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There can be little doubt that in the seventh century B.C. the Greek cities on the Ionian coast adopted the Lydian invention of coining money, i. e. of stamping the precious metals with marks or types as guarantees of fixed values. Gold and silver, which from time immemorial had been the universal media of exchange, had no real need of such warrants. They were weighed in the scales, and the generally accepted relation between them was in the proportion of 1 to 13 1/3. The ordinary product of the rich Lydian gold-producing districts consisted, however, of an impure gold containing a large admixture of silver, sometimes more, sometimes less, but always variable. The average market price of the impure metal, which from its silvery color obtained the name of 'pale gold ' or 'electrum ', was considerably less than that of pure gold; it was roughly tariffed at the rate of about 1 to 10 in relation to silver, in contrast with 1 to 13 1/3. In order to utilize this abundant natural mixture of gold and silver as a ready medium of exchange, some sort of warrant of exchange value would naturally be required on the part of the purchaser. Accordingly each ingot issued as coin soon came to be stamped with the signet or mark of the issuer responsible for its value, and this custom was so convenient that it was afterwards extended to the purer metals. Of the early electrum coins those which bear distinctive types or symbols are mentioned under the various mints to which they are usually, though doubtfully, attributed. With a very few exceptions the remainder can only be generally classed to the western coast of Asia Minor, where nearly all the extant specimens have been found. Some few pieces may, however, have been struck in Thrace or Thasos, and possibly in Aegina, but these are exceptional.
As the current value of electrum seems to have stood in the earliest times as 1 to 10 in relation to silver, the weight of the electrum stater in each district would naturally be regulated by the standard used for weighing silver in that district. An electrum stater would thus be readily exchangeable for ten silver pieces of its own weight.
Electrum coins are known of the following maximum weights: Euboïc, 269 grs. (distater), 133.6 grs. (stater); Babylonic, 167 grs.; Phocaïc, 254-248 grs.; Phoenician, 220-215 grs.; Aeginetic (?), 212 grs. Halves, Thirds, Sixths, Twelfths, Twenty-fourths, Forty-eighths, and even Ninety-sixths, of the stater are also met with, but the Hecte or Sixth was the denomination which was in most common use.
Among the types of the larger electrum coins (seventh and sixth
|Two lions ' heads to front, upwards and downwards.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. I. 1.]
|Three incuse sinkings, the central one oblong, the others square. |
EL. Stater 219.5 grs.
|Forepart of bridled horse, l. (Cyme ?).|
[Invent. Wadd., Pl. III. 9.]
|Three incuse sinkings as on previous coin. |
EL. Stater 220 grs.
|Two lions standing on their hind legs, facing one another, but with heads turned back; between them is the capital of a column on which each lion rests a fore-paw, while the other fore-paw of each is raised.|
[Num. Chron., 1896, Pl. VII. 15.]
|Rude incuse square. |
EL. Stater 216.1 grs.
|Half figure of Oriental deity to front, head r., with pointed beard and long hair, holding disk in his arms, and with four curled wings, two at shoulders and two at waist. [B. M., unpublished.]||Three incuse sinkings, the central one oblong, the others square. |
EL. Half-stater 108.6 grs.
The motives of the two last described coins are remarkable; that of t he stater resembles the Lion-gate of Mycenae and some early Phrygian monuments of the ninth and eighth centuries B.C. (Ramsay, J. H. S., 1888, 350 sq.). The obv. type of the half stater closely resembles that of an early silver stater of Mallus in Cilicia (BMC Ionia, Pl. XL., 9).
The later staters of Phoenician weight are mentioned under the several cities whose types they apparently bear. It is, however, quite probable that all these staters were struck at a single mint, or, in rotation, at two or more mints, according to some monetary agreement. It is therefore open to question whether the types are to be trusted as evidence of local origin, e. g. Sphinx (Chios ?); Forepart of winged horse (Lampsacus ?); Eagle with head reverted (Abydus ?); Cock (Dardanus ?); Sow (Methymna ?); Horse prancing (Cyme ?); Forepart of bull with head reverted (Samos ?); Forepart of winged boar (Clazomenae?). It is possible that they may be the signets of magistrates; see MacDonald, Coin Types, p. 49 f.
|Lion 's head with protruding tongue (Old Smyrna ?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 1.]
|Rough incuse square. |
EL. Stater 248.27 grs.
|Tunny fish between two fillets (Cyzicus ?).|
[N. C., 1875, Pl. X. 7.]
|Incuse square containing branching lines, with smaller incuse square beside it (as counter-mark ?) containing scorpion. |
EL. Stater 252.9 grs.
|Chimaera l. (Zeleia?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 2.]
|Two incuse squares, larger and smaller. |
EL. Stater 252.6 grs.
|Centaur carrying off woman (Thrace or Thasos?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 3.]
|Deep incuse square quartered. |
EL. Stater 252.5 grs.
[N. C., 1875, Pl. VIII. 16.]
|Incuse square divided into two parts. |
EL. Stater 207 grs.
With regard to this coin see supra, p. 395.
|Double floral device ?|
[Found in Samos. B. M.]
|Two oblong incuse depressions. |
EL. Distater 268.3 grs.
|Id.||One square and one oblong incuse. |
EL. Stater 133.1 grs.
|Gorgon-head of very archaic style (Parium ?). [BMC Ionia, Pl. II. 14. Cf. BMC Mysia, p. 94, note.]||Cross pommée with pellet in center, contained in a cruciform incuse. |
EL. Stater 123.46 grs.
|Lion 's head to front; style very archaic (Samos?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 20.]
|Two incuse depressions, one oblong, the other triangular. |
EL. Stater 133.35 grs.
|Striated surface (Miletus or Sardes ?).|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 3.]
|Three incuse sinkings; that in the center oblong, the others square. |
EL. Stater 166.87 grs.
With regard to the attribution of this primitive stater see infra, under Lydia (Fig. 310), and for numerous divisions of the staters mostly of Lydian origin, though found at Ephesus, see Brit. Mus., Excavations at Ephesus, 1908, pp. 74 ff.
There are also a number of silver coins of archaic times of various standards of weight. Those which from their types seem to belong to the coasts of Asia Minor will be noted under the towns to which they are here conjecturally attributed.
Ionian League of thirteen cities. The Ionian towns, though politically independent of one another, constituted for religious purposes a koinon or League, the meetings of which were held originally in the Panionion in the neighborhood of Priene, where stood a temple of Poseidon and a sacred grove. Under the Empire, games called Panionia or Panionia Pythia were held perhaps elsewhere, e. g. at Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Smyrna, &c. The coins struck for this Festival in the time of Ant. Pius and M. Aurelius, under the supervision of M. Cl. Fronto, Asiarch and Archiereus of the thirteen cities, bear no city name. The reverse types are as follows:—Ant. Pius.-Hades in quadriga carrying off Persephone, Eros with torch driving the horses (BMC Ionia, p. 16); Demeter in serpent-car, with torch in each hand (ibid.); Herakles giving his hand to Iolaos (Bibl. Nat., Paris); M. Aurelius Caesar.—Temple of Artemis Ephesia (Milan); Tyche standing (Mion., iii. p. 62, No. 5). The inscr. ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΙΓΠΟΑΕΩΝΠΡΟΜΚΛΦΡΟΝΤΩΝΑCΙΑΡΧΚΑΙΑΡΧΙΙΓΠΟΑΕΩΝ=κοινον ιγ πολεων προ[νοηθεντος] Μ. Κλ. Φροντον[ος] 'Ασιαρχ[ου] και 'Αρχι[ερεως] ιγ πολεων.
