 5) mentions as scarcely inferior in size to Sardes, the capital of Lydia. Its coinage in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. has been identified by Six (Num. Chron., 1877, p. 221), and consists of drachms and smaller coins of Attic weight and of various types, of which the following are the most important :
|Janiform diademed male and female heads, or head of Athena as on coins of Athens.||עזה in Phoenician characters, Owl in incuse square, sometimes before the fortified wall of a city. |
|Id.||עז Forepart of horse; incuse square.|
|Id.||ΑΘΕ Head of Athena; incuse square.|
|Head of Athena.||עז Owl facing; incuse square.|
|Female head.||Head of Seilenos facing; incuse square.|
|Similar.||Bust of Bes facing; incuse square.|
|Bearded helmeted head. [Brit. Mus.; Pilcher, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 1908, pp. 45 f.]||יהו in Phoenician characters, Jahveh seated on car with winged wheel. |
The autonomous bronze money of Gaza dates from an era commencing B.C. 61 (Schürer, Sitzungsb. Berl. Akad., 1896, xli. pp. 1065 f.). Inscr., ΓΑ, ΓΑΖΑ, ΔΗΜΟΥ ΓΑΖΑΙΩΝ, ΔΗΜΟΥ CЄΛ (?) ΤWΝ ЄΝ ΓΑΖΗ (see Maonald, Hunter Cat., iii. p. 282), ΓΑΖΑΙΤΩΝ, ΓΑΖЄΑΤΩΝ, &c., with addition sometimes of honorific titles, ΙЄΡ. ΑCΥ. Imperial, Augustus to Gordian, dated according to the era B.C. 61, but also in Hadrians time according to a new era commencing in A.D. 128, with ΕΠΙ., probably referring to the επιδημια of Hadrian (Maonald, op. cit., p. 283). Silver of Caracalla (Imhoof, Gr. M., p. 764) and Diadumenian (Id. Rev. Suisse, viii. p. 44). Inscr., ΓΑΖΑΙΩΝ, ΓΑΖΑ, &c., usually with the addition of the Phoenician letter מ, perhaps the initial of the divinity ΜΑΡΝΑ, whose name, as well as those of ΜЄΙΝW and ЄΙW, is met with on coins of this city. The temple of Marna at Gaza called the Marneion was identified with that of the Cretan Zeus (De Saulcy, Terre- Sainte, p. 210), and Meino and Eio are clearly Minos and Io. There is reason to suppose that these divinities were originally introduced into Crete and Greece from Phoenicia. Among the types of the coins of Gaza we may mention a Temple containing statues of Artemis and Apollo; Turreted bust of Tyche, or her entire figure, standing, with a bull at her feet; Tyche and Io joining hands; &c. (see also Num. Chron., 1862, p. 120).
Nicopolis-Emmaus. There were two cities called Nicopolis in Judaea (see L. Hamburger, Frankfurter Münzblatter, i. (1899), Nos. 8 and 9).
One, close to Jerusalem (for the site see Murrays Syria and Palestine, 1892, p. 130), was founded as a military colony by Vespasian in A.D. 71, from which year its coins are dated. The second (Amwas, near Latron, between Ramleh and Jerusalem) was refounded by Julius Africanus circa A.D. 221. To the former are to be attributed quasi-autonomous and imperial coins (inscr. ΝЄΙΚΟΠΟΛΙΤWΝ; typesWolf fighting hog, Zeus holding Nike, &c.) of Faustina Sen., M. Aurelius, and Lucius Verus. To the second Hamburger assigns coins with inscr. ΝΙΚΟΠΟΛΙC; typeZeus Heliopolitanus standing between two bulls; &c. But as the city appears to be entitled CЄΟΥΗ. ΑΝΤWΝ., as well as ΑΝΤWΝЄΙΝΟ- ΠΟΛΙC, these coins may be of Caracalla (cf. N. Z., 33, p. 13) and belong to the other Nicopolis.
Raphia, on the sea-coast between Gaza and Rhinocolura, an ancient city restored by Gabinius B.C. 58, the year from which its era dates. Imperial, M. Aurelius and Commodus to Philip Junior. Inscr., ΡΑΦΙΑ or ΙЄΡΑ ΡΑΦΙΑ. TypesArtemis standing; Female figure seated between two small figures, on the head of one of whom she places her hand; City-goddess holding infant and cornucopia.
[See especially Madden, Coins of the Jews, 1881; Kennedy in Hastings Dict. of the Bible, art. Money (1900); Th. Reinach, Jewish Coins, 1903.]
The history of the coins of the Jews has been so thoroughly investigated by Madden (op. cit.), Merzbacher (Zeit. f. Num., 1878), Hamburger (ib., 1892), and Th. Reinach (op. cit.), not to mention older writers, such as De Saulcy and Cavedoni, that the barest outline will suffice in the present work. Permission was given by Antiochus VII Sidetes to the Jews to strike coins in 139 BC, but was probably rescinded as soon as he felt strong enough to do so. Hyrcanus I finally minted the first coins in 132 BC.
