The Hasmonean Dynasty

The Hasmonean (Heb. Hashmoniee) Dynasty was a Jewish dynasty ruling Judaea (14037 BC). The first Hasmonean was Simon Maccabaeus, whose brother, Judas (Heb. Yehudah HaMakabi lit. Judeah the Hammer), helped lead the revolt against Antiochus IV 25 years before, in 165 BCE.  The Hasmonean Dynasty ended in 37 BCE by Herod. 

In 198 BCE, Antiochus IV Epiphanes took over Judaea. Mattithias Maccabaeus (Heb. Matityahu) was very upset that Antiochus was trying to convert the Jews, by putting statues of their Gods in the Temple.  Mattathias saw a Jew sacrificing a pig, so he ran up and killed him, thus proclaiming a revolt.  Mattathias go his sons, led by Judah, to hide in the caves of Modi'in (thought to be located somewhere between modern-day Jerusalem and Tel-Aviv). They attacked and defeated Antiochus in 165 BCE.  This is the story of the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah.

The dynasty spanned for over 100 years until Mattathiah Antigonus was beheaded by command of Mark Antony, and Herod the Great (Herod I) conquered Judea (IVDAEA) Provence. This was the start of the Herodian Dynasty.

Maccabees

1. Mattathias, 170167 BC
2. Judas Maccabeus, 167160 BC
3. Jonathan Maccabeus, 153143 BC (first to hold the title of High Priest)
4. Simon Maccabeus, 142141 BC

High Priests (Hebrew - Kohen Gadol)

5. Simon, 141135 BC
6. Hyrcanus I*, 134104 BC (First coins minted)

High Priests and Kings (Hebrew - Melachim)

7. Aristobulus I*, 104103 BC
8. Alexander Jannaeus*, 10376 BC
9. Salome Alexandra**, 7667 BC (Queen of Judaea, no coins minted)
10. Hyrcanus II*, 6766 BCE
11. Aristobulus II*, 6663 BCE
12. Hyrcanus II*, 6340 BCE (restored but demoted to Ethnarch)
13. Antigonus*, 4037 BCE
14. Aristobulus III, 36 BC (only as High Priest)

* Minted Coins

** Queen Salome Alexandra (Heb. Shelomit, Shlomtzion) did not mint coins in her name because she was a woman and therefore could not hold the title of Kohen Gadol (High Priest).  She may have minted coins under the name of her first husband Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) or Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), son and soon-to-be Kohen.

Also see: Hasmoneans| - Revolt| of the |Maccabees by By Lucas Harsh

Hasmonean Family Tree


Numismatic References

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