Clazomenae stood partly on the mainland and partly on a small island on the southern shore of the Gulf of Smyrna. The distinctive badge of the city appears from the later inscribed coins to have been a winged boar; cf. Aelian (Hist. An., xii. 38), who relates, on the authority of Artemon, that such a monster once infested the Clazomenian territory. Hence numerous coins of this type, though without inscriptions, are presumed to be of Clazomenian origin. Clazomenae is therefore classed among the cities which took part in the early electrum currency of the sixth century B.C.
|Forepart of winged boar flying r., wearing collar of beads.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 18.]
|Quadripartite incuse square. |
EL. Stater 217.37 grs.
|Uncertain inscr. [Κ]ΛΑ..Τ..? Boar 's head r.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 17.]
|Two incuse squares of different sizes. |
EL. Hecte 35.9 grs.
It is to the time of the Persian dominion under the satraps of Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius I, until the Ionian revolt B.C. 494, that the following silver coins seem to belong:—
|Forepart of winged boar, flying r.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 1-3.]
|Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR Didr. 108.1 grs.
AR Dr. 51 grs.
AR Diobol, 18 grs.
During the century which began with the Ionian revolt, and which comprised the Athenian Hegemony, B.C. 469-387, the date of the Peace of Antalcidas, the Phoenician standard seems to have been replaced by the Attic:—
|Forepart of winged boar.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 4, 5.]
|Incuse square, within which Gorgon-head. |
AR ½ Dr. 30 grs.
AR Diobol, 18.2 grs.
|Head of Athena, r., in helmet with cheek-piece lowered.|
BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 6.]
|ΚΛΑ Ram 's head r. |
This period extends from the Peace of Antalcidas to the battle of Ipsus. The more important cities on the west coast of Asia Minor now began to strike money in great abundance, and some of them, such as Lampsacus, Rhodes, Clazomenae, etc., even issued gold coins for special requirements, probably in time of war. The coins of Rhodes and Clazomenae are particularly remarkable as the finest examples of the full-face type of Apollo. The engravers of these coins must have been really great artists, for they have, without any elaboration, and with a bold simplicity of touch, produced, within the small circle of a coin, masterpieces in mezzo-rilievo.
|Head of Apollo, nearly facing, of finest style.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 7; Imhoof KM, p. 66.]
|ΚΛΑ or ΚΛΑΖΟ Swan with open or closed wings: symbol, (sometimes) winged boar. Magistrate 's name in nom. case. |
AV Octobol. 88-87 grs.
|Similar. On some specimens engraver 's signature, ΘΕΟΔΟΤΟΣ ΕΠΟΕΙ (Fig. 293). Cf. R. N., 1906, p. 249.||Similar, but no symbol.|
These beautiful coins usually bear magistrates ' names in the nom. case:—ΗΡΑΚΛΕΙΔ., ΜΑΝΔΡΩΝΑΞ, ΑΡΙΜΝΗΣΤΟΣ, ΑΝΤΙΦΑΝΗΣ, ΕΥΘΥΔΑΜΑΣ, ΠΥΘΕΟΣ , ΑΠΟΛΛΑΣ, ΜΝΗΣΙΘΕΟΣ, &c.
The bronze coins of this period have usually helmeted heads of Athena in profile or facing, and on the reverses a ram 's head or a ram recumbent or standing (BMC Ionia, Pl. VI. 10-17). For varieties with various magistrates ' names see Imhoof KM, p. 66 f.
The swan, which is the characteristic reverse-type of the finest coins of Clazomenae, is one of the many symbols of Apollo, and it has been suggested that the name of Clazomenae may have been derived from the plaintive notes of these birds (κλαζω, cf. Hom. Il. x. 276) which are said to abound in the Delta of the Hermus.
In addition to the above-described autonomous coins, there are silver pieces with the winged boar on the reverse which bear the name of Orontas, who was satrap of the Hellespont, B.C. 352-345. Their attribution to Clazomenae is, however, uncertain, see infra, p. 598.
|Naked warrior kneeling, defending himself with shield and short spear. Between his legs, Τ.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XXXI. 10.]
|ΟΡΟΝΤΑ Forepart of winged boar; traces of incuse square. |
AR Tetrobol 43 grs.
The autonomous silver coinage of Clazomenae does not extend beyond the battle of Ipsus, and the victory of Seleucus and Lysimachus over Antigonus and Demetrius. During the whole of the third-century Alexandrine, Lysimachian, and Seleucid silver money superseded for the most part the autonomous local issues of former times.
After the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, the regal coinage, just referred to, began itself to assume local characteristics. Thus the gold staters of Philip 's types, issued at the Clazomenian mint, are distinguished by a local mint-mark, the forepart of a winged boar (Müller, 309), as are also tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types, some of which have, as mint-mark, the forepart of a ram or a ram 's head (Müller, 995-998). The bronze coins, the currency of which was more limited, are of a more strictly local and municipal character, and they usually bear the signature of the eponymous magistrate in the nom. case. The chief types are as follows:—
|Head of Zeus.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 1.]
|ΚΛΑΖΟΜΕΝΙΩΝ Swan, often standing on caduceus. |
|Gorgon-head. [BMC Ionia, p. 27.]|| „ Similar type. |
|Forepart of winged boar. [BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 2.]|| „ in four quarters of shallow incuse square. |
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 3.]|| „ Caduceus. |
|Young male head.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 4.]
| „ Philosopher Anaxagoras seated. |
|Head of Zeus. [BMC Ionia, p. 29.]|| „ Club. |
|Bust of Athena.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 5.]
| „ Ram at rest or standing. |
Augustus to Gallienus. Magistrates ' names from Hadrian onwards, with title Strategos, sometimes preceded by επι. Chief types: ΡΩΜΗ and CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC Busts face to face; ΚΛΑΖΟΜЄΝΗ Bust of city; ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ Head of Augustus; ΘΕΑ ΛΙΒΙΑ Bust of Livia. Reverse types: Horseman; Asklepios; Owl; Athena; Ram; Kybele standing between lions; ΑΝΑΞΑ Bust of Anaxagoras (MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. L. 9); Anaxagoras standing holding globe (BMC Ionia, Pl. VII. 9); Sarapis seated; Dionysos holding kantharos over panther; Zeus Aëtophoros naked to front (Ibid., Pl. VII. 11); Naked warrior, armed, charging, and looking back (Ibid., Pl. VII. 12), perhaps Paralos or Parphoros (Imhoof, Gr. M. 111; Strab., 633; Paus., vii. 3, 8); Demeter standing; ЄΙΡΗΝΗ standing (Mion., iii. p. 71). 