Later, Hyrcanus minted coin in his own name, usually with inscr., יהוחנן הכהן הגדל וחבר היהודים (Jehochanan Hakkohen Haggadol Vecheber Haje- hudim), Johanan the High Priest and the Commonwealth (?) of the Jews, rev. Double cornucopia and poppy-head. (For varieties see Madden, p. 76.)
Judas Aristobulus, B.C. 104-103. Small bronze, with inscr., היהודיםיהודה הכהן גדל וחבר היהודיםיהודה הכהן , Jehudah Hakkohen Gadol Vecheber Haje- hudim (and variations), Judas the High Priest and the Commonwealth (?) of the Jews, rev. Double cornucopia and poppy (Madden, p. 82).
Alexander Jannaeus, B.C. 103-76. Small bronze of three classes (α and β) Regal, with Hebrew and Greek inscr., יהונתן המלך (Jehona- than Hammelek), The King Jehonathan, rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ- ΔΡΟΥ. TypesFlower and Anchor, or Star and Anchor. (γ) Pontifical. coins resembling those of his predecessor, but reading יהונתן הכהן הגדל וחבר היהודים , Jonathan or Jehonathan Hakkohen Haggadol Vecheber Hajehudim.
John Hyrcanus II, B.C. 69, 63-57, and 47-40. Small bronze, with Star and Anchor, and bilingual inscr. (Madden, p. 93). Also bronze, obv. Flower, rev. Palm (op. cit., p. 96). Inscr., היהדיהוחנן הכהן הגדל החבר היהדיהוחנן הכהן (Jehochanan Hakkohen Haggadol Hachaber Hajehud[im]). Many of Hyrcanus' coins are overstruck on types of Jannaeus, and were prresumably minted not long afterthe latter's death. This suggests that they may have been struck in Hyrcanus' name by his mother, Salome Alexandra, who inherited Jannaeus' kingdom, but was obviously unable to become High Priest due to her gender.
Alexander II (?), B.C. 65-49. To this prince M. Reichardt would attribute small bronze coins of the Star and Anchor type, reading ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ and ....(?)עלצדרעש ג (Alexadras Gadol ?), or עלכצד[ר]עש (Madden, p. 97).
gadol Hacheber Hajehud[im]), and bilingual coins with ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙ ΓΟΝΟΥ, and similar Hebrew legend equivalent to Mattathias the High Priest and the Commonwealth (?) of the Jews. TypesWreath and Double or single cornucopia; Seven-branched candlestick; etc.
Herod the Great, B.C. 37-4. Bronze. Inscr., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΗΡΩΔΟΥ. TypesHelmet, rev. Tripod or Shield; Caduceus, rev. Pomegranate; Aplustre, rev. Palm; Tripod, rev. Wreath; Anchor, rev. Two cornucopias; Eagle, rev. Cornucopia; etc. (Madden, pp. 105 sqq.). Some coins bear the regnal date LΓ (year 3) and ΤΡΙ(χαλκον) in monogram. The eagle probably refers to the golden eagle which Herod set up on the pediment of the Temple at Jerusalem, thus provoking a revolt.
Herod Archelaus, B.C. 4 - A.D. 6. Bronze. Inscr., ΗΡWΔΟΥ ЄΘΝΑΡΧΟΥ, often abbreviated. TypesAnchor, rev. Wreath; Prow, rev. Wreath; Double cornucopias, rev. Galley; Grapes, rev. Helmet; etc. (Madden, pp. 114 sqq.).
Herod Antipas, ruler of Galilaea and Peraea, B.C. 4 - A.D. 40. Bronze, usually with regnal dates. Inscr., ΗΡWΔΟΥ ΤЄΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ, Palm- branch, rev. ΤΙΒЄΡΙΑC, Wreath; or ΗΡΩΔΗC ΤЄΤΡΑΡΧΗC, Palm- branch, with name of Emperor, ΓΑΙΟΥ (Caligula) on reverse in a wreath. These coins were struck at the city of Tiberias, built by Antipas, and named after the Emperor Tiberius (Madden, p. 121).
Herod Philip II, ruler of Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Hauranitis, B.C. 4-A.D. 33. Imperial, Æ Augustus and Tiberius, rev. ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥ or ΕΠΙΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΤΕΤΡΑΡΧΟΥΚΤΙC(του). TypeTemple of Augustus at Caesareia-Panias (Madden, p. 125).
Herod Agrippa I, A.D. 37-44. Bronze, without or with heads of Emperors, Caius and Claudius. Inscr., ΒΑCΙΛЄWC ΑΓΡΙΠΑ (sic), Umbrella, rev. Three ears of corn and regnal date; ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜЄΓΑC ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑC ΦΙΛΟΚΑΙCΑΡ, Head of Agrippa, rev. ΚΑΙCΑΡΙΑ Η ΠΡΟC [CЄΒΑCΤΩ] ΛΙΜЄΝΙ, Tyche standing, struck at Caesareia; Head of Claudius, rev. ΒΑCΙΛЄΥC ΜЄΓΑC ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑC ΦΙΛΟΚΑΙCΑΡ, Two figures in a temple.