Colophon. The old city of Colophon was situated about twenty miles north-west of Ephesus, and some miles from the coast. Its port, Notium, gradually absorbed the greater part of the population of the upper town, and most of the later coins were doubtless struck at this New Colophon. The earliest issues however belong to the old city.
|Head of Apollo to front, or, later, in profile. [Imhoof, Num. Chron., 1895, Pl. X. 10-20, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 70.]||Incuse square, within which marks of value in monogram—ΗΜ, ΤΡΙ, or ΤΕ ( = ημιωβολιον, τριημιτεταρτημοριον, and τεταρτημοριον) and adjunct symbols. |
AR circ. 10 and 4½ grs.
Somewhat later in the fifth century drachms of the Persic standard (circ. 84 grs.) were struck by the Colophonians. Inscr., ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ, usually retrograde, or ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΟΝ, on one or other face of the coin.
|Head of Apollo r. laureate, of archaic style.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 1.]
|Lyre in incuse square. |
AR 84.4 grs.
Early in the fourth century the Rhodian standard replaced the Persic:—
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 2.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩ Lyre and magistrate 's name in nom. case. |
AR Dr. 55 grs.
|[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 3.]|| „ Tripod. |
AR ½ Dr. 25 grs.
|Id.|| „ Lyre. |
AR Diobol. 16.7 grs.
The bronze coins which belong to the earlier half of the fourth century are the following, all with magistrates ' names:—
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 4-6.]
|ΚΟ, ΚΟΛ, or ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ, Lyre or Forepart of horse. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 7.]
|ΚΟΛ Armed horseman with spear couched. Magistrate 's name. |
|Id.||Horse walking. |
|Id.||Forepart of horse. |
The excellence of the Colophonian cavalry is said by Strabo (643) to have been so unrivaled that they were always victorious; hence, perhaps, the horseman as a coin-type.
The old town of Colophon was destroyed by Lysimachus, B.C. 299, but the name seems to have been transferred to its port, Notium, and it was upon this town that the Romans conferred freedom in B.C. 189 (‘Colophoniis qui in Notio habitant, ' Liv. xxxviii. 39).
|Armed horseman with spear couched and dog beneath horse.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 8.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo Kitharoedos standing before tripod. Magistrate 's name in nom. case. |
|Bust of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 9.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Pilei of the Dioskuri. Magistrate 's name in nom. case. |
|Homer seated with chin resting on hand and a scroll upon his knees. Magistrate 's name in nom. case.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 10.]
|ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ Apollo Kitharoedos standing as above, but no tripod. |
After a considerable interval the coinage of Colophon begins again about the time of Nero and continues down to that of Gallienus. Inscr., ΚΟΛΟΦΩΝΙΩΝ. Magistrates ' names with επι and title Strategos. Chief types: Apollo ΚΛΑΡΙΟC seated; ΑΡΤΕΜΙC ΚΛΑΡΙΑ, Cultus-statue resembling Artemis Ephesia; Apollo Klarios seated between standing figures of Artemis and Nemesis; Homer seated holding half-open scroll; Naked boxer; The thirteen cities of the Ionian League standing in semicircle before the temple of Apollo Klarios, in front of which is a bull approaching a flaming altar,—inscr. ΤΟ ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΤΩΝ ΙΩΝΩΝ (BMC Ionia, Pl. VIII. 16); the Strategos on these coins is also sometimes entitled ΙЄΡЄΩC ΙΩΝΩΝ (MacDonald Hunter, ii. 325); Athena standing, &c. For an Alliance coin with Pergamum (Caracalla), see Mionnet, iii. 76; his description lacks verification.
Ephesus occupied the alluvial plain of the lower Cayster, but it owed its chief wealth and renown less to the produce of its soil than to the illustrious sanctuary of the old Asiatic nature-goddess, whom the Ionian Greeks (when, under Androclus, the son of Codrus, they effected a settlement in those parts) identified with the Greek Artemis. The Ephesian goddess is represented as a female figure, the body a mummy-like trunk with the feet placed close together. She is many-breasted, and from each of her hands hangs a long fillet with tassels at the extremities. On either side stands a stag raising its head to the image of the goddess. The usual symbols of the cultus of this nature-goddess are the Bee and the Stag, and it is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called Ηεσσην, 'the king bee, ' while the virgin priestesses bore the name of Melissae or Honey-Bees. The coinage of Ephesus falls into the following periods:—
|ΑNΟSΜΙSΜΑ (φηνοσεμισημα) Stag to right with head lowered. [BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 8.] (Fig. 294.)||Three incuse sinkings, that in the center oblong, the others square. |
EL. Stater, 216.5 grs.
This is the most ancient inscribed coin at present known. Unfortunately it is unique, and the third letter of the first word is obscure. It may be either or N. The interpretation of the remarkable inscription has given rise to much controversial discussion, for a résumé of which see Babelon, Traité, ii. I, 62. The weight, the type, and the Ionian character of the incuse reverse, all indicate Ephesus as the place of mintage rather than Halicarnassus, to which Doric city P. Gardner once attributed it,
On various grounds, as Babelon (op. cit.) has pointed out, this attribution is unacceptable. The coin is certainly Ephesian, as the stag is he symbol of the great goddess of Ephesus. The relation of the inscription to the type is in so far certain that it seems to mean 'I am the signet of Phanes '. The doubtful word in the genitive case Φαενος, Φαννος, or Φανος, has been differently explained. Newton (Num. Chron., 1870, p. 238) regarded it as referable only to the type and to the cultus of the goddess Artemis; and he suggested as a translation 'I am the sign of the Bright one '. Such an interpretation of the inscription would imply that the coin was a hierarchical issue from the temple treasury. It is, however, far more probable that Φηνος or Φαννος is not an epithet of Artemis, but the name, in the genitive case, of some prominent citizen of Ephesus, it may be of a despot, or of a magistrate, or of a member of one of the wealthy Ephesian families of bankers and money-lenders (see Babelon, Traité, l. c.).
|Bee in linear square.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 9, 10.]
|Oblong incuse divided into two squares. |
EL. Trite 71.2 grs.
|Forepart of stag, head turned back; in front [Ibid., Pl. III. 11.]||Incuse square. |
EL. Hecte 36 grs.
|Id. [Head, Ephesus, Pl. I. 4.]||Incuse square. |
EL. Hemihecton, 18 grs.
The following drachms seem to belong to the period of Persian dominion under Cyrus, Cambyses, and Darius I, down to the Ionian revolt, B.C. 494:—
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 1.]
|Incuse square quartered. |
AR Drachm, 50.3 grs.
|Bee with curved wings; with volute in field to l. of its head.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 2.]
AR Drachm, 49.4 grs.
|Bee with curved wings; with volute on either side of head.|
[Imhoof KM, p. 49, 1.]
|ΕΦ and Eagle 's head r. within incuse square. |
AR 4 grs.
To the period between the Ionian revolt and the sack of Miletus, B.C. 494, and the battle of Eurymedon, B.C. 469, which marked the commencement of the Athenian hegemony, the following coins may be assigned:—
|ΕΦΕΣΙΟΝ or ΕΦ Bee with curved wings. [BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 3, 4, and Head Ephesos, Pl. I. 11-14.]||Incuse square quartered.|
Whether coins of these types continued to be struck during the Athenian hegemony, B.C. 469-415, is doubtful.
In this period Ephesus, which had revolted from Athens after the Sicilian disaster, and had become dependent first upon the Persians and then upon the Spartans, struck silver with types similar to those of the preceding period, but on a somewhat heavier standard, identical with the so-called Rhodian standard. Didrachms 117 grs. and smaller denominations. These coins usually bear a magistrate 's name either on the obverse, beneath the bee, or on the bar which divides the incuse square (Head, Eph., Pl. I. 15-21).
In B.C. 394 the Athenian Conon expelled the Spartan oligarchies from most of the Asiatic coast-towns. Among other cities Ephesus and Samos are mentioned as having then shaken off the Spartan yoke. We have accordingly no difficulty in assigning to this period the federal (?) coins issued by Rhodes, Cnidus, Iasus, Samos, Ephesus, and Byzantium, each with its own distinctive type on the reverse of the coin, while on the obverse is the infant Herakles strangling two serpents, and the inscr. ΣΥΝ for Συνμαχικον. On this group of coins see Regling, Z. f. N., xxv, p. 207 ff.
|ΣΥΝ Infant Herakles strangling two serpents.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 6.]
|Ε Φ Bee with curved wings: beneath Π Ε (magistrate 's name). |
AR Rhodian tridrachm, 176.6 grs.
In addition to this federal (?) coinage Ephesus began, about B.C. 394, or possibly a little earlier, the issue of the long series of tetradrachms of Rhodian weight (236 grs.) which lasted for no less than a century.
|Ε Φ Bee. (Fig. 295.)|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. IX. 8.]
|Forepart of stag with head turned back; behind it, a palm-tree, and, in front, a magistrate 's name in nom. c ase. |
AR Tetradrachm, 236 grs.
Smaller denominations weighing 88 grs., and drachms of 57 grs., with similar types, as well as pieces of 14 grs. also occur (Head Ephesus, Pl. II. 6-10), together with bronze coins, obv. Bee, rev. Stag kneeling. tho magistrates ' names on some of which prove that they are contemporary with the tetradrachms (Head, l. c., Pl. II. 11-13; III. 12-13).
In B.C. 295 Lysimachus made himself master of Ephesus, the name of which he shortly afterwards changed to Arsinoeia (Ath. Mitth., xxv, 1900, p. 100 ff.) in honor of his wife.  This period is marked by the issue of regal money at Ephesus bearing the usual types of Lysimachus, symbol Bee, and inscr. ΕΦ or ΑΡ in monogram (Head, l. c., pp. 42-45). The series of autonomous tetradrachms now came to an end, but the pieces of 88 grs., with halves and quarters, continued to be struck, probably because they passed as thirds, &c., of the Attic tetradrachms of Lysimachus.
|Head of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 4.]
|ΕΦΕ Bow and quiver. Symbol: Bee. Magistrate 's name. |
AR 88 grs.
|Ε Φ Bee.||Stag standing. |
Æ Size .7
|Head of Queen Arsinoë, veiled.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 5.]
|ΑΡΣΙ Id. |
AR 82.1 grs.
AR 42 grs.
AR 19 grs.
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 6.]|| „ Stag kneeling. |
Æ Size .7
|Id.|| „ Forepart of stag. |
Ephesus during this interval was probably left by the contending royal houses in the enjoyment of autonomy. The coinage consists of Attic octobols and bronze:—
|Head of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 8.]
|Ε Φ Forepart of stag and palm-tree. Magistrate 's name. |
AR 75 grs.
|Ε Φ Bee, often in wreath.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. X. 10.]
|Stag drinking. Magistrates ' names. |
Æ Size .7
During this period Ephesus was for the most part attached to the dominions of the Ptolemies. The coinage consists (α) of Ptolemaïc coins (cf. the gold octadrachm of Berenice II, BMC Ptolemies, Pl. XIII. 2, with the Ephesian Bee in the field); (β) of didrachms and drachms of reduced Rhodian weight (102 and 50 grs.);
|Bust of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 1.]
|Ε Φ Forepart of stag, without palm-tree. Magistrates ' names. |
AR 102 grs. and AR 50 grs.
In B.C. 202 Arados in Phoenicia began to strike Alexandrine tetradrachms (Müller, Cl. V) bearing dates in Greek characters. Similar coins without dates began to be issued at Ephesus about the same time. This coincidence seems to indicate that Ephesus and Arados, two great commercial cities of the coasts of Asia Minor and Phoenicia respectively, may have found it to their mutual advantage about this time to conclude a monetary treaty, according to which each city might secure a free circulation for her coins on the markets of the other. This, of course, is only a conjecture, but it is remarkable that, at both cities, the Alexandrine tetradrachms of Müller 's Class V merge into those of Class VI (Müller, Nos. 1018-1024) about B.C. 198, and that the autonomous drachms of Attic weight issued at Ephesus during the greater part of the second century are also identical in type with the drachms of Aradus dated 174-110 B.C.
|Ε Φ Bee. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 4, 5.]||Stag standing before a palm-tree. Magistrates ' names. |
AR Attic drachm, 64 grs.
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 6.]||Id. |
Æ Size .7
The Alexandrine tetradrachms of Class V (B.C. 202-196) and of Class VI (B.C. 196-189) were superseded by tetradrachms of Eumenes II of Pergamum, also struck at Ephesus B.C. 189-159 (Head Ephesos, pp. 55-60).
At this time, too, or perhaps earlier, the series of Ephesian cistophori begins. These are at first undated; but from the period of the constitution of the Roman Province of Asia (Sept. 134) they bear dates referring to that era, and are likewise distinguished by the subordinate symbol of a long torch in the field to the right of the serpents on the reverse. An exceptional coin, dated ΙΓ (= B.C. 121), bears the signature of a Roman official C · ASIN · C · F.  These dated cistophori extend in an
1 I have seen only a photograph of the coin, and I do not know into what collection it has now passed. The date and the early style of this cistophorus make it quite impossible to identify the magistrate whose name it bears with C·ASIN·C·F· (Gallus), Proconsul of Asia in B.C. 6-5 almost unbroken series from B.C. 133-67, when, after a short interval, a change takes place, the name of the Roman Proconsul being added from B.C. 58-48: viz. T. Ampius, B.C. 58-57; C. Fabius, B.C. 57-56: C. Claudius Pulcher, B.C. 55-53; and C. Fannius (Praetor), B.C. 49-48. Between B.C. 48, when the series of Proconsular cistophori dated from the provincial era, B.C. 134, comes to an end, and the inauguration of the new series of Imperial cistophori, there seems to have been an interval in the issue of cistophori. The revolt of the Province of Asia from Rome, B.C. 88-84, in the time of Mithradates, does not seem to have interrupted the output of cistophori, but this revolt is probably commemorated in the series of Ephesian coins by the exceptional issue of a small number of gold staters, &c., doubtless rendered necessary, at this particular time, for war expenses.
|Bust of Artemis.|
[Head Ephesus, Pl. V. 2-6.]
|ΕΦΕΣΙΩΝ or Ε Φ Cultus image of the Ephesian Artemis. Stag, bee or other symbols in the field. |
AV Stater, 132 grs.
|Id.||No inscription. |
Similar AV 84.5 grs.