On some specimens the alliance of Agrippa with Claudius, when all Herods kingdom was given to him, seems to be commemorated by the following inscription, which is, however, only partly legibleΔΗΜ .. ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ Κ. CΥΜ. ΧΙ. ΑΥ. ΒΑC. ΑΓΡΙΠΑ ... ΚΛΗΤΟΝand of which no entirely satisfactory reading has been yet suggested (see Madden, p. 137).
Agrippa II, A.D. 48-100. Small bronze coin struck at Agrippias. Inscr., [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ] ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ ΑΓΡΙΠΠ[ΕΩΝ], Head of Agrippa II L Ε (year 5), rev. [ΒΑΣ. ΑΓΡΙΠ]ΠΑ ΦΙΛΟΚΑΙΣΑ[ΡΟΣ] (?), Two cornucopias crossed (Z. f. N., xiii. Pl. IV. 17). Also bronze, without or with heads of Emperors, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. The coins with the head of Nero were struck at Neronias (Caesareia Panias). Inscr., ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΑΓΡΙΠΠΟΥ, &c., and various types, among which are Tyche holding cornucopia and ears of corn; Nike holding wreath and palm, or inscribing shield, &c. To A.D. 77 the coins are usually dated by an era beginning A.D. 48; afterwards by an era of A.D. 60 (Maonald, Hunter Cat., iii. p. 291).
Aristobulus, son of Herod king of Chalcis, and great-grandson of Herod the Great, was king of Chalcis and parts of Armenia, A.D. 54-92 (?). Bronze. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ, with the name of Nero or Vespasian on reverse (Rev. Num., 1883, p. 145, and 1900, p. 484).
On the occasion of the banishment of Herod Archelaus, A.D. 6, Judaea was added to the province of Syria, and the government administered by a Procurator subordinate to the Praefect of Syria. Of these Procurators (A.D. 6-66) there is a numerous class of small bronze coins resembling in style and fabric the contemporary small money of the Idumaean Princes, and dated according to the regnal years of the emperors. Augustus (years 33, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, under the Procurators Coponius, Ambivius, and Rufus); Tiberius (1 (?), 2-5, 6 (?), 11, 16-18, Procurators Valerius Gratus and Pontius Pilate); Claudius(13, 14, Procurator Felix); and Nero (year 5, Procurator Felix). These coins bear, as a rule, an inanimate object (Ear of corn, Cornucopia, Lituus, etc.), the name of the reigning emperor or emperors, and the regnal year in Greek characters (Madden, Coins of the Jews, pp. 173 sqq.).
|שקל ישראל (Shekel Israel), Cup or chalice, above which א, ב, ג, or ד (numerals 1 to 4), referring to the official years of Simons rule corre- sponding to B.C. 139-136. On the coins of years 2-4 the numeral is preceded by ש (for Shenath, year).||ירושלם קדשה (Jerushalem Kedoshah), or ירושלים הקדושה (Jerushalaim ha-kedo- shah), Jerusalem the Holy, Branch with three buds (Fig. 355) |
AR Shekel 220 grs.
The half-shekels are similar, but read חצי השקל, Chatzi ha-shekel (half-shekel).
The epithet Holy on these coins may be compared with the ordinary Greek coin-legend ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ on the money of many Syrian cities.
Bronze of the second and third years: Obv. חרות ציון (deliverance of Zion) Vine-leaf, rev. שנת שתים or שנת שלוש (year two or three) Two-handled vase. Also base silver of year 2 of the same types (Hunter Cat., iii. p. 293). Bronze of the fourth year, with the legends, obv. שנת ארבע, רביע שנת ארבע חצי , or שנת ארבע, rev. לגאלת ציון (in the fourth year, one half or one quarterthe redemption of Zion); types(1) obv. Ethrog (citron) between lulabs (bunches of twigs), rev. Palm-tree between two baskets; (2) obv. Two lulabs, rev. Ethrog; (3) obv. Chalice, rev. Lulab between two ethrogs.
(1) Silver shekels, or debased Attic tetradrachms, mostly restruck on tetradrachms of Antioch of the reign of Trajan; typesobv. Portico with four columns, rev. Ethrog and lulab or Lulab alone (Fig. 356); inscr., ירושלם (Jerusalem) or שמעון (Simon), rev. שנת אחת לגאלת ישראל (first year of the redemption of Israel), ש ב לגאלת ישראל (second year of the deliverance of Israel), or לחרות ירושלם (deliverance of Jerusalem). The name of Simon occurs only on the shekels of year 2. A star above the portico alludes to his title son of the star. (2) Silver restruck over Roman denarii (Galba to Hadrian); typesVase, Palm-branch, Wreath, Bunch of grapes, Two trumpets, &c. Inscr., אלעזר הכוהן (Eleazar the Priest), rev. שנת אחת לגאלת ישראל (first year of the redemption of Israel); or obv. שמעון (Simon), rev. לחרות ירושלם (deliverance of Jerusalem), sometimes also with the date year 2. (3) Bronze of two de- nominations, undated, or of year 1 or 2; some of year 1 read שמעון נשיא ישראל (Simon, prince of Israel); some of year 2 simply ירושלם TypesAmphora, rev. Inscription in wreath.