In B.C. 48 Caesar visited Ephesus and reformed the constitution of the Province of Asia. From this time onwards there is no autonomous Ephesian silver money. The chief bronze coins which are known are:—
|Bust of Artemis.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 7.]
|Ε Φ Long torch and forepart of stag. Magistrates ' names. |
Æ Size .9
|Id. [BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 8.]||Ε Φ Long torch between two stags. Magistrates ' names. |
|Ε Φ Artemis huntress with hound.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XI. 9.]
|Cock with palm across wing; the whole in wreath. Magistrate 's name. |
From the time of the Triumvirate, B.C. 43, to that of Gallienus, the coinage extends in an unbroken series. The earlier issues down to the reign of Claudius bear the names of local magistrates, Grammateus, Archiereus, or Archiereus Gram., Hiereus, Episkopos (Z. f. N., vi. 15), but never Archon or Strategos, as do the coins of most other Asiatic cities. The names of Roman Proconsuls are also met with, viz. M '. Acilius Aviola, A.D. 65-66; Ρ. Calvisius Ruso; L. Caesennius Paetus; ... Rufus, under Domitian; and Cl. Julianus, A.D. 145-146. It is an unexplained fact that after the time of Claudius hardly any names of local magistrates occur on Ephesian coins. In Imperial times Ephesus was one of the few mints where AV and AR were issued, the AR with both Greek and Latin inscriptions, viz. Cistophori with DIANA EPHESIA, denarii of the Flavians, and didrachms and drachms of Nero (112 and 56 grs.) inscribed ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΝ and ΔΡΧΜΗ. For AV see Imhoof Zur. gr. u. röm. Münzk., pp. 5 f., and for Æ of the earlier emperors Kl. M., pp. 55 ff. The ethnic ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ from the time of Trajan onwards is frequently, accompanied by an honorific title. e.g. Ο ΝЄΩ[κορος] ЄΦЄ[σιων] ΔΗ[μος]ЄΠЄΧΑΡ[αξατο], Trajan (BMC Ionia, p. 76); ΔΙC ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Hadrian: ΔΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, Verus; ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, S. Severus; ΤΡΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Caracalla; ΤΡΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗC ΑΡΤЄΜΙΔΟC, Caracalla and Geta; Δ ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Elagabalus; ΜΟΝΩΝ Α ΠΑCΩΝ ΤΕΤΡΑΚΙC ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Elagabalus (see Pick, Corolla Num., p. 241); ΔΟΓΜΑΤΙ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΥ ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ ΟΥΤΟΙ ΝΑΟΙ, four temples, Elagabalus; ΜΟΝΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC, Severus Alexander; Γ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Maximinus; ΑCΥΛΟC, Otacilia; ΚΑΤΑ ΠΛΟΥC Α, Philip II (Eckhel, ii. 518); Γ or ΜΟΝΩΝ Δ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Gallienus; Γ or Δ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Salonina. At Ephesus the fourth Neocory (Δ) and the third (Γ) are indiscriminately used at one and the same time, and it has been conjectured that while the city of Ephesus was officially neocorate only for the second time, she styled herself τρις νεωκορος on account of her local temple of Artemis, and that when she became officially τρις νεωκορος των Σεβαστων, she claimed a fourth Neocory on behalf of her local temple; but the reversion from Δ to Γ may be due to the damnata memoria of Elagabalus (see Pick, op. cit.). Similar irregularities in numbering the successive Neocories occur also on coins of Nicomedeia and Sardes (Oesterr. Jahreshefte, vii. p. 30).
Remarkable inscriptions and types. ΘΕΟΓΜΙΑ, Heads of Claudius and Agrippina face to face; ΡΩΜΗ Bust of Roma, Nero; ΖЄΥΕ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟC seated, Domitian; ΚΛΑCЄΑC and ΜΑΡΝΑC, River-gods, the latter recumbent against a shield, Domitian; ΝЄΙΚΗ ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑΝΟΥ, Domitian; ЄΦЄCΙΑ Cultus-statue of Artemis, Trajan; Captive Parthia seated, Trajan; ΑΡΤΕΜΙC ЄΦЄCΙΑ Cultus-statue, Hadrian; ΑΝΔΡΟΚΛΟC the Founder, with wild boar, in reference to the oracle which bade him found the city on the spot where he should meet a boar; Antinoüs; ΚΟΡΗCΟC and ΑΝΔΡΟΚΛΟC Two heroes joining hands; ΚΑΥCΤΡΟC, ΚЄΝΧΡЄΙΟC, Rivers recumbent separately or together with Artemis between them, Ant. Pius; ΠЄΙΩΝ in connexion with the type of Zeus υετιος enthroned above Mt. Pion, and pouring rain upon the city of Ephesus (Paus. vii. 5. 10; cf. Steph. s. v. Εφεσος). On other coins Mt. Pion appears recumbent, holding cultus-statue of Artemis beneath mountain on which runs a boar pierced by a spear (Imhoof, Jahrb. d. Inst., 1888, Pl. IX. 25); ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝ ΙΚЄCΙΟC and Greek Artemis standing face to face (BMC Ionia, Pl. XIII. 10); ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ЄΦЄCΙΑ between stags; Artemis ΠΑΝΙΩΝΙΟC (Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 22, and Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., p. 65); ΛΗΤΩ fleeing with her children (Imhoof MG, 285); Leto standing with child on each arm and worshipers at her feet (Z. f. N., xvii, Pl. i. 18); Herakles ЄΠΙΝЄΙΚΙΟC; ΑΠΗΜΗ ΙЄΡΑ or ΙЄΡΑΠΗΜΗ (J. H. S., 1897, p. 87), the sacred mule-car (απηνη) used in processions; ΩΚЄΑΝΟC recumbent; ΗΡΛΚΛЄΙΤΟC the Ephesian Philosopher (see H. Diels, Herakleitos von. Ephesos, Berlin, 1901); ЄΙΡΗΝΗ; ΤΥΧΗ; ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ ΝЄΙΚΗ; ΤΥΧΗ ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ (Imhoof KM, p. 61); ΔΙΚΑΙΟΕΥΝΗ; ΒΩΤΑ (= Vota) sacrifice of bull before temple of the Emperor (BMC Ionia, Pl. XIV. 4); ΝЄΟΙ ΗΛΙΟΙ beneath busts of Caracalla and Geta.
Games and agonistic types. ΟΛΥΜΠΙΛ ΟΙΚΟΥΜЄΝΙΚΑ ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΑCΙΑC; ΤΟ ΑΓΑΘΟΝ ЄΦЄCΙΩΝ Naked boxer (BMC Ionia, Pl. XIV. 15); [ΓΥΜ]ΝΑCΙΑΡΧΙΑ Gymnasiarch holding bowl (Invent. Waddington, 1639, cf. BMC Cilicia, p. xxxiv).
Alliance coins with Pergamum, Smyrna, Sardes, Tralles, Hierapolis, Laodiceia, Alexandreia, struck at Ephesus. Among other cities which struck money in alliance with Ephesus are Adramyteum, Cyzicus, Pergamum, Magnesia (Ion.), Miletus, Aphrodisias, Nysa, Philadelphia, Sardes, Apameia, Cibyra, Cotiaeum, Hierapolis, Laodiceia, Perga (Imhoof KM, 158), etc.
Tesserae. To early Imperial times may be assigned the curious Ephesian bronze tesserae bearing on the obv. a kneeling stag, beneath which, CΚΩΠΙ, and on the rev. a Bee, around which is the unexplained legend ΚΗΡΙΛΙC (or ΚΗΡΙΛΛΙC) WΔЄ ΠΡΟC ΠΑΛΥΡΙΝ (ΠΑΛΥΡΝ or ΠΑΛΥΡΡΙΝ) Æ .75. These tesserae are supposed by Eckhel to have been apothecaries ' advertisement tickets; by Babelon (Traité, I, i, p. 680) to have been charms inscribed with magic formulae (‘Εφεσια γραμματα); and by me, to have been also possibly intended for Bee-charms (Num. Chron., 1908, pp. 281 sqq.).
Erythrae. This ancient Ionian city stood on a peninsula opposite the island of Chios. Its earliest coins are, perhaps, some uninscribed electrum pieces of the seventh century B.C. and later, the obverse type of which is the star-like flower, which recurs at a later period on the inscribed silver coins (BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 12-14, and Pl. XV. 2-6). The largest denomination is a half stater of 109 grs. Electrum hectae are also attributed to Erythrae, obv. Archaic head of Herakles in lion-skin (BMC Ionia, Pl. III. 15).
|Naked horseman (Erythros ?) prancing.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XV. 1.]
|Quadripartite incuse square. |
AR Didrachm 109 grs.
AR Tetrobol 36 grs.
|Naked man holding prancing horse by the rein.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XV. 2-7.]
|Ε Ρ V Θ in the four corners of an incuse square within which a star-like flower. |
AR Dr. 72 grs. Smaller coins 22.2, 17.5, 13.8, 4.8, and 3.2 grs. (Cf. Imhoof KM, p. 62.)
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XV. 9, 10.]
|ΕΡΥ Club, and bow in case; in field, small owl and magistrates ' names. |
AR Tetradr. 231 grs., Dr. 57.6 grs.,
and also Æ.
During this period the silver money of Erythrae is, to a great extent, replaced by bronze coins, chiefly of similar types, which yield a large number of magistrates ' names in nom. case usually with patronymic. The duration of this coinage is uncertain. To about B.C. 190, after the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, may be assigned some tetradrachms of Alexander the Great 's types (Müller, Class VI, Nos. 999-1004; symbols, club, and bow in case).
|Head of young Herakles in lion-skin.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVI. 4.]
|ΕΡΥ Female divinity in short chiton, standing to front, wearing kalathos and holding spear and globe (?); magistrate 's name. |
AV 43.5 grs.
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial coinage. Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ЄΡΥΘΡΑΙΩΝ. Magistrates ' names at first in nom. with patronymic; from Trajan onwards in gen., usually with επι and title Strategos. Chief types: Busts of ΘЄΟΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, ΔΗΜΟC Athena, Demeter Horia veiled, with cornucopia (BMC Ionia, Pl. XVI. 16). Reverses: ЄΡVΘΡΟC ΚΤΙCΤΗC armed, with foot on prow; Two warriors face to face, each with foot on prow (Erythros and Knopos (?), cf. Strab. 633); ΑΞΟC and ΑΛЄΩΝ, River-gods (Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 27); ΘЄΑ CΙΒΥΛΛΑ the Sibyl Herophile seated on a rock (Paus. x. 12. 7; Imh., Gr. M., Pl. VIII. 26, 27); Temple and statue of Herakles Ipoktonos, so called as the slayer of the Ips, an insect, which was elsewhere very destructive of the vine, but did not exist in the territory of the Erythraeans (Strab., 613). The ancient cultus-image of this god is described by Pausanias (vii. 5) (see N. Z. 1891, p. 12), who tells how it floated on a raft from Tyre, and how the Erythraeans obtained possession of it; Demeter standing; Demeter as the city-goddess turreted, in serpent-car (Imh. Gr. M., Pl. XIII. 19), Herakles and Demeter, face to face; Fire-beacon; Prow; Asklepios; Tyche; Cista mystica; etc.
Eurydiceia. See Smyrna, infra, p. 592.
Heracleia ad Latmum, at the head of the Latmic gulf, about 15 miles E. of Miletus, appears to have issued coins only during a short period after the battle of Magnesia, B.C. 190.
|Head of Athena in crested Athenian helmet adorned with the foreparts of horses, a flying Pegasos, &c.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 1.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΩΝ Club in oak-wreath; symbol, Nike. Two monograms. |
AR Tetradr. 250 grs.
|Head of Athena in crested Corinthian helmet.|
[Numismatic Chronicle, 1899, Pl. VIII. 5.]
|ΗΡΑΚΛΕΩΤΩΝ Club in laurel-wreath. |
AR Octobol, 79.2 grs.
|Id. [Numismatic Chronicle, 1886, Pl. XI. 12.]||Id. |
AR Tetrobol, 38.2 grs.
To this city and to this period may also, perhaps, be attributed a few tetradrachms of Alexander 's types (Müller, Class VI, 1058-1067) with the club as an adjunct symbol. There are, moreover, autonomous bronze coins referring to the cultus of Herakles, Dionysos, Athena, &c., which belong to about the same time.Larisa. The site of this town is fixed by Buresch (Aus Lydien, p. 213) in the Cayster valley, about 25 miles above Ephesus and 4 miles N.N.W. of the railway station Tire. The very few coins which it struck are of Colophonian types, and appear to have been issued about B.C. 300 or possibly somewhat later.
|Head of Apollo Larisenos; hair in formal curls.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 6.]
|ΛΑ Horseman prancing with spear couched. |
Æ Size .75
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 36.]
|ΛΑ Forepart of horse. |
Lebedus (Ptolemaïs) was an old Ionian coast-town, about 25 miles W. of Ephesus. The earliest coins assigned to it belong to the middle of the third century B.C., when, under Ptolemaïc influence, it appears to have temporarily borne the name of Ptolemaïs (Journ. int. d 'arch. num., 1902, p. 45 and p. 61 ff., and 1903, p. 171).
|Head of Ptolemy II (?).|
[Journ. Int., 1902, Pl. IV. 5-9.]
|ΠΤΟ Athena standing with spear and spindle; magistrate 's name. |
Æ Size .7
|Head of Arsinoë II (?).|
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 10-13.]
|ΠΤΟ Male divinity (Triptolemos?) seated holding ears of corn(?) and sceptre; magistrate 's name. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 18, 19.]
|ΠΤΟ ΛΕ Amphora. Symbol, double cornucopia. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Ibid., Pl. IV. 16, 17.]
|ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΕΩΝ Amphora and Ptolemaic eagle, or Amphora alone. |
The bronze coins of Lebedus issued in its original name follow next in order, and one or two names of magistrates are identical on this and on the previous series. The silver coinage dates probably from the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia.
|Head of Athena in three-crested Athenian helmet bound with olive wreath.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 7.]
|ΛΕΒΕΔΙΩΝ Owl on club between two cornucopia; magistrate 's name; the whole in olive-wreath. |
AR Tetradrachm, 255.5 grs.
|Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 8.]
|ΛΕ Owl; symbol, prow; magistrate 's name. |
The bronze coins of the second and first centuries bear usually a head or bust of Athena, generally facing, on the obverse; and, on the reverse, ΛΕ and a Prow, Owl, or Figure of Dionysos. For other varieties and magistrates ' names see BMC Ionia and Imhoof, Kl. M.
Tiberius to Geta. Inscription ΛЄΒЄΔΙΩΝ. Chief types: ΘΕΛ ΡΩΜΗ, Turreted bust; ΘΕΑΝ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ, Head of Senate; Dionysos; Athena; Isis; Tyche; Owl; &c. Magistrates ' names in gen. with or without επι, or in nom. with patronymic (Imhoof KM, p. 74, 15).
Leuce or Leucae, on the north side of the Gulf of Smyrna, opposite Clazomenae, was founded B.C. 352 by the Persian admiral Tachos (Diod. xv. 18), and it soon afterwards fell into the hands of the Clazomenians, to whose influence the Swan type bears witness.
|Λ Head of Aphrodite or Artemis; Symbol, crescent.|
[Imhoof MG, Pl. E. 34.]
|Λ Swan; symbol, crescent. |
|ΛΕΥ Head of Zeus.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 13.]
|Forepart or head of boar. |
AR 7.4 grs.
|Head of Apollo of fine style.|
[Imhoof KM, 75.]
|ΛΕΟΚΑΤΩΝ or ΛΕΟ Swan. |
|Head of Athena facing.|
[BMC Ionia, Pl. XVII. 15.]
|ΛΕΥ Lion standing. |
|Head of Apollo.|
[Imhoof KM, Pl. II. 38.]
|ΛΕΥΚΛΙΕΩΝ Swan before tripod. |
|Id.||ΛΕΥ Swan. Magistrate 's name. |
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, founded originally by Magnetes from Thessaly, was from early times a city of considerable importance. When Themistocles was exiled from Athens he retired to Magnesia, which was then assigned to him by the king of Persia. To the period of his rule the following highly interesting coin belongs.
Circ. B.C. 465-449.
Three specimens of these didrachms are known, all from different dies. The one in the British Museum is plated,—a fact which has been cited as confirming the reputation for trickery with which the name of Themistocles was associated; and a plated drachm is also said to exist in a private collection at Aid in. These plated coins were, however, perhaps not issued officially (see R. Weil in Corolla Num., p. 307, where all these pieces are discussed).
For the space of at least a century after this no coins of Magnesia are known, but after the middle of the fourth century the silver coinage becomes plentiful. Lists of the magistrates ' names and other coin legends are given by O. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander, Berlin, 1900, pp. xxi ff.
Circ. B.C. 350-300.
Circ. B.C. 300-190.
Circ. B.C. 190-133.
Among the magistrates ' names on these tetradrachms are the following:—ΕΥΦΗΜΟΣ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΟΥ, ΠΑΥΑΝΙΑΣ ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΟΥ, ΠΑΥΣΑΝΙΑΣ ΕΥΦΗΜΟΥ, ΑΠΟΛΛΟΔΩΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΟΥΣ, ΕΡΑΣΙΠΠΟΣ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΟΥ, ΗΡΟΓΝΗΤΟΣ ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΙΝΟΣ.
The autonomous bronze coinage of Magnesia extends from the middle of the fourth century (Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 71) down to Roman times. Inscr., ΜΑΓ., ΜΑΓΝ. or ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ.The types of the earlier issues resemble those of the silver coins. The chief types after B.C. 190 are Bust of Artemis with bow and quiver at shoulder, sometimes radiate like Helios; Bust of Athena; Horseman; Humped bull; Cultus-statue of Artemis Leukophryene; Stag; Free horse; Nike; &c.; with magistrates ' names (cf. Imhoof, Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 1908, p. 71).
Quasi-autonomous and Imperial Coinage.
Augustus to Gallienus. Inscr., ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ with occasional addition, after Severus Alexander, of ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΗC ΑΡΤЄΜΙΔΟC, 'Wardens of the local temple of Artemis Leukophryene, ' and in Gordian 's reign of ЄΒΔΟΜΗ ΤΗC ΑCΙΑC 'seventh city of Asia ' (Eckhel, D. N. V., ii. 527). Magistrates ' names at first in nom. case, but from Ant. Pius in gen. with επι and often with title Grammateus. Chief types: ΖЄVC Nikephoros seated; ΖЄVC ΑΚΡΑΙΟC standing (Imhoof KM 79); ΛЄVΚΟΦΡVC and ΛΕVΚΟΦΡVΗΝΗ or ΛΕVΚΟΦΡVΝΗ, Cultus-statue, sometimes crowned by two small figures of Nike, and with two eagles at her feet, or a River- and a Mountain-god (Maeander and Thorax ?) recumbent (Imhoof KM, Pl. III. 5); ΑVΛΑЄΙΤΗC or ΑVΛΑΙΤΗC Apollo Kitharistes; ΑΦΡΟ. ΝΗΛЄΙΑ, Aphrodite Neleia standing with Eros behind her (Imh., Zur gr. u. röm. Münzkunde, p. 72); Artemis on prow, holding torches (Imhoof KM 77); Rape of Persephone; ΚΟΡΗ standing; CЄΡΑΠΙC Head of Sarapis, rev. Isis; Helios-Sarapis standing; Demeter in Serpent Car; Herdsman (Eurytion ?) driving bull into cavern; Devotee of Apollo carrying an uprooted tree of Hylae: see Num. Chron., 1892, p. 89 (cf. Paus. x. 32); Ram before altar (MacDonald Hunter, ii. Pl. LI. 8); Mên standing between two torches(?) round one of which a snake is twined; Selene in biga of bulls; Leto with her two children; Adrasteia (?) carrying infant Zeus; Infant Dionysos seated on cista or in cradle; Infant Dionysos in shrine, one of the Korybantes dancing before him; Dionysos standing, Maenad beating cymbals before him; Athena standing, with Giant at her feet holding her shield (Imhoof MG 120); Asklepios standing, with serpent behind him (Imh., Zur gr. u. röm. Münzkunde, p. 72); Hephaestos forging helmet before Athena; Statue of Hephaestos seated and borne on the shoulders of four men; ΘЄΜΙC ΤΟΚΛΗC as a hero (P. Gardner in Corolla Num., p. 109); ΚΟΛΠΟΙ, personifications of the valleys of Magnesia as three water nymphs surrounding a naked male figure seated on a rock (Kern, op. cit., xxv); Three Nymphs or Charites (Imhoof, Nymphen u. Chariten, p. 192); Female figure on galloping horse beneath which hound, upper half of female figure (Ge ?) emerging from ground, and flower basket (?); ΜΑΓΝΗCΙΑ bust of City; ΠΟΛЄΙC (sic) bust of city; ΤΥΧΗ standing; ΙЄΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC; CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΝ; &c.
Alliance coins with Ephesus, time of Caracalla—Temples of Artemis Leukophryene and Artemis Ephesia. (On the history, etc., of Magnesia, see O. Kern, op. cit., and Gründungsgeschichte von Magnesia, 1894.)
Metropolis, between Ephesus and Smyrna, began to coin bronze money during the first century B.C. Obv. Head of Kybele turreted o r Male head helmeted. Rev. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ often written in monogram:—Fulmen; Ares (?) or hero standing; Thyrsos-head. Magistrate 's name in nom. case (BMC Caria; Imhoof MG, 292; Imhoof KM, 82; Zur gr. u. röm. Münzk., 73).
Imperial. Augustus to Saloninus. Inscription, ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛЄΙΤΩΝ with frequent addition of ΤΩΝ ЄΝ ΙΩΝΙΑ. Magistrate 's name in nom. on coins of Augustus, and later in gen. with επι and title Strategos. Chief types: Kybele enthroned, sometimes fondling lion; Snake-entwined staff; Armed hero and Boule joining hands; Emperor between two armed heroes standing; Demeter standing; Zeus seated; ΑCΤΡΑΙΟC River-god; Tyche holding statue of armed hero; Agonistic crown containing palms referring to the Games CЄΒΑCΤΑ ΚΑΙCΑΡЄΑ; Artemis Ephesia; etc.
Miletus. This once great and commercial city was, with the exception perhaps of Sardes, the earliest place of mintage of the ancient world. We have the authority of Herodotus (i. 94) for attributing to the Lydians the invention of coining money, but the priority of the Lydian s can have been very brief, for it is to Miletus that a number of electrum coins of primitive style must be assigned, more especially those which bear the type of a lion with his head turned backwards, this being the characteristic type of the later coinage of Miletus. The normal weight of the Milesian electrum stater appears to have been about 220 grs. (so-called Phoenician standard). In addition to the following there are many other early electrum coins of various types which were probably struck at the Milesian mint.
Seventh century B.C.
For smaller denominations which hardly admit of description, see the Plates in B. M. C., Ionia.
Of this early period there are no silver coins which can be assigned to Miletus. The oldest silver money conjecturally attributed to the city in the B. M. C., Ion., consists of staters of the Aeginetic standard:—
Sixth and Fifth centuries B.C.
The smaller denominations are coins of 32.4 and 19.3 grs. (Ibid., Pl. XXI. 3, 4).
With regard to these coins, here doubtfully assigned to Miletus, and as to the unexplained inscription ΟVΛ, see B. M. C., Ion., p. xxxv, and Babelon, Traité, p. 451, where they are classed among uncertain coins of one of the southern Aegaean islands.
Fourth century B.C.
In the Milesian territory, at a place called Didyma or Didymi, was the world-renowned oracle of Apollo Διδμευς or Διδμαιος. The emblems of this god were the lion and the sun, and it is quite possible that the earliest coins of Miletus which bore these sacred symbols may have been issued under the auspices of the Branchidae, as the priests of the Didymean Apollo were called. The temple was burnt by Darius in B.C. 494 (Hdt. vi. 19), and lay in ruins till the reign of Alexander the Great. After the siege of B.C. 334 the restored democracy determined to rebuild it: see Haussoullier, Milet et le Didymeion, Paris, 1902. It may well have been in connexion with the rebuilding of the temple that the following coin was issued:—
The remarkable inscription on this coin, which is of the weight of the ordinary (so-called) Phoenician ½ drachm, is hard to explain. The weight renders it difficult to suppose that ΔΡΑΧΜΗ is to be supplied with ΙΕΡΗ.
Circ. B.C. 350-190.
For the subsequent vicissitudes in the history of Miletus see Haussoullier, op. cit. The details are insufficient to furnish a satisfactory clue to the arrangement of the coinage. The remaining silver is consequently somewhat difficult to classify, owing chiefly to its uniformity in type and style. Guided mainly by the weights, we may group the coins in four chronological periods, as follows:—
(i) B.C. 350-300. Phoenician Drachms 56 grs., and ½ Drachms 28 grs. (maximum). (ii) B.C. 300-250. Rhodian Didrachms, 102 grs. (iii) B.C. 250-190. Persic Didrachms, 160 grs.: Drachms, 80 grs.; ½ Drachms, 40 grs.(iv) B.C. 190-133. Attic spread Tetradrachms of Alexander 's types (Müller, Nos. 1033-1057). Attic Tetradrachms of the Milesian type. 1 ½ Drachms of Cistophoric standard, 75.3 grs., and Drachms of 40 grs.; also gold Staters of 130 grs.
The rare gold staters of Miletus now in the British Museum seem to fall into the period which followed the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia.
The autonomous bronze money of Miletus, which ranges over the whole period from the earlier half of the fourth century down to Roman times, resembles for the most part the silver and furnishes us with a number of additional magistrates ' names. Among the few types which do not occur on the silver coins is the following:—
Augustus to Salonina. Inscr., ΜΙΛΗCΙΩΝ, after Elagabalus, sometimes with addition of ΝЄΟΚΟΡΩΝ, ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ, or Β ΝΕΩΚΟΡΩΝ ΤΩΝ CЄΒΑCΤΩΝ. Magistrates ' names in gen. with επι and frequently with title, Archon or Archiprytanis. Chief types: ΔΙΔΥΜЄΥΣ, Statue or bust of Apollo Didymeus; ΣΥΝΚΛΗΤΟΣ, Bust of Senate; Cultus-statue of Artemis with stag (B. M. C., Ion., Pl. XXII. 11); Leto carrying her two children; Zeus standing holding fulmen; Apollo Didymeus and Artemis standing side by side; Apollo Didymeus and Asklepios side by side; River-god; Apollo naked, seated before cippus or altar, round which, serpent. Temple containing statue of Apollo Didymeus; on either side is a naked man in striding attitude holding a reversed torch. Games: ΔΙΔΥΜЄΙΛ ΚΟΜΟΔЄΙΛ; ΔΙΔΥΜЄΙΑ; ΟΛΥΜΠΙΛ ΠΥΘΙΑ; ΠΑΝΙΩΝΙΑ ΠΥΘΙΑ.
587opposite Miletus. For its history see Waddington (Rev. Num., 1858, 166), and for its coinage, Imhoof (Kl. M., 90).
Fourth century B.C.